Next Issue
Volume 5, June
Previous Issue
Volume 4, December
Tomography is published by MDPI from Volume 7 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Grapho, LLC.

Tomography, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2019) – 27 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Reliability of Radiomic Features Across Multiple Abdominal CT Image Acquisition Settings: A Pilot Study Using ACR CT Phantom
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 226-231; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2019.00005 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 293
Abstract
We studied the reliability of radiomic features on abdominal computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with multiple CT image acquisition settings using the ACR (American College of Radiology) CT Phantom. Twenty-four sets of CT images of the ACR CT phantom were attained from a [...] Read more.
We studied the reliability of radiomic features on abdominal computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with multiple CT image acquisition settings using the ACR (American College of Radiology) CT Phantom. Twenty-four sets of CT images of the ACR CT phantom were attained from a GE Discovery 750HD scanner using 24 different image acquisition settings, combinations of 4 tube currents (25, 50, 100, 200 Effective mAs), 3 slice thicknesses (1.25, 2.5, 5 mm), and 2 convolution kernels (STANDARD and SOFT). Polyethylene (−95 HU) and acrylic (120 HU) of the phantom model were selected for calculating real feature value; a noise-free, computer-generated phantom image series that reproduced the 2 objects and the background was used for calculating reference feature value. Feature reliability was defined as the degree of predicting reference feature value from real feature value. Radiomic features mean, std, skewness, kurtosis, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM)-energy, GLCM-contrast, GLCM-correlation, GLCM-homogeneity were investigated. The value of R2 ≥ 0.85 was considered to be of high reliability. The reliability of mean and std were high across all image acquisition settings. At 200 Effective mAs, all features except GLCM-homogeneity showed high reliability, whereas at 25 Effective mAs, most features (except mean and std) showed low reliability. From high to low, reliability was ranked in the following order: mean, std, skewness, kurtosis, GLCM-energy, correlation, contrast and homogeneity. CT image acquisition settings affected the reliability of radiomic features. High reliable features were attained from images reconstructed at high tube current and thick slice thickness. Full article
Article
A Web-Based Response-Assessment System for Development and Validation of Imaging Biomarkers in Oncology
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 220-225; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2019.00006 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 174
Abstract
Quantitative imaging biomarkers are increasingly used in oncology clinical trials to assist the evaluation of tumor responses to novel therapies. To identify these biomarkers and ensure smooth clinical translation once they have been validated, it is critical to develop a reliable workflow-efficient imaging [...] Read more.
Quantitative imaging biomarkers are increasingly used in oncology clinical trials to assist the evaluation of tumor responses to novel therapies. To identify these biomarkers and ensure smooth clinical translation once they have been validated, it is critical to develop a reliable workflow-efficient imaging platform for integration in clinical settings. Here we will present a web-based volumetric response-assessment system that we developed based on an open-source image viewing platform (WEASIS) and a DICOM image archive (DCM4CHEE). Our web-based response-assessment system offers a DICOM imaging archiving function, standard imaging viewing and manipulation functions, efficient tumor segmentation and quantification algorithms, and a reliable database containing tumor segmentation and measurement results. The prototype system is currently used in our research lab to foster the development and validation of new quantitative imaging biomarkers, including the volumetric computed tomography technique, as a more accurate and early assessment method of solid tumor responses to targeted and immunotherapies. Full article
Article
Accuracy and Performance of Functional Parameter Estimation Using a Novel Numerical Optimization Approach for GPU-Based Kinetic Compartmental Modeling
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 209-219; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00048 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 126
Abstract
Quantitative kinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) data are dependent on signal measurement quality and choice of pharmacokinetic model. However, the fundamental optimization analysis method is equally important and its impact on pharmacokinetic parameters has been mostly overlooked. We examine the effects [...] Read more.
Quantitative kinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) data are dependent on signal measurement quality and choice of pharmacokinetic model. However, the fundamental optimization analysis method is equally important and its impact on pharmacokinetic parameters has been mostly overlooked. We examine the effects of those choices on accuracy and performance of parameter estimation using both computer processing unit and graphical processing unit (GPU) numerical optimization implementations and evaluate the improvements offered by a novel optimization approach. A test framework was developed where experimentally derived population-average arterial input function and randomly sampled parameter sets {Ktrans, Kep, Vb, τ} were used to generate known tissue curves. Five numerical optimization algorithms were evaluated: sequential quadratic programming, downhill simplex (Nelder–Mead), pattern search, simulated annealing, and differential evolution. This was combined with various objective function implementation details: delay approximation, discretization and varying sampling rates. Then, impact of noise and CPU/GPU implementation was tested for speed and accuracy. Finally, the optimal method was compared to conventional implementation as applied to clinical DCE computed tomography. Nelder–Mead, differential evolution and sequential quadratic programming produced good results on clean and noisy input data outperforming simulated annealing and pattern search in terms of speed and accuracy in the respective order of 10−8%, 10−7%, and ×10−6%). A novel approach for DCE numerical optimization (infinite impulse response with fractional delay approximation) was implemented on GPU for speed increase of at least 2 orders of magnitude. Applied to clinical data, the magnitude of overall parameter error was <10%. Full article
Article
Deep Learning Approach for Assessment of Bladder Cancer Treatment Response
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 201-208; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00036 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 296
Abstract
We compared the performance of different Deep learning-convolutional neural network (DL-CNN) models for bladder cancer treatment response assessment based on transfer learning by freezing different DL-CNN layers and varying the DL-CNN structure. Pre- and posttreatment computed tomography scans of 123 patients (cancers, 129; [...] Read more.
We compared the performance of different Deep learning-convolutional neural network (DL-CNN) models for bladder cancer treatment response assessment based on transfer learning by freezing different DL-CNN layers and varying the DL-CNN structure. Pre- and posttreatment computed tomography scans of 123 patients (cancers, 129; pre- and posttreatment cancer pairs, 158) undergoing chemotherapy were collected. After chemotherapy 33% of patients had T0 stage cancer (complete response). Regions of interest in pre- and posttreatment scans were extracted from the segmented lesions and combined into hybrid pre -post image pairs (h-ROIs). Training (pairs, 94; h-ROIs, 6209), validation (10 pairs) and test sets (54 pairs) were obtained. The DL-CNN consisted of 2 convolution (C1-C2), 2 locally connected (L3-L4), and 1 fully connected layers. The DL-CNN was trained with h-ROIs to classify cancers as fully responding (stage T0) or not fully responding to chemotherapy. Two radiologists provided lesion likelihood of being stage T0 posttreatment. The test area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.73 for T0 prediction by the base DL-CNN structure with randomly initialized weights. The base DL-CNN structure with pretrained weights and transfer learning (no frozen layers) achieved test AUC of 0.79. The test AUCs for 3 modified DL-CNN structures (different C1-C2 max pooling filter sizes, strides, and padding, with transfer learning) were 0.72, 0.86, and 0.69. For the base DL-CNN with (C1) frozen, (C1-C2) frozen, and (C1-C2-L3) frozen, the test AUCs were 0.81, 0.78, and 0.71, respectively. The radiologists' AUCs were 0.76 and 0.77. DL-CNN performed better with pretrained than randomly initialized weights. Full article
Article
Explaining Deep Features Using Radiologist-Defined Semantic Features and Traditional Quantitative Features
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 192-200; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00034 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 325
Abstract
Quantitative features are generated from a tumor phenotype by various data characterization, feature-extraction approaches and have been used successfully as a biomarker. These features give us information about a nodule, for example, nodule size, pixel intensity, histogram-based information, and texture information from wavelets [...] Read more.
Quantitative features are generated from a tumor phenotype by various data characterization, feature-extraction approaches and have been used successfully as a biomarker. These features give us information about a nodule, for example, nodule size, pixel intensity, histogram-based information, and texture information from wavelets or a convolution kernel. Semantic features, on the other hand, can be generated by an experienced radiologist and consist of the common characteristics of a tumor, for example, location of a tumor, fissure, or pleural wall attachment, presence of fibrosis or emphysema, concave cut on nodule surface. These features have been derived for lung nodules by our group. Semantic features have also shown promise in predicting malignancy. Deep features from images are generally extracted from the last layers before the classification layer of a convolutional neural network (CNN). By training with the use of different types of images, the CNN learns to recognize various patterns and textures. But when we extract deep features, there is no specific naming approach for them, other than denoting them by the feature column number (position of a neuron in a hidden layer). In this study, we tried to relate and explain deep features with respect to traditional quantitative features and semantic features. We discovered that 26 deep features from the Vgg-S neural network and 12 deep features from our trained CNN could be explained by semantic or traditional quantitative features. From this, we concluded that those deep features can have a recognizable definition via semantic or quantitative features. Full article
Article
The Brain Imaging Collaboration Suite (BrICS): A Cloud Platform for Integrating Whole-Brain Spectroscopic MRI into the Radiation Therapy Planning Workflow
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 184-191; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00028 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 290
Abstract
Glioblastoma has poor prognosis with inevitable local recurrence despite aggressive treatment with surgery and chemoradiation. Radiation therapy (RT) is typically guided by contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for defining the high-dose target and T2-weighted fluid-attenuation inversion recovery MRI for defining the moderate-dose [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma has poor prognosis with inevitable local recurrence despite aggressive treatment with surgery and chemoradiation. Radiation therapy (RT) is typically guided by contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for defining the high-dose target and T2-weighted fluid-attenuation inversion recovery MRI for defining the moderate-dose target. There is an urgent need for improved imaging methods to better delineate tumors for focal RT. Spectroscopic MRI (sMRI) is a quantitative imaging technique that enables whole-brain analysis of endogenous metabolite levels, such as the ratio of choline-to-N-acetylaspartate. Previous work has shown that choline-to-N-acetylaspartate ratio accurately identifies tissue with high tumor burden beyond what is seen on standard imaging and can predict regions of metabolic abnormality that are at high risk for recurrence. To facilitate efficient clinical implementation of sMRI for RT planning, we developed the Brain Imaging Collaboration Suite (BrICS; https://brainimaging.emory.edu/brics-demo), a cloud platform that integrates sMRI with standard imaging and enables team members from multiple departments and institutions to work together in delineating RT targets. BrICS is being used in a multisite pilot study to assess feasibility and safety of dose-escalated RT based on metabolic abnormalities in patients with glioblastoma (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03137888). The workflow of analyzing sMRI volumes and preparing RT plans is described. The pipeline achieved rapid turnaround time by enabling team members to perform their delegated tasks independently in BrICS when their clinical schedules allowed. To date, 18 patients have been treated using targets created in BrICS and no severe toxicities have been observed. Full article
Article
ePAD: An Image Annotation and Analysis Platform for Quantitative Imaging
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 170-183; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00055 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 292
Abstract
Medical imaging is critical for assessing the response of patients to new cancer therapies. Quantitative lesion assessment on images is time-consuming, and adopting new promising quantitative imaging biomarkers of response in clinical trials is challenging. The electronic Physician Annotation Device (ePAD) is a [...] Read more.
Medical imaging is critical for assessing the response of patients to new cancer therapies. Quantitative lesion assessment on images is time-consuming, and adopting new promising quantitative imaging biomarkers of response in clinical trials is challenging. The electronic Physician Annotation Device (ePAD) is a freely available web-based zero-footprint software application for viewing, annotation, and quantitative analysis of radiology images designed to meet the challenges of quantitative evaluation of cancer lesions. For imaging researchers, ePAD calculates a variety of quantitative imaging biomarkers that they can analyze and compare in ePAD to identify potential candidates as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials. For clinicians, ePAD provides clinical decision support tools for evaluating cancer response through reports summarizing changes in tumor burden based on different imaging biomarkers. As a workflow management and study oversight tool, ePAD lets clinical trial project administrators create worklists for users and oversee the progress of annotations created by research groups. To support interoperability of image annotations, ePAD writes all image annotations and results of quantitative imaging analyses in standardized file formats, and it supports migration of annotations from various propriety formats. ePAD also provides a plugin architecture supporting MATLAB server-side modules in addition to client-side plugins, permitting the community to extend the ePAD platform in various ways for new cancer use cases. We present an overview of ePAD as a platform for medical image annotation and quantitative analysis. We also discuss use cases and collaborations with different groups in the Quantitative Imaging Network and future directions. Full article
Article
FLT PET Radiomics for Response Prediction to Chemoradiation Therapy in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 161-169; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00038 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 279
Abstract
Radiomics is an image analysis approach for extracting large amounts of quantitative information from medical images using a variety of computational methods. Our goal was to evaluate the utility of radiomic feature analysis from 18F-fluorothymidine positron emission tomography (FLT PET) obtained at baseline [...] Read more.
Radiomics is an image analysis approach for extracting large amounts of quantitative information from medical images using a variety of computational methods. Our goal was to evaluate the utility of radiomic feature analysis from 18F-fluorothymidine positron emission tomography (FLT PET) obtained at baseline in prediction of treatment response in patients with head and neck cancer. Thirty patients with advanced-stage oropharyngeal or laryngeal cancer, treated with definitive chemoradiation therapy, underwent FLT PET imaging before treatment. In total, 377 radiomic features of FLT uptake and feature variants were extracted from volumes of interest; these features variants were defined by either the primary tumor or the total lesion burden, which consisted of the primary tumor and all FLT-avid nodes. Feature variants included normalized measurements of uptake, which were calculated by dividing lesion uptake values by the mean uptake value in the bone marrow. Feature reduction was performed using clustering to remove redundancy, leaving 172 representative features. Effects of these features on progression-free survival were modeled with Cox regression and P-values corrected for multiple comparisons. In total, 9 features were considered significant. Our results suggest that smaller, more homogenous lesions at baseline were associated with better prognosis. In addition, features extracted from total lesion burden had a higher concordance index than primary tumor features for 8 of the 9 significant features. Furthermore, total lesion burden features showed lower interobserver variability. Full article
Article
Bias in PET Images of Solid Phantoms Due to CT-Based Attenuation Correction
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 154-160; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00043 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 167
Abstract
The use of computed tomography (CT) images to correct for photon attenuation in positron emission tomography (PET) produces unbiased patient images, but it is not optimal for synthetic materials. For test objects made from epoxy, image bias and artifacts have been observed in [...] Read more.
The use of computed tomography (CT) images to correct for photon attenuation in positron emission tomography (PET) produces unbiased patient images, but it is not optimal for synthetic materials. For test objects made from epoxy, image bias and artifacts have been observed in well-calibrated PET/CT scanners. An epoxy used in commercially available sources was infused with long-lived 68Ge/68Ga nuclide and measured on several PET/CT scanners as well as on older PET scanners that measured attenuation with 511-keV photons. Bias in attenuation maps and PET images of phantoms was measured as imaging parameters and methods varied. Changes were made to the PET reconstruction to show the influence of CT-based attenuation correction. Additional attenuation measurements were made with a new epoxy intended for use in radiology and radiation treatment whose photonic properties mimic water. PET images of solid phantoms were biased by between 3% and 24% across variations in CT X-ray energy and scanner manufacturer. Modification of the reconstruction software reduced bias, but object-dependent changes were required to generate accurate attenuation maps. The water-mimicking epoxy formulation showed behavior similar to water in limited testing. For some solid phantoms, transformation of CT data to attenuation maps is a major source of PET image bias. The transformation can be modified to accommodate synthetic materials, but our data suggest that the problem may also be addressed by using epoxy formulations that are more compatible with PET/CT imaging. Full article
Article
[18F] FDG Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Tumor and Penumbra Imaging Features Predict Recurrence in Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 145-153; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00026 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 278
Abstract
We identified computational imaging features on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) that predict recurrence/progression in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively identified 291 patients with NSCLC from 2 prospectively acquired cohorts (training, n = 145; validation, n = 146). We contoured the [...] Read more.
We identified computational imaging features on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) that predict recurrence/progression in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively identified 291 patients with NSCLC from 2 prospectively acquired cohorts (training, n = 145; validation, n = 146). We contoured the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) on all pretreatment PET images and added a 3-dimensional penumbra region that extended outward 1 cm from the tumor surface. We generated 512 radiomics features, selected 435 features based on robustness to contour variations, and then applied randomized sparse regression (LASSO) to identify features that predicted time to recurrence in the training cohort. We built Cox proportional hazards models in the training cohort and independently evaluated the models in the validation cohort. Two features including stage and a MTV plus penumbra texture feature were selected by LASSO. Both features were significant univariate predictors, with stage being the best predictor (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.15 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56–2.95], p < 0.001). However, adding the MTV plus penumbra texture feature to stage significantly improved prediction (p = 0.006). This multivariate model was a significant predictor of time to recurrence in the training cohort (concordance = 0.74 [95% CI: 0.66–0.81], p < 0.001) that was validated in a separate validation cohort (concordance = 0.74 [95% CI: 0.67–0.81], p < 0.001). A combined radiomics and clinical model improved NSCLC recurrence prediction. FDG PET radiomic features may be useful biomarkers for lung cancer prognosis and add clinical utility for risk stratification. Full article
Article
Multiparameter MRI Predictors of Long-Term Survival in Glioblastoma Multiforme
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 135-144; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00052 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 346
Abstract
Standard-of-care multiparameter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain were used to objectively subdivide glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors into regions that correspond to variations in blood flow, interstitial edema, and cellular density. We hypothesized that the distribution of these distinct tumor ecological [...] Read more.
Standard-of-care multiparameter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain were used to objectively subdivide glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors into regions that correspond to variations in blood flow, interstitial edema, and cellular density. We hypothesized that the distribution of these distinct tumor ecological “habitats” at the time of presentation will impact the course of the disease. We retrospectively analyzed initial MRI scans in 2 groups of patients diagnosed with GBM, a long-term survival group comprising subjects who survived >36 month postdiagnosis, and a short-term survival group comprising subjects who survived ≤19 month postdiagnosis. The single-institution discovery cohort contained 22 subjects in each group, while the multi-institution validation cohort contained 15 subjects per group. MRI voxel intensities were calibrated, and tumor voxels clustered on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images into 6 distinct “habitats” based on low- to medium- to high-contrast enhancement and low–high signal on FLAIR scans. Habitat 6 (high signal on calibrated contrast-enhanced T1-weighted and FLAIR sequences) comprised a significantly higher volume fraction of tumors in the long-term survival group (discovery cohort, 35% ± 6.5%; validation cohort, 34% ± 4.8%) compared with tumors in the short-term survival group (discovery cohort, 17% ± 4.5%, p < 0.03; validation cohort, 16 ± 4.0%, p < 0.007). Of the 6 distinct MRI-defined habitats, the fractional tumor volume of habitat 6 at diagnosis was significantly predictive of long- or short-term survival. We discuss a possible mechanistic basis for this association and implications for habitat-driven adaptive therapy of GBM. Full article
Article
Gleason Probability Maps: A Radiomics Tool for Mapping Prostate Cancer Likelihood in MRI Space
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 127-134; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00033 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 319
Abstract
Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer in men in the United States. The current paradigm for screening and diagnosis is imperfect, with relatively low specificity, high cost, and high morbidity. This study aims to generate new image contrasts by learning a [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer in men in the United States. The current paradigm for screening and diagnosis is imperfect, with relatively low specificity, high cost, and high morbidity. This study aims to generate new image contrasts by learning a distribution of unique image signatures associated with prostate cancer. In total, 48 patients were prospectively recruited for this institutional review board–approved study. Patients underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging 2 weeks before surgery. Postsurgical tissues were annotated by a pathologist and aligned to the in vivo imaging. Radiomic profiles were generated by linearly combining 4 image contrasts (T2, apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] 0-1000, ADC 50-2000, and dynamic contrast-enhanced) segmented using global thresholds. The distribution of radiomic profiles in high-grade cancer, low-grade cancer, and normal tissues was recorded, and the generated probability values were applied to a naive test set. The resulting Gleason probability maps were stable regardless of training cohort, functioned independent of prostate zone, and outperformed conventional clinical imaging (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.79). Extensive overlap was seen in the most common image signatures associated with high- and low-grade cancer, indicating that low- and high-grade tumors present similarly on conventional imaging. Full article
Article
Developing a Pipeline for Multiparametric MRI-Guided Radiation Therapy: Initial Results from a Phase II Clinical Trial in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 118-126; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00035 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 274
Abstract
Quantitative mapping of hyperperfused and hypercellular regions of glioblastoma has been proposed to improve definition of tumor regions at risk for local recurrence following conventional radiation therapy. As the processing of the multiparametric dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) and diffusion-weighted (DW-) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) [...] Read more.
Quantitative mapping of hyperperfused and hypercellular regions of glioblastoma has been proposed to improve definition of tumor regions at risk for local recurrence following conventional radiation therapy. As the processing of the multiparametric dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) and diffusion-weighted (DW-) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data for delineation of these subvolumes requires additional steps that go beyond the standard practices of target definition, we sought to devise a workflow to support the timely planning and treatment of patients. A phase II study implementing a multiparametric imaging biomarker for tumor hyperperfusion and hypercellularity consisting of DCE-MRI and high b-value DW-MRI to guide intensified (75 Gy/30 fractions) radiation therapy (RT) in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma was launched. In this report, the workflow and the initial imaging outcomes of the first 12 patients are described. Among all the first 12 patients, treatment was initiated within 6 weeks of surgery and within 2 weeks of simulation. On average, the combined hypercellular volume and high cerebral blood volume/tumor perfusion volume were 1.8 times smaller than the T1 gadolinium abnormality and 10 times smaller than the FLAIR abnormality. Hypercellular volume and high cerebral blood volume/tumor perfusion volume each identified largely distinct regions and showed 57% overlap with the enhancing abnormality, and minimal-to-no extension outside of the FLAIR. These results show the feasibility of implementing a workflow for multiparametric magnetic resonance-guided radiation therapy into clinical trials with a coordinated multidisciplinary team, and the unique and complementary tumor subregions identified by the combination of high b-value DW-MRI and DCE-MRI. Full article
Article
Evaluating Multisite rCBV Consistency from DSC-MRI Imaging Protocols and Postprocessing Software Across the NCI Quantitative Imaging Network Sites Using a Digital Reference Object (DRO)
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 110-117; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00041 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 255
Abstract
The use of rCBV as a response metric in clinical trials has been hampered, in part, due to variations in the biomarker consistency and associated interpretation across sites, stemming from differences in image acquisition and post-processing methods. This study leveraged a dynamic susceptibility [...] Read more.
The use of rCBV as a response metric in clinical trials has been hampered, in part, due to variations in the biomarker consistency and associated interpretation across sites, stemming from differences in image acquisition and post-processing methods. This study leveraged a dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging digital reference object to characterize rCBV consistency across 12 sites participating in the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN), specifically focusing on differences in site-specific imaging protocols (IPs; n = 17), and PMs (n = 19) and differences due to site-specific IPs and PMs (n = 25). Thus, high agreement across sites occurs when 1 managing center processes rCBV despite slight variations in the IP. This result is most likely supported by current initiatives to standardize IPs. However, marked intersite disagreement was observed when site-specific software was applied for rCBV measurements. This study's results have important implications for comparing rCBV values across sites and trials, where variability in PMs could confound the comparison of therapeutic effectiveness and/or any attempts to establish thresholds for categorical response to therapy. To overcome these challenges and ensure the successful use of rCBV as a clinical trial biomarker, we recommend the establishment of qualifying and validating site- and trial-specific criteria for scanners and acquisition methods (eg, using a validated phantom) and the software tools used for dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging analysis (eg, using a digital reference object where the ground truth is known). Full article
Article
The Impact of Arterial Input Function Determination Variations on Prostate Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Pharmacokinetic Modeling: A Multicenter Data Analysis Challenge, Part II
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 99-109; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00027 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 175
Abstract
This multicenter study evaluated the effect of variations in arterial input function (AIF) determination on pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data using the shutter-speed model (SSM). Data acquired from eleven prostate cancer patients were shared among nine centers. [...] Read more.
This multicenter study evaluated the effect of variations in arterial input function (AIF) determination on pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data using the shutter-speed model (SSM). Data acquired from eleven prostate cancer patients were shared among nine centers. Each center used a site-specific method to measure the individual AIF from each data set and submitted the results to the managing center. These AIFs, their reference tissue-adjusted variants, and a literature population-averaged AIF, were used by the managing center to perform SSM PK analysis to estimate Ktrans (volume transfer rate constant), ve (extravascular, extracellular volume fraction), kep (efflux rate constant), and τi (mean intracellular water lifetime). All other variables, including the definition of the tumor region of interest and precontrast T1 values, were kept the same to evaluate parameter variations caused by variations in only the AIF. Considerable PK parameter variations were observed with within-subject coefficient of variation (wCV) values of 0.58, 0.27, 0.42, and 0.24 for Ktrans, ve, kep, and τi, respectively, using the unadjusted AIFs. Use of the reference tissue-adjusted AIFs reduced variations in Ktrans and ve (wCV = 0.50 and 0.10, respectively), but had smaller effects on kep and τi (wCV = 0.39 and 0.22, respectively). kep is less sensitive to AIF variation than Ktrans, suggesting it may be a more robust imaging biomarker of prostate microvasculature. With low sensitivity to AIF uncertainty, the SSM-unique τi parameter may have advantages over the conventional PK parameters in a longitudinal study. Full article
Article
Early Prediction of Breast Cancer Therapy Response using Multiresolution Fractal Analysis of DCE-MRI Parametric Maps
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 90-98; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00046 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 232
Abstract
We aimed to determine whether multiresolution fractal analysis of voxel-based dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parametric maps can provide early prediction of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). In total, 55 patients underwent 4 DCE-MRI examinations before, during, and after NACT. [...] Read more.
We aimed to determine whether multiresolution fractal analysis of voxel-based dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parametric maps can provide early prediction of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). In total, 55 patients underwent 4 DCE-MRI examinations before, during, and after NACT. The shutter-speed model was used to analyze the DCE-MRI data and generate parametric maps within the tumor region of interest. The proposed multiresolution fractal method and the more conventional methods of single-resolution fractal, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, and run-length matrix were used to extract features from the parametric maps. Only the data obtained before and after the first NACT cycle were used to evaluate early prediction of response. With a training (N = 40) and testing (N = 15) data set, support vector machine was used to assess the predictive abilities of the features in classification of pathologic complete response versus non-pathologic complete response. Generally the multiresolution fractal features from individual maps and the concatenated features from all parametric maps showed better predictive performances than conventional features, with receiver operating curve area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.91 (all parameters) and 0.80 (Ktrans), in the training and testing sets, respectively. The differences in AUC were statistically significant (P < .05) for several parametric maps. Thus, multiresolution analysis that decomposes the texture at various spatial-frequency scales may more accurately capture changes in tumor vascular heterogeneity as measured by DCE-MRI, and therefore provide better early prediction of NACT response. Full article
Article
Phantom Validation of DCE-MRI Magnitude and Phase-Based Vascular Input Function Measurements
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 77-89; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2019.00001 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 225
Abstract
Accurate, patient-specific measurement of arterial input functions (AIF) may improve model-based analysis of vascular permeability. This study investigated factors affecting AIF measurements from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnitude (AIFMAGN) and phase (AIFPHA) signals, and compared them against computed tomography (CT) (AIFCT), under controlled [...] Read more.
Accurate, patient-specific measurement of arterial input functions (AIF) may improve model-based analysis of vascular permeability. This study investigated factors affecting AIF measurements from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnitude (AIFMAGN) and phase (AIFPHA) signals, and compared them against computed tomography (CT) (AIFCT), under controlled conditions relevant to clinical protocols using a multimodality flow phantom. The flow phantom was applied at flip angles of 20° and 30°, flow rates (3–7.5 mL/s), and peak bolus concentrations (0.5–10 mM), for in-plane and through-plane flow. Spatial 3D-FLASH signal and variable flip angle T1 profiles were measured to investigate in-flow and radiofrequency-related biases, and magnitude- and phase-derived Gd-DTPA concentrations were compared. MRI AIF performance was tested against AIFCT via Pearson correlation analysis. AIFMAGN was sensitive to imaging orientation, spatial location, flip angle, and flow rate, and it grossly underestimated AIFCT peak concentrations. Conversion to Gd-DTPA concentration using T1 taken at the same orientation and flow rate as the dynamic contrast-enhanced acquisition improved AIFMAGN accuracy; yet, AIFMAGN metrics remained variable and significantly reduced from AIFCT at concentrations above 2.5 mM. AIFPHA performed equivalently within 1 mM to AIFCT across all tested conditions. AIFPHA, but not AIFMAGN, reported equivalent measurements to AIFCT across the range of tested conditions. AIFPHA showed superior robustness. Full article
Article
Habitats in DCE-MRI to Predict Clinically Significant Prostate Cancers
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 68-76; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00037 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 187
Abstract
Prostate cancer identification and assessment of clinical significance continues to be a challenge. Routine multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging has shown to be useful in assessing disease progression. Although dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCE) has the ability to characterize perfusion across time and has shown [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer identification and assessment of clinical significance continues to be a challenge. Routine multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging has shown to be useful in assessing disease progression. Although dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCE) has the ability to characterize perfusion across time and has shown enormous utility, radiological assessment (Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System or PIRADS version 2) has limited its use owing to lack of consistency and nonquantitative nature. In our work, we propose a systematic methodology to quantify perfusion dynamics for the DCE imaging. Using these metrics, 7 different subregions or perfusion habitats of the targeted lesions are localized and related to clinical significance. We found that quantitative features describing the habitat based on the late area under the DCE time-activity curve was a good predictor of clinical significance disease. The best predictive feature in the habitat had an AUC of 0.82, CI [0.81–0.83]. Full article
Article
Real-Time Quantitative Assessment of Accuracy and Precision of Blood Volume Derived from DCE-MRI in Individual Patients during a Clinical Trial
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 61-67; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00029 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 167
Abstract
Accuracy and precision of quantitative imaging (QI) metrics should be assessed in real time in each patient during a clinical trial to support QI-based decision-making. We developed a framework for real-time quantitative assessment of QI metrics and evaluated accuracy and precision of dynamic [...] Read more.
Accuracy and precision of quantitative imaging (QI) metrics should be assessed in real time in each patient during a clinical trial to support QI-based decision-making. We developed a framework for real-time quantitative assessment of QI metrics and evaluated accuracy and precision of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–derived blood volume (BV) in a clinical trial for head and neck cancers. Patients underwent DCE-MRI before and after 2 weeks of radiation therapy (2wkRT). A mean as a reference value and a repeatability coefficient (RC) of BV values established from n patients in cerebellum volumes of interest (VOIs), which were normal and affected little by therapy, served as accuracy and precision measurements. The BV maps of a new patient were called accurate and precise if the values in cerebellum VOIs and the difference between the 2 scans agreed with the respective mean and RC with 95% confidence. The new data could be used to update reference values. Otherwise, the data were flagged for further evaluation before use in the trial. BV maps from 62 patients enrolled on the trial were evaluated. Mean BV values were 2.21 (±0.14) mL/100 g pre-RT and 2.22 (±0.17) mL/100 g at 2wkRT; relative RC was 15.9%. The BV maps from 3 patients were identified to be inaccurate and imprecise before use in the clinical trial. Our framework of real-time quantitative assessment of QI metrics during a clinical trial can be translated to different QI metrics and organ-sites for supporting QI-based decision-making that warrants success of a clinical trial. Full article
Article
Assessing Treatment Response of Glioblastoma to an HDAC Inhibitor Using Whole-Brain Spectroscopic MRI
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 53-60; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00031 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 186
Abstract
Histone deacetylases regulate a wide variety of cellular functions and have been implicated in redifferentiation of various tumors. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are potential pharmacologic agents to improve outcomes for patients with gliomas. We assessed the therapeutic efficacy of belinostat (PXD-101), an HDACi [...] Read more.
Histone deacetylases regulate a wide variety of cellular functions and have been implicated in redifferentiation of various tumors. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are potential pharmacologic agents to improve outcomes for patients with gliomas. We assessed the therapeutic efficacy of belinostat (PXD-101), an HDACi with blood–brain barrier permeability. Belinostat was first tested in an orthotopic rat glioma model to assess in vivo tumoricidal effect. Our results showed that belinostat was effective in reducing tumor volume in the orthotopic rat glioma model in a dose-dependent manner. We also tested the antidepression activity of belinostat in 2 animal models of depression and found it to be effective. Furthermore, we confirmed that myo-inositol levels improved by belinostat treatment in vitro. In a human pilot study, it was observed that belinostat in combination with chemoradiation may delay initial recurrence of disease. Excitingly, belinostat significantly improved depressive symptoms in patients with glioblastoma compared with control subjects. Finally, spectroscopic magnetic resonance imaging of 2 patient cases from this pilot study are presented to indicate how spectroscopic magnetic resonance imaging can be used to monitor metabolite response and assess treatment effect on whole brain. This study highlights the potential of belinostat to be a synergistic therapeutic agent in the treatment of gliomas. Full article
Article
Magnetization Transfer MRI of Breast Cancer in the Community Setting: Reproducibility and Preliminary Results in Neoadjuvant Therapy
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 44-52; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00019 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 179
Abstract
Repeatability and reproducibility of magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging of the breast, and the ability of this technique to assess the response of locally advanced breast cancer to neoadjuvant therapy (NAT), are determined. Reproducibility scans at 3 different 3 T scanners, including 2 [...] Read more.
Repeatability and reproducibility of magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging of the breast, and the ability of this technique to assess the response of locally advanced breast cancer to neoadjuvant therapy (NAT), are determined. Reproducibility scans at 3 different 3 T scanners, including 2 scanners in community imaging centers, found a 16.3% difference (n = 3) in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in healthy breast fibroglandular tissue. Repeatability scans (n = 10) found a difference of ∼8.1% in the MTR measurement of fibroglandular tissue between the 2 measurements. Thus, MTR is repeatable and reproducible in the breast and can be integrated into community imaging clinics. Serial magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging performed at longitudinal time points during NAT indicated no significant change in average tumoral MTR during treatment. However, histogram analysis indicated an increase in the dispersion of MTR values of the tumor during NAT, as quantified by higher standard deviation (P = .005), higher full width at half maximum (P = .02), and lower kurtosis (P = .02). Patients' stratification into those with pathological complete response (pCR; n = 6) at the conclusion of NAT and those with residual disease (n = 9) showed wider distribution of tumor MTR values in patients who achieved pCR after 2–4 cycles of NAT, as quantified by higher standard deviation (P = .02), higher full width at half maximum (P = .03), and lower kurtosis (P = .03). Thus, MTR can be used as an imaging metric to assess response to breast NAT. Full article
Article
Multicenter Repeatability Study of a Novel Quantitative Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging Phantom
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 36-43; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00030 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 229
Abstract
Quantitative kurtosis phantoms are sought by multicenter clinical trials to establish accuracy and precision of quantitative imaging biomarkers on the basis of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) parameters. We designed and evaluated precision, reproducibility, and long-term stability of a novel isotropic (i) DKI phantom [...] Read more.
Quantitative kurtosis phantoms are sought by multicenter clinical trials to establish accuracy and precision of quantitative imaging biomarkers on the basis of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) parameters. We designed and evaluated precision, reproducibility, and long-term stability of a novel isotropic (i) DKI phantom fabricated using four families of chemicals based on vesicular and lamellar mesophases of liquid crystal materials. The constructed iDKI phantoms included negative control monoexponential diffusion materials to independently characterize noise and model-induced bias in quantitative kurtosis parameters. Ten test–retest DKI studies were performed on four scanners at three imaging centers over a six-month period. The tested prototype phantoms exhibited physiologically relevant apparent diffusion, Dapp, and kurtosis, Kapp, parameters ranging between 0.4 and 1.1 (×10−3 mm2/s) and 0.8 and 1.7 (unitless), respectively. Measured kurtosis phantom Kapp exceeded maximum fit model bias (0.1) detected for negative control (zero kurtosis) materials. The material-specific parameter precision [95% CI for Dapp: 0.013–0.022(×10−3 mm2/s) and for Kapp: 0.009–0.076] derived from the test–retest analysis was sufficient to characterize thermal and temporal stability of the prototype DKI phantom through correlation analysis of inter-scan variability. The present study confirms a promising chemical design for stable quantitative DKI phantom based on vesicular mesophase of liquid crystal materials. Improvements to phantom preparation and temperature monitoring procedures have potential to enhance precision and reproducibility for future multicenter iDKI phantom studies. Full article
Article
Quantitative Non-Gaussian Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Metrics and Surgical Pathology for Stratifying Tumor Aggressiveness in Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 26-35; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00054 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 201
Abstract
We assessed a priori aggressive features using quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging metrics to preclude an active surveillance management approach in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with tumor size 1–2 cm. This prospective study enrolled 24 patients with PTC who underwent pretreatment multi-b-value diffusion-weighted [...] Read more.
We assessed a priori aggressive features using quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging metrics to preclude an active surveillance management approach in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with tumor size 1–2 cm. This prospective study enrolled 24 patients with PTC who underwent pretreatment multi-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging on a GE 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) metric was calculated from monoexponential model, and the perfusion fraction (f), diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), and diffusion kurtosis coefficient (K) metrics were estimated using the non-Gaussian intravoxel incoherent motion model. Neck ultrasonography examination data were used to calculate tumor size. The receiver operating characteristic curve assessed the discriminative specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy between PTCs with and without features of tumor aggressiveness. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on metrics using a leave-1-out cross-validation method. Tumor aggressiveness was defined by surgical histopathology. Tumors with aggressive features had significantly lower ADC and D values than tumors without tumor-aggressive features (P < .05). The absolute relative change was 46% in K metric value between the 2 tumor types. In total, 14 patients were in the critical size range (1–2 cm) measured by ultrasonography, and the ADC and D were significantly different and able to differentiate between the 2 tumor types (P < .05). ADC and D can distinguish tumors with aggressive histological features to preclude an active surveillance management approach in patients with PTC with tumors measuring 1–2 cm. Full article
Article
Repeatability of Quantitative Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Metrics in Phantoms, Head-and-Neck and Thyroid Cancers: Preliminary Findings
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 15-25; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00044 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 218
Abstract
The aim of this study was to establish the repeatability measures of quantitative Gaussian and non-Gaussian diffusion metrics using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data from phantoms and patients with head-and-neck and papillary thyroid cancers. The Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance (QIBA) DWI phantom and a [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to establish the repeatability measures of quantitative Gaussian and non-Gaussian diffusion metrics using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data from phantoms and patients with head-and-neck and papillary thyroid cancers. The Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance (QIBA) DWI phantom and a novel isotropic diffusion kurtosis imaging phantom were scanned at 3 different sites, on 1.5T and 3T magnetic resonance imaging systems, using standardized multiple b-value DWI acquisition protocol. In the clinical component of this study, a total of 60 multiple b-value DWI data sets were analyzed for test–retest, obtained from 14 patients (9 head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma and 5 papillary thyroid cancers). Repeatability of quantitative DWI measurements was assessed by within-subject coefficient of variation (wCV%) and Bland–Altman analysis. In isotropic diffusion kurtosis imaging phantom vial with 2% ceteryl alcohol and behentrimonium chloride solution, the mean apparent diffusion (Dapp × 10−3 mm2/s) and kurtosis (Kapp, unitless) coefficient values were 1.02 and 1.68 respectively, capturing in vivo tumor cellularity and tissue microstructure. For the same vial, Dapp and Kapp mean wCVs (%) were ≤1.41% and ≤0.43% for 1.5T and 3T across 3 sites. For pretreatment head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma, apparent diffusion coefficient, D, D*, K, and f mean wCVs (%) were 2.38%, 3.55%, 3.88%, 8.0%, and 9.92%, respectively; wCVs exhibited a higher trend for papillary thyroid cancers. Knowledge of technical precision and bias of quantitative imaging metrics enables investigators to properly design and power clinical trials and better discern between measurement variability versus biological change. Full article
Article
Comparison of Voxel-Wise and Histogram Analyses of Glioma ADC Maps for Prediction of Early Therapeutic Change
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 7-14; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00049 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 632
Abstract
Noninvasive imaging methods are sought to objectively predict early response to therapy for high-grade glioma tumors. Quantitative metrics derived from diffusion-weighted imaging, such as apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), have previously shown promise when used in combination with voxel-based analysis reflecting regional changes. The [...] Read more.
Noninvasive imaging methods are sought to objectively predict early response to therapy for high-grade glioma tumors. Quantitative metrics derived from diffusion-weighted imaging, such as apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), have previously shown promise when used in combination with voxel-based analysis reflecting regional changes. The functional diffusion mapping (fDM) metric is hypothesized to be associated with volume of tumor exhibiting an increasing ADC owing to effective therapeutic action. In this work, the reference fDM-predicted survival (from previous study) for 3 weeks from treatment initiation (midtreatment) is compared to multiple histogram-based metrics using Kaplan–Meier estimator for 80 glioma patients stratified to responders and nonresponders based on the population median value for the given metric. The ADC histogram metric reflecting reduction in midtreatment volume of solid tumor (ADC < 1.25 × 10−3 mm2/s) by >8% population-median with respect to pretreatment is found to have the same predictive power as the reference fDM of increasing midtreatment ADC volume above 4%. This study establishes the level of correlation between fDM increase and low-ADC tumor volume shrinkage for prediction of early response to radiation therapy in patients with glioma malignancies. Full article
Perspective
QIN Benchmarks for Clinical Translation of Quantitative Imaging Tools
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 1-6; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2018.00045 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 161
Abstract
The Quantitative Imaging Network of the National Cancer Institute is in its 10th year of operation, and research teams within the network are developing and validating clinical decision support software tools to measure or predict the response of cancers to various therapies. As [...] Read more.
The Quantitative Imaging Network of the National Cancer Institute is in its 10th year of operation, and research teams within the network are developing and validating clinical decision support software tools to measure or predict the response of cancers to various therapies. As projects progress from development activities to validation of quantitative imaging tools and methods, it is important to evaluate the performance and clinical readiness of the tools before committing them to prospective clinical trials. A variety of tests, including special challenges and tool benchmarking, have been instituted within the network to prepare the quantitative imaging tools for service in clinical trials. This article highlights the benchmarking process and provides a current evaluation of several tools in their transition from development to validation. Full article
Editorial
The Quantitative Imaging Network: A Decade of Achievement
Tomography 2019, 5(1), 0; https://doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2019.00999 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 115
Abstract
This issue of Tomography is a collection of articles derived from over 20 research teams which comprise the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).[...] Full article
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop