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Magnetochemistry, Volume 7, Issue 2 (February 2021) – 14 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Magnetic skyrmions are nanometric swirling magnetization structures with unique properties, including topological protection and particle-like dynamics. Several concepts for future spintronic devices have recently been presented in which skyrmions are key ingredients. In addition to the established ability to displace skyrmions with spin-polarized currents, a technological challenge consists in attaining control over their position. This simulation study shows that preferential skyrmion sites can be generated by introducing thickness modulations in the form of small “pockets” in thin-film elements. By inserting several such pockets, skyrmions could be arranged in regular arrays that would otherwise not form, thereby opening possible pathways for new types of magnetic metamaterials. View this paper
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Article
Magneto-Structural Relationship of Tetragonally-Compressed Octahedral Iron(II) Complex Surrounded by a pseudo-S6 Symmetric Hexakis-Dimethylsulfoxide Environment
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7020030 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 617
Abstract
Since the octahedral high-spin iron(II) complex has the 5T2g ground term, the spin-orbit coupling should be considered in magnetic analysis; however, such treatment is rarely seen in recent papers, although the symmetry-sensitive property is of interest to investigate in detail. [...] Read more.
Since the octahedral high-spin iron(II) complex has the 5T2g ground term, the spin-orbit coupling should be considered in magnetic analysis; however, such treatment is rarely seen in recent papers, although the symmetry-sensitive property is of interest to investigate in detail. A method to consider the T-term magnetism was well constructed more than half a century ago. On the other hand, the method has been still improved in recent years. In this study, the octahedral high-spin iron(II) complex [Fe(dmso)6][BPh4]2 (dmso: dimethylsulfoxide) was newly prepared, and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method revealed the tetragonal compression of the D4-symmetric coordination geometry around the iron(II) ion and the pseudo-S6 hexakis-dmso environment. From the magnetic data, the sign of the axial splitting parameter, Δ, was found to be negative, indicating the 5E ground state in the D4 symmetry. The DFT computation showed the electronic configuration of (dxz)2(dx2y2)1(dyz)1(dxy)1(dz2)1 due to the tetragonal compression and the pseudo-S6 environment of dmso π orbitals. The electronic configuration corresponded to the 5E ground term, which was in agreement with the negative Δ value. Therefore, the structurally predicted ground state was consistent with the estimation from the magnetic measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Coordination Compounds)
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Article
Thermodynamics of General Heisenberg Spin Tetramers Composed of Coupled Quantum Dimers
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7020029 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Advances in quantum computing technology have been made in recent years due to the evolution of spin clusters. Recent studies have tended towards spin cluster subgeometries to understand more complex structures better. These molecular magnets provide a multitude of phenomena via exchange interactions [...] Read more.
Advances in quantum computing technology have been made in recent years due to the evolution of spin clusters. Recent studies have tended towards spin cluster subgeometries to understand more complex structures better. These molecular magnets provide a multitude of phenomena via exchange interactions that allow for advancements in spintronics and other magnetic system applications due to the possibility of increasing speed, data storage, memory, and stability of quantum computing systems. Using the Heisenberg spin–spin exchange Hamiltonian and exact diagonalization, we examine the evolution of quantum energy levels and thermodynamic properties for various spin configurations and exchange interactions. The XXYY quantum spin tetramer considered in this study consists of two coupled dimers with exchange interactions α1J and α1J and a dimer–dimer exchange interaction α2J. By varying spin values and interaction strengths, we determine the exact energy eigenstates that are used to determine closed-form analytic solutions for the heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility of the system and further analyze the evolution of the properties of the system based on the parameter values chosen. Furthermore, this study shows that the Schottky anomaly shifts towards zero as the ground-state of the system approaches a quantum phase transition between spin states. Additionally, we investigate the development of phase transitions produced by the convergence of the Schottky anomaly with both variable exchange interactions and external magnetic field. Full article
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Article
Microresonators and Microantennas—Tools to Explore Magnetization Dynamics in Single Nanostructures
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7020028 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 916
Abstract
The phenomenon of magnetic resonance and its detection via microwave spectroscopy provide insight into the magnetization dynamics of bulk or thin film materials. This allows for direct access to fundamental properties, such as the effective magnetization, g-factor, magnetic anisotropy, and the various damping [...] Read more.
The phenomenon of magnetic resonance and its detection via microwave spectroscopy provide insight into the magnetization dynamics of bulk or thin film materials. This allows for direct access to fundamental properties, such as the effective magnetization, g-factor, magnetic anisotropy, and the various damping (relaxation) channels that govern the decay of magnetic excitations. Cavity-based and broadband ferromagnetic resonance techniques that detect the microwave absorption of spin systems require a minimum magnetic volume to obtain a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). Therefore, conventional techniques typically do not offer the sensitivity to detect individual micro- or nanostructures. A solution to this sensitivity problem is the so-called planar microresonator, which is able to detect even the small absorption signals of magnetic nanostructures, including spin-wave or edge resonance modes. As an example, we describe the microresonator-based detection of spin-wave modes within microscopic strips of ferromagnetic A2 Fe60Al40 that are imprinted into a paramagnetic B2 Fe60Al40-matrix via focused ion-beam irradiation. While microresonators operate at a fixed microwave frequency, a reliable quantification of the key magnetic parameters like the g-factor or spin relaxation times requires investigations within a broad range of frequencies. Furthermore, we introduce and describe the step from microresonators towards a broadband microantenna approach. Broadband magnetic resonance experiments on single nanostructured magnetic objects in a frequency range of 2–18 GHz are demonstrated. The broadband approach has been employed to explore the influence of lateral structuring on the magnetization dynamics of a Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) microstrip. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nanomagnetism)
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Article
Role of Surface Effects in the Vibrational Density of States and the Vibrational Entropy in Spin Crossover Nanomaterials: A Molecular Dynamics Investigation
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7020027 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1622
Abstract
Size reduction effects on the lattice dynamics of spin crossover (SCO) thin films have been investigated through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the density of vibrational states. The proposed simple model structure and reduced force field allows us to obtain good orders of [...] Read more.
Size reduction effects on the lattice dynamics of spin crossover (SCO) thin films have been investigated through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the density of vibrational states. The proposed simple model structure and reduced force field allows us to obtain good orders of magnitude of the sound velocity in both spin states and takes into account the contribution of free surfaces in the vibrational properties of very thin films (below a thickness of 12 nm). The slab method issue from the field of surface physico-chemistry has been employed to extract surface thermodynamic quantities. In combination with the related slab-adapted method, the slab approach provides a powerful numerical tool to separate surface contributions from finite-size effects. Due to the relatively low stiffness of SCO materials, the lattice dynamics seems to be governed by surface instead of confinement effects. The size evolution of thermodynamic quantities is successfully reproduced, especially the increase of the vibrational entropy with the size reduction, in good agreement with experimental observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stimuli-Responsive Magnetic Molecular Materials)
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Article
Geometrically Constrained Skyrmions
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7020026 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 725
Abstract
Skyrmions are chiral swirling magnetization structures with nanoscale size. These structures have attracted considerable attention due to their topological stability and promising applicability in nanodevices, since they can be displaced with spin-polarized currents. However, for the comprehensive implementation of skyrmions in devices, it [...] Read more.
Skyrmions are chiral swirling magnetization structures with nanoscale size. These structures have attracted considerable attention due to their topological stability and promising applicability in nanodevices, since they can be displaced with spin-polarized currents. However, for the comprehensive implementation of skyrmions in devices, it is imperative to also attain control over their geometrical position. Here we show that, through thickness modulations introduced in the host material, it is possible to constrain three-dimensional skyrmions to desired regions. We investigate skyrmion structures in rectangular FeGe platelets with micromagnetic finite element simulations. First, we establish a phase diagram of the minimum-energy magnetic state as a function of the external magnetic field strength and the film thickness. Using this understanding, we generate preferential sites for skyrmions in the material by introducing dot-like “pockets” of reduced film thickness. We show that these pockets can serve as pinning centers for the skyrmions, thus making it possible to obtain a geometric control of the skyrmion position. This control allows for stabilization of skyrmions at positions and in configurations that they would otherwise not attain. Our findings may have implications for technological applications in which skyrmions are used as units of information that are displaced along racetrack-type shift register devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nanomagnetism)
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Article
Chassis Influence on the Exposure Assessment of a Compact EV during WPT Recharging Operations
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7020025 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 569
Abstract
In this study, the external magnetic field emitted by a wireless power transfer (WPT) system and the internal electric field induced in human body models during recharging operations of a compact electric vehicle (EV) are evaluated. The magneticfield is calculated with a hybrid [...] Read more.
In this study, the external magnetic field emitted by a wireless power transfer (WPT) system and the internal electric field induced in human body models during recharging operations of a compact electric vehicle (EV) are evaluated. The magneticfield is calculated with a hybrid scheme coupling the boundary element method with the surface impedance boundary conditions in order to fit the multiscale open-boundary characteristics of the problem. A commercial software is then used to perform numerical dosimetry. Specifically, two realistic anatomical models, both in a driving position and in a standing posture, are considered, and the chassis of the EV is modeled either as a currently employed aluminum alloy and as a futuristic carbon fiber composite panel. Aligned and misaligned coil configurations of the WPT system are considered as well. The analysis of the obtained results shows that the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels are exceeded in the driving position, especially for the carbon fiber chassis, whereas the system is compliant with the basic restrictions, at least for the considered scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Computational Electromagnetics)
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Article
Field-Induced Single-Molecule Magnets of Dysprosium Involving Quinone Derivatives
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7020024 - 06 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 642
Abstract
The coordination reaction of the [Dy(hfac)3(H2O)2] units (hfac = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetonate) with the two quinone-based derivatives 4,7-di-tert-butyl-2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-oxocyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene)benzo[d][1,3]dithiole-5,6-dione (L1) and 7,8-dithiabicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,5-diene-3,4-dione,2,5bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) (L2) led respectively to the complexes [Dy(hfac)3(H2O)( [...] Read more.
The coordination reaction of the [Dy(hfac)3(H2O)2] units (hfac = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetonate) with the two quinone-based derivatives 4,7-di-tert-butyl-2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-oxocyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene)benzo[d][1,3]dithiole-5,6-dione (L1) and 7,8-dithiabicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,5-diene-3,4-dione,2,5bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) (L2) led respectively to the complexes [Dy(hfac)3(H2O)(L1)] (1) and [Dy(hfac)3(H2O) (L2)]⋅(C6H14)(CH2Cl2) (2)⋅(C6H14)(CH2Cl2). X-ray structures on single crystal of 1 and 2⋅(C6H14)(CH2Cl2) revealed the coordination of the DyIII on the bischelating oxygenated quinone site and the formation of dimeric species through hydrogen bonds. Ac magnetic measurements highlighted field-induced single-molecule magnet behavior with magnetic relaxation through a Raman process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Slow Relaxation in Molecules)
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Article
Identification of Material Properties and Optimal Design of Magnetically Shielded Rooms
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7020023 - 06 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 862
Abstract
In this paper, we propose an optimal design procedure for magnetically shielded rooms. Focusing on multi-layer ferromagnetic structures, where inner layers operate at very low magnetic field, we propose an identification method of the magnetic material characteristic in the Rayleigh region. A numerical [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose an optimal design procedure for magnetically shielded rooms. Focusing on multi-layer ferromagnetic structures, where inner layers operate at very low magnetic field, we propose an identification method of the magnetic material characteristic in the Rayleigh region. A numerical model to simulate the shielding efficiency of a multi-layer ferromagnetic structure is presented and experimentally tested on different geometries and layer configurations. The fixed point iterative method is adopted to handle the nonlinearity of the magnetic material. In conclusion, the optimization of the design parameters of a MSR is discussed, using the Vector Immune System algorithm to minimize the magnetic field inside the room and the cost of the structure. The results highlight that a linear magnetic characteristic for the material is sufficient to identify the suitable geometry of the shield, but the nonlinear model in the Rayleigh region is of fundamental importance to determine a realistic shielding factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Computational Electromagnetics)
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Article
Synthesis, Structural Features and Physical Properties of a Family of Triply Bridged Dinuclear 3d-4f Complexes
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7020022 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 695
Abstract
New dinuclear MII-LnIII complexes of general formulas [Cu(µ-L)(µ-OAc)Ln(NO3)2]·CH3CN·H2O (LnIII = Gd (1), Tb (2), Dy (3) and Er (4)), [Ni(CH3CN)(µ-L)(µ-OAc)Ln(NO3 [...] Read more.
New dinuclear MII-LnIII complexes of general formulas [Cu(µ-L)(µ-OAc)Ln(NO3)2]·CH3CN·H2O (LnIII = Gd (1), Tb (2), Dy (3) and Er (4)), [Ni(CH3CN)(µ-L)(µ-OAc)Ln(NO3)2]·CH3CN (LnIII = Nd (5), Gd (6), Tb (7), Dy (8), Er (9) and Y (10)) and [Co(CH3CN)(µ-L)(µ-OAc)Ln(NO3)2]·CH3CN (LnIII = Gd (11), Tb (12), Dy (13), Er (14) and Y (15)) were prepared from the compartmental ligand N,N′-dimethyl-N,N′-bis(2-hydroxy-3-formyl-5-bromo-benzyl)ethylenediamine (H2L). In all these complexes, the transition metal ions occupy the internal N2O2 coordination site of the ligand, whereas the LnIII ions lie in the O4 external site. Both metallic ions are connected by an acetate bridge, giving rise to triple mixed diphenoxido/acetate bridged MIILnIII compounds. Direct current (dc) magnetic measurements allow the study of the magnetic exchange interactions between the 3d and 4f metal ions, which is supported by density functional theory (DFT) theoretical calculations for the GdIII-based counterparts. Due to the weak ferromagnetic exchange coupling constants obtained both experimentally and theoretically, the magneto-thermal properties of the less anisotropic systems (compounds 1 and 6) are also studied. Alternating current (ac)magnetic measurements reveal the occurrence of slight frequency dependency of the out-of-phase signal for complexes 8, 9 and 13, while complex 15 displays well-defined maximums below ~6 K. Full article
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Article
Magnetic Field Inhibition of Convective Heat Transfer in Magnetic Nanofluid
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7020021 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 873
Abstract
Natural convection is the main mechanism of heat transfer in many natural and technological processes, which makes it urgent to study the possibilities of controlling it. In this work, the processes of development and damping of thermal convection in a flat vertical quasi-two-dimensional [...] Read more.
Natural convection is the main mechanism of heat transfer in many natural and technological processes, which makes it urgent to study the possibilities of controlling it. In this work, the processes of development and damping of thermal convection in a flat vertical quasi-two-dimensional layer of magnetic nanofluid are considered experimentally. The presence of the magnetic properties of the nanofluid makes it possible to effectively apply the external magnetic fields to regulate convective heat transfer. The magnetic nanofluid layer was heated from below. It was shown in this work that the imposition of an external uniform stationary magnetic field perpendicular to the temperature gradient leads to the suppression of convection. The processes of heating and cooling the metal plates in a magnetic nanofluid are studied. It is demonstrated that the suppression of convection by a magnetic field leads to a slowdown in the heating of cold and cooling of hot metal plates in a magnetic nanofluid. The obtained results can be considered as a model for understanding similar exchange processes in liquids under the action of magnetic field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Magnetism and Magnetic Materials)
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Review
Laser Additive Manufacturing of Fe-Based Magnetic Amorphous Alloys
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7020020 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
Fe-based amorphous materials offer new opportunities for magnetic sensors, actuators, and magnetostrictive transducers due to their high saturation magnetostriction (λs = 20–40 ppm) and low coercive field compared with polycrystalline Fe-based alloys, which have high magnetostriction but large coercive fields and [...] Read more.
Fe-based amorphous materials offer new opportunities for magnetic sensors, actuators, and magnetostrictive transducers due to their high saturation magnetostriction (λs = 20–40 ppm) and low coercive field compared with polycrystalline Fe-based alloys, which have high magnetostriction but large coercive fields and Co-based amorphous alloys with small magnetostriction (λs = −3 to −5 ppm). Additive layer manufacturing (ALM) offers a new fabrication technique for more complex net-shaping designs. This paper reviews the two different ALM techniques that have been used to fabricate Fe-based amorphous magnetic materials, including the structural and magnetic properties. Selective laser melting (SLM)—a powder-bed fusion technique—and laser-engineered net shaping (LENS)—a directed energy deposition method—have both been utilised to fabricate amorphous alloys, owing to their high availability and low cost within the literature. Two different scanning strategies have been introduced by using the SLM technique. The first strategy is a double-scanning strategy, which gives rise to maximum relative density of 96% and corresponding magnetic saturation of 1.22 T. It also improved the glassy phase content by an order of magnitude of 47%, as well as improving magnetic properties (decreasing coercivity to 1591.5 A/m and increasing magnetic permeability to around 100 at 100 Hz). The second is a novel scanning strategy, which involves two-step melting: preliminary laser melting and short pulse amorphisation. This increased the amorphous phase fraction to a value of up to 89.6%, and relative density up to 94.1%, and lowered coercivity to 238 A/m. On the other hand, the LENS technique has not been utilised as much as SLM in the production of amorphous alloys owing to its lower geometric accuracy (0.25 mm) and lower surface quality, despite its benefits such as providing superior mechanical properties, controlled composition and microstructure. As a result, it has been commonly used for large parts with low complexity and for repairing them, limiting the production of amorphous alloys because of the size limitation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these techniques for Fe-based amorphous magnetic materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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Article
Influence of Magnetic Field on the Electrodeposition and Capacitive Performances of MnO2
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7020019 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1559
Abstract
This study focuses on the influence of an applied external magnetic field on the electrodeposition process and capacitive performances of MnO2, as pseudo-capacitive active material for supercapacitors electrodes. MnO2 was electrochemically deposited on Si/Au substrates in the presence and in [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the influence of an applied external magnetic field on the electrodeposition process and capacitive performances of MnO2, as pseudo-capacitive active material for supercapacitors electrodes. MnO2 was electrochemically deposited on Si/Au substrates in the presence and in the absence of a 0.5 T magnet, and its capacitive performance was tested via electrochemical characterization. The samples obtained in the presence of the magnetic field show a positive influence on the deposition process: the increase in deposition efficiency leads to more compact and uniform MnO2 coatings, with a decrease in capacitance values for the samples produced with the magnetic field. Full article
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Article
Vector Hysteresis Processes for Innovative Fe-Si Magnetic Powder Cores: Experiments and Neural Network Modeling
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7020018 - 24 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 551
Abstract
A thorough investigation of the 2-D hysteresis processes under arbitrary excitations was carried out for a specimen of innovative Fe-Si magnetic powder material. The vector experimental measurements were first performed via a single disk tester (SDT) apparatus under a controlled magnetic induction field, [...] Read more.
A thorough investigation of the 2-D hysteresis processes under arbitrary excitations was carried out for a specimen of innovative Fe-Si magnetic powder material. The vector experimental measurements were first performed via a single disk tester (SDT) apparatus under a controlled magnetic induction field, taking into account circular, elliptic, and scalar processes. The experimental data relative to the circular loops were utilized to identify a vector model of hysteresis based on feedforward neural networks (NNs), having as an input the magnetic induction vector B and as an output the magnetic field vector H. Then the model was validated by the simulation of the other experimental hysteresis processes. The comparison between calculated and measured loops evidenced the capability of the model in both the reconstruction of the magnetic field trajectory and the prediction of the power loss under various excitation waveforms. Finally, the computational efficiency of the model makes it suitable for future application in finite element analysis (FEA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Computational Electromagnetics)
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Magnetochemistry in 2020
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7020017 - 21 Jan 2021
Viewed by 799
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Magnetochemistry maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
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