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Dent. J., Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2015) – 6 articles , Pages 93-156

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Review
Dentinogenic Specificity in the Preclinical Evaluation of Vital Pulp Treatment Strategies: A Critical Review
Dent. J. 2015, 3(4), 133-156; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj3040133 - 27 Nov 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2672
Abstract
Reviews on the clinical performance of vital pulp treatment strategies and capping materials repeatedly showed an insufficient grade of evidence concerning their therapeutic validity. The biological mechanisms underlying the regenerative potential of pulp-dentin complex have attracted much attention during the last two decades, [...] Read more.
Reviews on the clinical performance of vital pulp treatment strategies and capping materials repeatedly showed an insufficient grade of evidence concerning their therapeutic validity. The biological mechanisms underlying the regenerative potential of pulp-dentin complex have attracted much attention during the last two decades, since new pulp treatment modalities have been designed and tested at the preclinical level. It has been recognized that evaluation should be based on the specific ability of therapeutic interventions to signal recruitment and differentiation of odontoblast-like cells forming a matrix in a predentin-like pattern, rather than uncontrolled hard tissue deposition in a scar-like form. The aim of the present article was to critically review data from histological experimental studies on pulp capping, published during the last 7 decades. A comprehensive literature search covering the period from 1949 to 2015 was done using the Medline/Pubmed database. Inclusion of a study was dependent on having sufficient data regarding the type of capping material used and the unit of observation (human permanent tooth in vivo or animal permanent dentition; primary teeth were excluded). The post-operatively deposited matrix was categorized into three types: unspecified, osteotypic, or dentin-like matrix. One hundred fifty-two studies were included in the final evaluation. Data from the present systematic review have shown that only 30.2% of the 152 experimental histological pulp capping studies described the heterogenic nature of the hard tissue bridge formation, including osteotypic and tubular mineralized tissue. Structural characteristics of the new matrix and the associated formative cells were not provided by the remaining 106 studies. Analysis showed that more careful preclinical evaluation with emphasis on the evidence regarding the dentinogenic specificity of pulp therapies is required. It seems that selection of appropriate vital pulp treatment strategies and pulp capping materials would be further facilitated in terms of their therapeutic validity if international consensus could be reached on a select number of mandatory criteria for tissue-specific dentinogenic events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regeneration and Repair in Endodontics)
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Editorial
Advances in Implant Dentistry—A Special Issue of Dentistry Journal
Dent. J. 2015, 3(4), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj3040132 - 02 Nov 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2289
Abstract
New knowledge is developing at a rapidly increasing rate in implant dentistry, as in other areas of medicine. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Implant Dentistry)
Article
Oral Candida Carriage and Morphotype Differentiation in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with and without Diabetes in the Indian Sub-Continent
Dent. J. 2015, 3(4), 123-131; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj3040123 - 02 Nov 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2489
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the oral Candida carriage and morphotype differentiation of Candida species in chronic periodontitis patients, with and without diabetes mellitus. This cross sectional study included 30 subjects in the age range of 40–60 years, who were [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the oral Candida carriage and morphotype differentiation of Candida species in chronic periodontitis patients, with and without diabetes mellitus. This cross sectional study included 30 subjects in the age range of 40–60 years, who were divided into two groups: 15 chronic periodontitis only (CP) patients, and 15 chronic periodontitis patients with diabetes (CPD). Clinical measurements included plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and fasting blood sugar level (FBS). The unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected for fungal analysis. Candida carriage was analyzed by measuring colony forming units (CFU) following the culture of samples. Qualitative morphotype differentiation of Candida species from yeast to hyphal form was analyzed using Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. There was no statistically significant difference between CP and CPD groups for the periodontal parameters. However, a significantly higher Candida species CFU count was found in CPD (0.33 ± 0.23) as compared to CP (0.05 ± 0.04) group. This pilot study suggests that the occurrence of Candida species is higher in the saliva of chronic periodontitis patients with diabetes as compared to patients with chronic periodontitis alone. Full article
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Article
Mineralization of Early Stage Carious Lesions In Vitro—A Quantitative Approach
Dent. J. 2015, 3(4), 111-122; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj3040111 - 10 Oct 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2846
Abstract
Micro computed tomography has been combined with dedicated data analysis for the in vitro quantification of sub-surface enamel lesion mineralization. Two artificial white spot lesions, generated on a human molar crown in vitro, were examined. One lesion was treated with a self-assembling [...] Read more.
Micro computed tomography has been combined with dedicated data analysis for the in vitro quantification of sub-surface enamel lesion mineralization. Two artificial white spot lesions, generated on a human molar crown in vitro, were examined. One lesion was treated with a self-assembling peptide intended to trigger nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystals. We non-destructively determined the local X-ray attenuation within the specimens before and after treatment. The three-dimensional data was rigidly registered. Three interpolation methods, i.e., nearest neighbor, tri-linear, and tri-cubic interpolation were evaluated. The mineralization of the affected regions was quantified via joint histogram analysis, i.e., a voxel-by-voxel comparison of the tomography data before and after mineralization. After ten days incubation, the mean mineralization coefficient reached 35.5% for the peptide-treated specimen compared to 11.5% for the control. This pilot study does not give any evidence for the efficacy of peptide treatment nor allows estimating the necessary number of specimens to achieve significance, but shows a sound methodological approach on the basis of the joint histogram analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tomography in Dentistry)
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Article
A Study of the Management of Patients Taking Novel Oral Antiplatelet or Direct Oral Anticoagulant Medication Undergoing Dental Surgery in a Rural Setting
Dent. J. 2015, 3(4), 102-110; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj3040102 - 06 Oct 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2889
Abstract
Purpose: Novel oral antiplatelet (NOAP) (prasugrel and ticagrelor) and direct oral anticoagulant drugs (DOAC) (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban) have emerged in the last decade. This study was undertaken to determine current approaches taken to the management of patients taking these agents in dental [...] Read more.
Purpose: Novel oral antiplatelet (NOAP) (prasugrel and ticagrelor) and direct oral anticoagulant drugs (DOAC) (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban) have emerged in the last decade. This study was undertaken to determine current approaches taken to the management of patients taking these agents in dental practice in a remote and rural setting. Methods: A small retrospective study was carried out in a small island population that identified patients taking one of the above drugs. All national health service and private dental records were examined to determine the type of treatment carried out and whether drug therapy, treatment plans or actual treatment were modified as a result of NOAP or DOAC therapy. In addition other outcomes such as referral to another service for advice or treatment and any adverse bleeding events were noted. Results: 156 dental encounters for 95 patients taking one of the drugs were identified. Significant events were identified in sixteen encounters and the management of patients taking each drug type differed significantly between cases but no patients returned with troublesome post-operative bleeding. Conclusions: The approaches taken by dental surgeons in Orkney in the management of the NOAPs and DOACs varied and this is likely to be a reflection of the limited literature available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medically Compromised Patients in Dentistry)
Review
Management of Antithrombotic Agents in Oral Surgery Maria Martinez and Dimitrios A. Tsakiris *
Dent. J. 2015, 3(4), 93-101; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj3040093 - 06 Oct 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5184
Abstract
Systemic anticoagulation with intravenous or oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents is an efficient treatment against thromboembolic or cardiovascular disease. Invasive dental procedures or oral surgery might be associated with bleeding complications if carried out under anticoagulants. Patients on vitamin K antagonists, new direct [...] Read more.
Systemic anticoagulation with intravenous or oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents is an efficient treatment against thromboembolic or cardiovascular disease. Invasive dental procedures or oral surgery might be associated with bleeding complications if carried out under anticoagulants. Patients on vitamin K antagonists, new direct anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents having dental interventions with low-risk for bleeding do not need interruption of anticoagulation. In case of bleeding complications local hemostatic measures, such as local surgical sutures, fibrin glue, local antifibrinolytic treatment with tranexamic acid, or e-aminocaproic acid suffice to stop bleeding. In patients with high risk of bleeding an individual assessment of the benefit/risk ratio of interrupting anticoagulation should be carried out. Bridging the long-term anticoagulation with short-term anticoagulants should be planned according to national or international guidelines. The introduction of the newer direct oral anticoagulants having more flexible pharmacokinetic properties has facilitated bridging, allowing short-term interruption without increasing the risk of relapsing thrombotic or cardiovascular events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medically Compromised Patients in Dentistry)
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