Systemic anticoagulation with intravenous or oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents is an efficient treatment against thromboembolic or cardiovascular disease. Invasive dental procedures or oral surgery might be associated with bleeding complications if carried out under anticoagulants. Patients on vitamin K antagonists, new direct anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents having dental interventions with low-risk for bleeding do not need interruption of anticoagulation. In case of bleeding complications local hemostatic measures, such as local surgical sutures, fibrin glue, local antifibrinolytic treatment with tranexamic acid, or e-aminocaproic acid suffice to stop bleeding. In patients with high risk of bleeding an individual assessment of the benefit/risk ratio of interrupting anticoagulation should be carried out. Bridging the long-term anticoagulation with short-term anticoagulants should be planned according to national or international guidelines. The introduction of the newer direct oral anticoagulants having more flexible pharmacokinetic properties has facilitated bridging, allowing short-term interruption without increasing the risk of relapsing thrombotic or cardiovascular events.
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