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Dent. J., Volume 11, Issue 2 (February 2023) – 29 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Despite the significant global improvements in oral health, inequities persist. Targeted dental programs that address the socially and economically disadvantaged populations are essential to achieve oral health equities. It becomes vital to synthesize evidence that will inform policy makers about the types of services that ought to be included, whom these programs should target, and what evidence exists to support their effectiveness. This scoping review searched the literature to explore the existing dental care programs and to assess their impacts on individuals and their families. Our findings suggest that dental care programs improve individual oral health outcomes. However, evidence that shows the impact on family-related outcomes remains limited and requires attention in future research. View this paper
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11 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
Delay of Dental Care: An Exploratory Study of Procrastination, Dental Attendance, and Self-Reported Oral Health
by Lene M. Steinvik, Frode Svartdal and Jan-Are K. Johnsen
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020056 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3189
Abstract
Delay of dental care is a problem for dental public health. The present study explored the relationship between procrastination and dental attendance, focusing on delay in seeking dental care. This hypothetical relation was compared to other avoidance-related factors affecting dental attendance. In addition, [...] Read more.
Delay of dental care is a problem for dental public health. The present study explored the relationship between procrastination and dental attendance, focusing on delay in seeking dental care. This hypothetical relation was compared to other avoidance-related factors affecting dental attendance. In addition, an inquiry into the reasons for delaying dental care was conducted. Students (n = 164) answered an internet-based questionnaire on socio-demographic factors, dental health, dental attendance, delay of dental care, reasons for the delay, procrastination (IPS), dental anxiety (MDAS), perceived stress (PSS) and oral health self-efficacy (OHSES). The study found no significant relation between procrastination and delay in dental care. However, procrastination was related differently to past, present, and future dental attendance and seemed to relate to oral health behavior. Delay of dental care was associated with higher dental anxiety and lower oral health self-efficacy. The cost of dental care was the most frequently given reason for the delay of dental care. Further research on the delay of dental care and dental attendance is warranted in understanding the behavior, implementing interventions, and improving the utilization of public dental care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
22 pages, 669 KiB  
Systematic Review
Technical Complications of Removable Partial Dentures in the Moderately Reduced Dentition: A Systematic Review
by Marie-Theres Dawid, Ovidiu Moldovan, Heike Rudolph, Katharina Kuhn and Ralph G. Luthardt
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020055 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2900
Abstract
The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review with a subsequent meta-analysis on the technical complications and failures of removable partial denture (RPD) therapy in the moderately reduced dentition. A systematic literature search of established medical databases, last updated [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review with a subsequent meta-analysis on the technical complications and failures of removable partial denture (RPD) therapy in the moderately reduced dentition. A systematic literature search of established medical databases, last updated 06/2022, was conducted. RCTs and prospective and retrospective studies were included that had information on technical complications and failures of RPDs, at least 15 participants, an observation period of at least two years and a drop-out rate of less than 25%. Publications were selected on the title, abstract and full-text level by at least three of the participating authors. The evidence of the included studies was classified using the GRADE system. The bias risk was determined using the RoB2 tool and the ROBINS-I tool. Of 19,592 initial hits, 43 publications were included. Predominantly, retention of the prosthesis, retention loss of anchor crowns (decementations), fractures/repairs of frameworks, denture teeth, veneering or acrylic bases, and a need for relining were reported depending on prosthesis type and observation time. Focusing on technical complications and failures, only very heterogeneous data were found and publications with the highest quality level according to GRADE were scarce. Whenever possible, data on technical complications and failures should be reported separately when referencing the tooth, the prosthesis and the patient for comparability. Prostheses with differing anchorage types should be analyzed in different groups, as the respective complications and failures differ. A precise description of the kinds of complications and failures, as well as of the resulting follow-up treatment measures, should be given. Full article
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18 pages, 1731 KiB  
Systematic Review
Immunomodulatory Effects of Endodontic Sealers: A Systematic Review
by Jindong Guo, Ove A. Peters and Sepanta Hosseinpour
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020054 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2116
Abstract
Inflammation is a crucial step prior to healing, and the regulatory effects of endodontic materials on the immune response can influence tissue repair. This review aimed to answer whether endodontic sealers can modulate the immune cells and inflammation. An electronic search in Scopus, [...] Read more.
Inflammation is a crucial step prior to healing, and the regulatory effects of endodontic materials on the immune response can influence tissue repair. This review aimed to answer whether endodontic sealers can modulate the immune cells and inflammation. An electronic search in Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases were performed. This systematic review was mainly based on PRISMA guidelines, and the risk of bias was evaluated by SYRCLEs and the Modified CONSORT checklist for in vivo and in vitro studies, respectively. In total, 28 articles: 22 in vitro studies, and six in vivo studies were included in this systematic review. AH Plus and AH 26 can down-regulate iNOS mRNA, while S-PRG sealers can down-regulate p65 of NF-κB pathways to inhibit the production of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that various endodontic sealers exhibited immunomodulatory impact in macrophages polarization and inflammatory cytokine production, which could promote healing, tissue repair, and inhibit inflammation. Since the paradigm change from immune inert biomaterials to bioactive materials, endodontic materials, particularly sealers, are required to have modulatory effects in clinical conditions. New generations of endodontic sealers could hamper detrimental inflammatory responses and maintain periodontal tissue, which represent a breakthrough in biocompatibility and functionality of endodontic biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regenerative Approaches in Dental Sciences)
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9 pages, 385 KiB  
Article
Enabling Virtual Learning for Biomechanics of Tooth Movement: A Modified Nominal Group Technique
by Fakhitah Ridzuan, Gururajaprasad Kaggal Lakshmana Rao, Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab, Maryati Md Dasor and Norehan Mokhtar
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020053 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1666
Abstract
Virtual learning is a medium that can enhance students’ understanding of a specific topic. The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic provided an opportunity for dental education to shift from traditional learning to blended learning as it began to utilize technology to help students [...] Read more.
Virtual learning is a medium that can enhance students’ understanding of a specific topic. The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic provided an opportunity for dental education to shift from traditional learning to blended learning as it began to utilize technology to help students study effectively. In this study, we collaborated with experts in the field of dentistry to reach a consensus about which topics are appropriate to include in the virtual learning module about the biomechanics of tooth movement. We convened a panel of five experts who had a minimum of two years of experience in teaching orthodontics and introduced them to the Nominal Group Technique (NGT), which is a well-established, organized, multistep, assisted group meeting technique for generating consensus. The following ten key topics were identified for inclusion in the module: physiology of tooth movement; tooth movement–definition, type, theory, indications; force systems; anchorage; fixed appliances; biomaterials related to tooth movement; removable appliances; factors affecting tooth movement; iatrogenic effect of tooth movement; and current advances and evidence regarding tooth movement. The modified NGT approach led to the development of a ranked thematic list of the topics related to the biomechanics of tooth movement that can be delivered to students via virtual learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Education)
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12 pages, 1292 KiB  
Systematic Review
Evaluation of the Changes of the Intercanine and Intermolar Widths Following Palatal Expansion in the Mixed Dentition Patients with Bilateral Posterior Crossbite: A Systematic Review
by Yen Nie Lim, Fadzlinda Baharin, Galvin Sim Siang Lin, Rozita Hassan, Milton Hongli Tsai, Lim Chia Wei, Suzanne Yeoh and Mark Ko Xiang Ping
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020052 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1938
Abstract
This systematic review aimed to identify the intercanine and intermolar width changes following palatal expansion in bilateral posterior crossbite (PXB) in mixed dentition. This review was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42021275833). All randomized controlled trials (RCT) and non-RCT articles between 1980 and [...] Read more.
This systematic review aimed to identify the intercanine and intermolar width changes following palatal expansion in bilateral posterior crossbite (PXB) in mixed dentition. This review was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42021275833). All randomized controlled trials (RCT) and non-RCT articles between 1980 and August 2022 on the palatal expansion of bilateral PXB in mixed dentition were searched in seven online databases (Google Scholar, Ovid, Web of Science, Scopus, EBSCOHost, Cochrane Library and PubMed). The risk of bias (RoB) of the articles included was analyzed using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tool. Three non-RCT studies were included and showed a low risk of bias. Meta-analysis on the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths was not performed due to study design heterogeneity. One study reported an over-correction of the bilateral PXB. There is a need for more RCT studies with standardized landmark measurements, outcome assessment methods and retention periods to investigate the interdental changes following palatal expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthodontics and New Technologies)
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10 pages, 10377 KiB  
Brief Report
Comparison of the Accuracy of Two Transfer Caps in Positional Transmission of Palatal Temporary Anchorage Devices: An In Vitro Study
by Vincenzo Quinzi, Simone Ettore Salvati, Valeria Brutto, Giorgia Tasciotti, Giuseppe Marzo and Gianmaria Fabrizio Ferrazzano
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020051 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1326
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the positional information transfer accuracy of palatal temporary anchorage devices (TADs) of two different brands of transfer caps: PSM and Leone. Thirty plaster casts of maxillary dental arches were chosen for master models. A couple [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the positional information transfer accuracy of palatal temporary anchorage devices (TADs) of two different brands of transfer caps: PSM and Leone. Thirty plaster casts of maxillary dental arches were chosen for master models. A couple of Leone TADs were inserted in each master model. For each master model, two analysis models were created: using two transfer caps, Leone and PSM, the impressions were taken, the analogues were connected on the transfer caps, and the casts were poured. Using digital methods and equipment, such as a 3D scanner, a 3D analysis and a comparison of the accuracy of the two transfer caps in transferring the positional information of the TADs was then made. The data obtained were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U-test at a significance level of α = 0.05. PSM transfer caps showed higher error frequency in almost all measurements. Only two measurements had a larger error in the analysis models made with Leone transfer caps. The Mann–Whitney U-test found a significant difference between the error levels of TADs found in the analysis models created with PSM transfer caps. Leone transfer caps showed greater reliability in TADs positional information transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials and Their Clinical Applications II)
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15 pages, 1012 KiB  
Review
Tooth Whitening with Hydroxyapatite: A Systematic Review
by Hardy Limeback, Frederic Meyer and Joachim Enax
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020050 - 12 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7527
Abstract
A steadily increasing public demand for whiter teeth has resulted in the development of new oral care products for home use. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a new ingredient to whiten teeth. This systematic review focuses on the evidence of whether HAP can effectively whiten [...] Read more.
A steadily increasing public demand for whiter teeth has resulted in the development of new oral care products for home use. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a new ingredient to whiten teeth. This systematic review focuses on the evidence of whether HAP can effectively whiten teeth. A systematic search using the PICO approach and PRISMA guidelines was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, SciFinder, and Google Scholar as databases. All study designs (in vitro, in vivo) and publications in foreign language studies were included. Of the 279 study titles that the searches produced, 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. A new “Quality Assessment Tool For In Vitro Studies” (the QUIN Tool) was used to determine the risk of bias of the 13 studies conducted in vitro. Moreover, 12 out of 13 studies had a low risk of bias. The in vivo studies were assigned Cochrane-based GRADE scores. The results in vitro and in vivo were consistent in the direction of showing a statistically significant whitening of enamel. The evidence from in vitro studies is rated overall as having a low risk of bias. The evidence from in vivo clinical trials is supported by modest clinical evidence based on six preliminary clinical trials. It can be concluded that the regular use of hydroxyapatite-containing oral care products effectively whitens teeth, but more clinical trials are required to support the preliminary in vivo evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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9 pages, 3598 KiB  
Case Report
A Third Supernumerary Tooth Occurring in the Same Region: A Case Report
by Tatsuya Akitomo, Yuria Asao, Yuko Iwamoto, Satoru Kusaka, Momoko Usuda, Mariko Kametani, Toshinori Ando, Shinnichi Sakamoto, Chieko Mitsuhata, Mikihito Kajiya, Katsuyuki Kozai and Ryota Nomura
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020049 - 12 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2047
Abstract
The presence of a supernumerary tooth is one of the most common dental anomalies, and surgical treatment is often required to address this anomaly. Moreover, it may lead to malocclusion, and long-term follow-up is important to monitor its status. A 4-year-and-11-month-old boy was [...] Read more.
The presence of a supernumerary tooth is one of the most common dental anomalies, and surgical treatment is often required to address this anomaly. Moreover, it may lead to malocclusion, and long-term follow-up is important to monitor its status. A 4-year-and-11-month-old boy was referred to our hospital for dental caries treatment. At 5 years and 5 months of age, a radiographic examination showed a supernumerary tooth (first supernumerary tooth) near the permanent maxillary left central incisor, and it was extracted 6 months later. Eighteen months after the extraction of the first supernumerary tooth, a new supernumerary tooth (second supernumerary tooth) was detected in the same region, which was extracted when the patient was aged seven years and seven months. Seven months later, another supernumerary tooth (third supernumerary tooth) was detected and extracted immediately. However, the permanent maxillary left central incisor did not erupt spontaneously even after 6 months. Therefore, surgical exposure was performed, and the central incisor erupted into the oral cavity. This report describes our experience with this patient with three metachronous supernumerary teeth and their management until the eruption of the permanent tooth. This report highlights the importance of long-term follow-up after supernumerary tooth extraction until the permanent teeth in that region have erupted completely. Full article
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13 pages, 568 KiB  
Article
The Role of Social Media in Communication and Learning at the Time of COVID-19 Lockdown—An Online Survey
by Mohammed Nahidh, Noor F. K. Al-Khawaja, Hala Mohammed Jasim, Gabriele Cervino, Marco Cicciù and Giuseppe Minervini
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020048 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2395
Abstract
This study aimed to assess orthodontic postgraduate students’ use of social media during the COVID-19 lockdown. Ninety-four postgraduate students (67 master’s students and 27 doctoral students) were enrolled in the study and asked to fill in an online questionnaire by answering questions regarding [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess orthodontic postgraduate students’ use of social media during the COVID-19 lockdown. Ninety-four postgraduate students (67 master’s students and 27 doctoral students) were enrolled in the study and asked to fill in an online questionnaire by answering questions regarding their use of social media during the COVID-19 lockdown. The frequency distributions and percentages were calculated using SPSS software. The results showed that 99% of the students used social media. The most frequently used type of social media was Facebook, 94%, followed by YouTube, 78%, and Instagram, 65%, while Twitter and Linkedin were used less, and no one used Blogger. About 63% of the students used elements of social media to learn more about orthodontics staging, biomechanics, and various approaches in managing orthodontic cases. About 56% of students tried uploading and downloading scientific papers, lectures, movies, presentations, and e-books from social media, while communication with professionals and searches about orthodontic products were reported in 47% of students’ responses. On the other hand, 43% of the responses favored sharing orthodontic information and posts for teaching and discussion purposes. Generally, social media plays leading roles in the communication with, learning of, sharing of information with, and supervision of patients from a far during the COVID-19 lockdown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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14 pages, 2945 KiB  
Case Report
Root Maturation of an Immature Dens Invaginatus Despite Unsuccessful Revitalization Procedure: A Case Report and Recommendations for Educational Purposes
by Julia Ludwig, Marcel Reymus, Alexander Winkler, Sebastian Soliman, Ralf Krug and Gabriel Krastl
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020047 - 10 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1940
Abstract
Background: The clinical management of teeth with complex dens invaginatus (DI) malformations and apical periodontitis may be challenging due to the lack of routine. The aim of this case report is to describe the endodontic treatment of an immature tooth with DI and [...] Read more.
Background: The clinical management of teeth with complex dens invaginatus (DI) malformations and apical periodontitis may be challenging due to the lack of routine. The aim of this case report is to describe the endodontic treatment of an immature tooth with DI and to discuss strategies for preclinical training for teeth with such malformations. Case report: A 9-year-old male presented with an immature maxillary incisor with DI (Oehlers Type II) and apical periodontitis which was diagnosed by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Revitalization was initially attempted but then abandoned after failure to generate a stable blood clot. Nevertheless, considerable increase in both root length and thickness could be detected after medication with calcium hydroxide followed by root canal filling with MTA as an apical plug. Conclusions: The endodontic management of teeth with DI requires thorough treatment planning. In immature teeth, under certain conditions, root maturation may occur even with conventional apexification procedures. From an educational perspective, different strategies including CBCT and 3D-printed transparent tooth models for visualization of the complex internal morphology and redesigned 3D-printed replica with various degrees of difficulty for endodontic training, can be used to overcome the challenges associated with endodontic treatment of such teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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18 pages, 1784 KiB  
Review
Systematic Review and Meta Analysis of the Relative Effect on Plaque Index among Pediatric Patients Using Powered (Electric) versus Manual Toothbrushes
by Andrew Graves, Troy Grahl, Mark Keiserman and Karl Kingsley
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020046 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4197
Abstract
Although many randomized controlled trials (RCT) have evaluated the efficacy of powered or electric toothbrushes compared with manual or traditional toothbrushes to remove biofilm and plaque, only one systematic review has been published for pediatric patients. The primary objective of this study was [...] Read more.
Although many randomized controlled trials (RCT) have evaluated the efficacy of powered or electric toothbrushes compared with manual or traditional toothbrushes to remove biofilm and plaque, only one systematic review has been published for pediatric patients. The primary objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta analysis for this population. Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) protocol, N = 321 studies were initially identified. Three independent, blinded abstract reviews were completed resulting in a total of n = 38/322 or 11.8% for the final analysis (n = 27 non-orthodontic, n = 11 orthodontic studies). Meta analysis of these outcome data have revealed a strong reduction in plaque index scores among pediatric patients using electric toothbrushes of approximately 17.2% for non-orthodontic patients and 13.9% for orthodontic patients. These results provide strong clinical evidence for recommending electric toothbrushing to pediatric patients, as well as those patients undergoing orthodontic therapy and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers in Dentistry)
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10 pages, 997 KiB  
Article
Adaptation to Virtual Assessment during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Clinical Case Presentation Examination
by James Donn, J. Alun Scott, Vivian Binnie, Kurt Naudi, Colin Forbes and Aileen Bell
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020045 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1647
Abstract
Background: Case presentation assessment is common in both medicine and dentistry and is known under various names depending on the country and institution. It relates mainly to aspects of diagnosis and treatment planning and is considered highly authentic and useful. The COVID-19 pandemic [...] Read more.
Background: Case presentation assessment is common in both medicine and dentistry and is known under various names depending on the country and institution. It relates mainly to aspects of diagnosis and treatment planning and is considered highly authentic and useful. The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the movement of this assessment from face-to-face to online. The aim of this investigation was to explore the students’ impressions of the two different examination modalities. With this information, a decision on future diets of this examination can be made to accommodate the students’ perspectives. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered using an online, self-administered survey. Results: The students were split 50/50 regarding which assessment modality they preferred. Overall, they considered the online examination to be fair, and the majority agreed that the online format allowed them to display their knowledge as well as face-to-face. Conclusions: The delivery of case presentation examination is possible online. An online case presentation is a fair, useful, and authentic assessment that is appropriate to the needs of the faculty and students. Satisfaction with the two possible methods of conducting this assessment suggests it would be reasonable to conduct this examination online in the future. Full article
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16 pages, 4529 KiB  
Article
High-Throughput Sequencing Analysis of the Changes in the Salivary Microbiota of Hungarian Young and Adult Subpopulation by an Anthocyanin Chewing Gum and Toothbrush Change
by Boglárka Skopkó, Melinda Paholcsek, Anna Szilágyi-Rácz, Péter Fauszt, Péter Dávid, László Stündl, Judit Váradi, Renátó Kovács, Kinga Bágyi and Judit Remenyik
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020044 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1832
Abstract
The sour cherry contains anthocyanins, which have bactericide action against some oral bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Sour cherry also has antibiofilm action against Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Our earlier research proved that chewing sour [...] Read more.
The sour cherry contains anthocyanins, which have bactericide action against some oral bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Sour cherry also has antibiofilm action against Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Our earlier research proved that chewing sour cherry anthocyanin gum significantly reduces the amount of human salivary alpha-amylase and Streptococcus mutans levels. The microbiota of a toothbrush affects oral health and regular toothbrush change is recommended. A total of 20 healthy participants were selected for the study. We analysed saliva samples with 16S rRNA sequencing to investigate the effect of 2 weeks (daily three times, after main meals) of chewing sour cherry anthocyanin gum—supplemented by toothbrush change in half of our case–control study cohort—after scaling on human oral microbiota. A more stable and diverse microbiome could be observed after scaling by the anthocyanin gum. Significant differences between groups (NBR: not toothbrush changing; BR: toothbrush changing) were evaluated by log2 proportion analysis of the most abundant family and genera. The analysis showed that lower level of some Gram-negative anaerobic (Prevotella melaninogenica, Porphyromonas pasteri, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. vincentii) and Gram-positive (Rothia mucilaginosa) bacteria could be observed in the case group (BR), accompanied by build-up of health-associated Streptococcal network connections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiology and Related Research)
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25 pages, 2414 KiB  
Review
Artificial Intelligence in Periodontology: A Scoping Review
by James Scott, Alberto M. Biancardi, Oliver Jones and David Andrew
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020043 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4543
Abstract
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the development of computer systems whereby machines can mimic human actions. This is increasingly used as an assistive tool to help clinicians diagnose and treat diseases. Periodontitis is one of the most common diseases worldwide, causing the destruction and [...] Read more.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the development of computer systems whereby machines can mimic human actions. This is increasingly used as an assistive tool to help clinicians diagnose and treat diseases. Periodontitis is one of the most common diseases worldwide, causing the destruction and loss of the supporting tissues of the teeth. This study aims to assess current literature describing the effect AI has on the diagnosis and epidemiology of this disease. Extensive searches were performed in April 2022, including studies where AI was employed as the independent variable in the assessment, diagnosis, or treatment of patients with periodontitis. A total of 401 articles were identified for abstract screening after duplicates were removed. In total, 293 texts were excluded, leaving 108 for full-text assessment with 50 included for final synthesis. A broad selection of articles was included, with the majority using visual imaging as the input data field, where the mean number of utilised images was 1666 (median 499). There has been a marked increase in the number of studies published in this field over the last decade. However, reporting outcomes remains heterogeneous because of the variety of statistical tests available for analysis. Efforts should be made to standardise methodologies and reporting in order to ensure that meaningful comparisons can be drawn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers in Dentistry)
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14 pages, 2072 KiB  
Article
Retrospective Longitudinal Study on Changes in Atmospheric Pressure as a Predisposing Factor for Odontogenic Abscess Formation
by Marko Tarle, Arijan Zubović, Boris Kos, Marina Raguž and Ivica Lukšić
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020042 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1805
Abstract
In our retrospective longitudinal study based on the data from 292 patients, we wanted to investigate whether there was an association between weather conditions and the occurrence of odontogenic abscesses (OA) requiring hospitalization. In the adult group (249 patients), the incidence of severe [...] Read more.
In our retrospective longitudinal study based on the data from 292 patients, we wanted to investigate whether there was an association between weather conditions and the occurrence of odontogenic abscesses (OA) requiring hospitalization. In the adult group (249 patients), the incidence of severe OA was highest in winter (32.9%) during January (11.6%), with the most common localizations being the perimandibular (35.7%) and submandibular (23.3%) regions. We found that changes in mean daily atmospheric pressure five days before hospitalization showed a positive association with the occurrence of OA, especially pressure variations greater than 12 hPa. Atmospheric pressure changes two and five days before hospitalization were also found to be moderate predictors of complications during treatment. Antibiogram analysis revealed resistance of streptococci to clindamycin in 26.3%. In the pediatric group, OA were also most frequent in winter (30.2%), and the perimandibular region (37.2%) and the canine fossa (20.9%) were the most frequent abscess localizations, while an association with meteorological parameters was not demonstrated. Clinical experience teaches us that weather change influences the occurrence of severe OA requiring hospitalization, which we confirmed in this research. To our knowledge, our study is the first to provide a threshold and precise time frame for atmospheric pressure changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Diagnostics in Oral Diseases: Volume II)
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11 pages, 519 KiB  
Article
The Dental Educational Environment of Online and Blended Learning during COVID-19, and the Impact on the Future of Dental Education
by Mai E. Khalaf, Hassan Ziada and Neamat Hassan Abubakr
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020041 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1672
Abstract
Blending face-to-face and online learning should create a focused environment that supports deep and meaningful teaching and learning that engages learners in a more active and collaborative educational experience. The present study aimed to evaluate students’ online and blended learning educational environment self-perception [...] Read more.
Blending face-to-face and online learning should create a focused environment that supports deep and meaningful teaching and learning that engages learners in a more active and collaborative educational experience. The present study aimed to evaluate students’ online and blended learning educational environment self-perception at the Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Undergraduate dental students who participated in blended learning with online lectures were invited to participate. The sample was a non-probability convenient sample, which included all clinical dental students invited to participate, who were enrolled in the fifth, sixth, and seventh (clinical year) years. All 69 students in these three clinical years were invited to participate. Electronic consent to participate and a self-administered questionnaire of two parts were completed. Part one of the questionnaire utilized the five subscales of the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) questionnaire; part two was developed in addition to evaluate the online teaching and learning subscales. Results: Descriptive statistics and analyses of variance were performed; Pearson correlations were made between the additional supplemental online teaching subscale and the original DREEM subscales. The mean students’ perception of the teacher was high, followed by the academic self-perception and then the learning perception. Students’ social self-perceptions had the lowest reported scores. Students’ perceptions varied by year of education in all subscales except for the online domain. In comparing all domains (DREEM and the online component), graduating students (final year) had a more favorable perception than other students. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, online and blended learning were positively perceived, excluding the social self-perception and the perception that the online teaching time was not well used. Full article
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24 pages, 692 KiB  
Review
Potential Beneficial Effects of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles on Caries Lesions In Vitro—A Review of the Literature
by Eisha Imran, Paul R. Cooper, Jithendra Ratnayake, Manikandan Ekambaram and May Lei Mei
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020040 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2613
Abstract
Dental caries is one of the most common human diseases which can occur in both primary and permanent dentitions throughout the life of an individual. Hydroxyapatite is the major inorganic component of human teeth, consequently, nanosized hydroxyapatite (nHAP) has recently attracted researchers’ attention [...] Read more.
Dental caries is one of the most common human diseases which can occur in both primary and permanent dentitions throughout the life of an individual. Hydroxyapatite is the major inorganic component of human teeth, consequently, nanosized hydroxyapatite (nHAP) has recently attracted researchers’ attention due to its unique properties and potential for caries management. This article provides a contemporary review of the potential beneficial effects of nHAP on caries lesions demonstrated in in vitro studies. Data showed that nHAP has potential to promote mineralization in initial caries, by being incorporated into the porous tooth structure, which resulted from the caries process, and subsequently increased mineral content and hardness. Notably, it is the particle size of nHAP which plays an important role in the mineralization process. Antimicrobial effects of nHAP can also be achieved by metal substitution in nHAP. Dual action property (mineralizing and antimicrobial) and enhanced chemical stability and bioactivity of nHAP can potentially be obtained using metal-substituted fluorhydroxyapatite nanoparticles. This provides a promising synergistic strategy which should be explored in further clinical research to enable the development of dental therapeutics for use in the treatment and management of caries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers in Dentistry)
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16 pages, 1757 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Quality of Life and Its Related Factors in Orthodontics Postgraduate Students: A Mixed Methods Approach
by Laura V. López-Trujillo, Sara C. López-Valencia and Andrés A. Agudelo-Suárez
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020039 - 6 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1665
Abstract
This study analyzed the academic, sociodemographic, and labor conditions related to the quality of life (QOL) of orthodontics postgraduate students in Colombia. A mixed study (explanatory sequential design) was conducted. An online cross-sectional survey (n = 84; 64.3% females) was carried out [...] Read more.
This study analyzed the academic, sociodemographic, and labor conditions related to the quality of life (QOL) of orthodontics postgraduate students in Colombia. A mixed study (explanatory sequential design) was conducted. An online cross-sectional survey (n = 84; 64.3% females) was carried out with sociodemographic, academic, social support, health, labor, and QOL (WHOQOL-BREF) variables. Descriptive, bivariate analyses, and multivariate linear regression were performed. Focus groups (FGs) delved into aspects of relevance regarding QOL and determinants, through qualitative content analysis and triangulation of information. The median score in the four WHOQOL-BREF dimensions surpasses 50 points, with the highest score being in the psychological dimension (62.5 ± 16.7). According to the multivariate linear regression models, the variables significantly associated with QOL scores were playing sports, being married/living together, normal BMI, low social support, and medium/low socioeconomic status. The qualitative results explained the determinants of QOL in the personal, academic, and social dimensions of the participants. The discourses showed that the postgraduate course represents a resignification of their life, where their QOL is affected by the difficulties of their academic development, by the difficulty of reconciling the personal academic load with their affective, work, and social life, and by the stress they experience in their staff process. In conclusion, the participants’ QOL was moderate and affected by different factors. The findings highlighted the importance of mental health promotion and well-being strategies in students of orthodontic postgraduate training programs in Colombia for improving QOL. Full article
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10 pages, 2757 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Surface Treatments on the Shear Bond Strength of Metal Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to CAD/CAM Provisional Crowns
by Dany Haber, Elie Khoury, Joseph Ghoubril and Nunzio Cirulli
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020038 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1624
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to find the best surface treatment for CAD/CAM provisional crowns allowing the optimal bond strength of metal brackets. Methods: The sample consists of 30 lower bicuspids and 180 provisional crowns. The provisional crowns were randomly divided [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to find the best surface treatment for CAD/CAM provisional crowns allowing the optimal bond strength of metal brackets. Methods: The sample consists of 30 lower bicuspids and 180 provisional crowns. The provisional crowns were randomly divided into six different groups. Orthophosphoric acid etching (37%) was applied to 30 lower bicuspids. The provisional crowns had undergone different surface treatments. Group 1: No treatment (Control Group). Group 2: Diamond bur. Group 3: Sandblasting. Group 4: Plastic Conditioner. Group 5: Diamond bur and Plastic Conditioner. Group 6: Sandblasting and Plastic Conditioner. The brackets in all groups were identically placed using Transbond XT® Primer and Transbond XT® Paste. Then, the entire sample underwent an artificial aging procedure, and a measurement of the bond strength was conducted. After debonding, the surface of the crowns was examined to determine the quantity of the adhesive remnant. Results: Bonding to natural crowns recorded the highest average, followed by the averages of groups 5 and 6. However, group 1 recorded the lowest average. Groups 2 and 4 had very close averages, as well as groups 5 and 6. A statistically significant difference between the averages of all groups was recorded (p < 0.001) except for groups 2 and 4 (p = 0.965) on the one hand, and groups 5 and 6 (p = 0.941) on the other hand. Discussion: The bonding of brackets on provisional crowns is considered a delicate clinical procedure. In fact, unlike natural crowns, the orthophosphoric acid usually used does not have any effect on the surface of provisional crowns. Conclusions: Using a diamond bur combined with the plastic conditioner and sandblasting combined with that same product resulted in a bond strength close to natural crown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthodontics and New Technologies)
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8 pages, 2702 KiB  
Case Report
Tunnel Fenestration of the Mandibula after Unsuccessful Post Traumatic Treatment: A Case Report of the One Year Follow-Up
by Peter Gillner, Richard Mosch and Constantin von See
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020037 - 2 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2260
Abstract
Particularly severe cases with tunneled defects are rarely reported and are described only in a few case reports. This case report describes the treatment of a tunnel fenestration in the lower central jaw after unsuccessful endodontic treatment following trauma of incisors 31 and [...] Read more.
Particularly severe cases with tunneled defects are rarely reported and are described only in a few case reports. This case report describes the treatment of a tunnel fenestration in the lower central jaw after unsuccessful endodontic treatment following trauma of incisors 31 and 41 over the course of six years, which led to the development of an internal granuloma and a radicular cyst in the lower jaw. The patient presented with a 2.67 cm3 radicular cyst displacing the surrounding tissue at regio 31 and 41, which resulted in a tunnel-like bony defect. Endodontic treatment and periapical root tip resection on teeth 31 and 41 with cystectomy, and with a 12 month follow-up, were successful in the healing of the bone defect. The preserved teeth received lithium disilicate crowns for definite restoration one year postoperatively. This treatment can be an option for the therapy of large cysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontics and Restorative Sciences)
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8 pages, 882 KiB  
Communication
A Bibliometric Analysis on the Early Works of Dental Anxiety
by Andy Wai Kan Yeung
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020036 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1681
Abstract
Dental anxiety has been a common phenomenon under investigation for decades. This report aimed to identify the historical roots of dental anxiety in the research literature. The literature database Web of Science Core Collection was searched to identify relevant papers on this theme. [...] Read more.
Dental anxiety has been a common phenomenon under investigation for decades. This report aimed to identify the historical roots of dental anxiety in the research literature. The literature database Web of Science Core Collection was searched to identify relevant papers on this theme. Cited reference analysis on the collected literature set was performed with CRExplorer, a dedicated bibliometric software. This analysis successfully identified the references dealing with dental anxiety in the late 1800s and early 1900s. They included essays that provided expert opinion on dental anxiety, reported semi-structured interviews to elucidate its underlying reasons, introduced psychometric scales to assess dental anxiety, and proposed theories and arguments from psychoanalytic aspects. Several references dealing with anxiety in general were also identified. To conclude, cited reference analysis was useful in revealing the historical origins of dental anxiety research. These cited references provided a concrete foundation to support subsequent dental anxiety research. Full article
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37 pages, 2472 KiB  
Review
Periodontal Management in Periodontally Healthy Orthodontic Patients with Fixed Appliances: An Umbrella Review of Self-Care Instructions and Evidence-Based Recommendations
by Federica Di Spirito, Alessandra Amato, Maria Pia Di Palo, Davide Cannatà, Francesco Giordano, Francesco D’Ambrosio and Stefano Martina
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020035 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2286
Abstract
The present umbrella review aimed to characterize periodontal self-care instructions, prescriptions, and motivational methods; evaluate the associated periodontal outcomes; and provide integrated, evidence-based recommendations for periodontal self-care in periodontally healthy orthodontic patients with fixed appliances. The presently applied study protocol was developed in [...] Read more.
The present umbrella review aimed to characterize periodontal self-care instructions, prescriptions, and motivational methods; evaluate the associated periodontal outcomes; and provide integrated, evidence-based recommendations for periodontal self-care in periodontally healthy orthodontic patients with fixed appliances. The presently applied study protocol was developed in advance, compliant with the PRISMA statement, and registered on PROSPERO (CRD42022367204). Systematic reviews published in English without date restrictions were electronically searched until 21 November 2022 across the PROSPERO Register and Cochrane Library, Web of Science (Core Collection), Scopus, and MED-LINE/PubMed databases. The study quality assessment was conducted through the AMSTAR 2 tool. Seventeen systematic reviews were included. Powered and manual toothbrushes showed no significant differences in biofilm accumulation, although some evidence revealed significant improvements in inflammatory, bleeding, and periodontal pocket depth values in the short term with powered toothbrushes. Chlorhexidine mouthwashes, but no gels, varnishes, or pastes, controlled better biofilm accumulation and gingival inflammation as adjuncts to toothbrushing, although only for a limited period. Organic products, such as aloe vera and chamomile, proved their antimicrobial properties, and herbal-based mouthwashes seemed comparable to CHX without its side effects. Motivational methods also showed beneficial effects on periodontal biofilm control and inflammation, while no evidence supported probiotics administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Periodontal and Peri-Implant Tissues Health Management)
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11 pages, 1875 KiB  
Article
Correlations of the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) and Three Panoramic Indices Using Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) Bone Densitometry
by Bramma Kiswanjaya, Hanna H. Bachtiar-Iskandar and Akihiro Yoshihara
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020034 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1988
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) and three panoramic indices in relation to z-score and t-score values using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) bone densitometry. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) and three panoramic indices in relation to z-score and t-score values using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) bone densitometry. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of the OSTA index were also measured using the QUS tool to evaluate the method’s performance in identifying people at risk of osteoporosis. The study employed a cross-sectional design with 387 participants (190 men, 197 women). Patients’ mandibular cortical indexes (MCI), mandibular cortical widths (MCW), and panoramic mandibular indexes (PMI) were measured from panoramic images. The sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were calculated using an OSTA index cutoff of ≤−1 and a t-score of ≤−1.0 for the QUS bone densitometry. The coefficient correlation of the OSTA index with the z-score (r = −0.563, p < 0.001) and t-score (r = −0.740, p < 0.001) shows a higher value than the MCI, MCW, and PMI, per the QUS. The sensitivity, specificity, and AUC values with a cutoff t-score of ≤−1.0 per the QUS in men was 90%, 50%, and 0.812, and in women, 96.8%, 30%, and 0.862. The OSTA index is a simple method that can be used in general dental practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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19 pages, 1055 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Dental Care Programs on Individuals and Their Families: A Scoping Review
by Abdulrahman Ghoneim, Violet D’Souza, Arezoo Ebnahmady, Kamini Kaura Parbhakar, Helen He, Madeline Gerbig, Audrey Laporte, Rebecca Hancock Howard, Noha Gomaa, Carlos Quiñonez and Sonica Singhal
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020033 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3273
Abstract
Background: Despite significant global improvements in oral health, inequities persist. Targeted dental care programs are perceived as a viable approach to both improving oral health and to address inequities. However, the impacts of dental care programs on individual and family oral health outcomes [...] Read more.
Background: Despite significant global improvements in oral health, inequities persist. Targeted dental care programs are perceived as a viable approach to both improving oral health and to address inequities. However, the impacts of dental care programs on individual and family oral health outcomes remain unclear. Objectives: The purpose of this scoping review is to map the evidence on impacts of existing dental programs, specifically on individual and family level outcomes. Methods: We systematically searched four scientific databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts for studies published in the English language between December 1999 and November 2021. Search terms were kept broad to capture a range of programs. Four reviewers (AG, VD, AE, and KKP) independently screened the abstracts and reviewed full-text articles and extracted the data. Cohen’s kappa inter-rater reliability score was 0.875, indicating excellent agreement between the reviewers. Data were summarized according to the PRISMA statement. Results: The search yielded 65,887 studies, of which 76 were included in the data synthesis. All but one study assessed various individual-level outcomes (n = 75) and only five investigated family outcomes. The most common program interventions are diagnostic and preventive (n = 35, 46%) care, targeted children (n = 42, 55%), and delivered in school-based settings (n = 28, 37%). The majority of studies (n = 43, 57%) reported a significant improvement in one or more of their reported outcomes; the most assessed outcome was change in dental decay (n = 35). Conclusions: Dental care programs demonstrated effectiveness in addressing individual oral health outcomes. However, evidence to show the impact on family-related outcomes remains limited and requires attention in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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10 pages, 633 KiB  
Article
Role of Patient’s Ethnicity in Seeking Preventive Dental Services at the Community Health Centers of South-Central Texas: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Girish Suresh Shelke, Rochisha Singh Marwaha, Pankil Shah and Suman Challa
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020032 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1382
Abstract
Background: This study was conducted to determine the impact of a patient’s ethnicity on seeking preventive dental services at the Community Health Centers (CHCs) in South-Central Texas. Methods: Primary electronic health records (EHR) data were collected regarding each patient’s medical and dental history, [...] Read more.
Background: This study was conducted to determine the impact of a patient’s ethnicity on seeking preventive dental services at the Community Health Centers (CHCs) in South-Central Texas. Methods: Primary electronic health records (EHR) data were collected regarding each patient’s medical and dental history, and comprehensive treatment planning. The researchers retrieved EHR from January 2016 to 2022. Bivariate analysis was completed to test the outcome with the predictor variable and covariates using the appropriate statistical tests. A multiple linear regression model was used to understand the association between the predictor and outcome variable while controlling for confounders. Results: The study findings revealed significantly higher dental visits (2.26 ± 2.88) for Hispanic patients. The results from the multiple regression model indicated that non-Hispanic patients had a smaller chance of visiting CHC for preventive dental services, by eight percent, compared to the Hispanic population (p-value < 0.001) when all other variables were held constant. However, the study results were not significant, as the effect size was too small to conclude the effect of ethnicity on the patients visiting the dental clinic at the CHC for preventive services. Conclusion: The study concluded that there is no difference in the preventive dental services completed by Hispanics and non-Hispanics when all other variables are controlled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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14 pages, 5312 KiB  
Article
Schneiderian Membrane Collateral Damage Caused by Collagenated and Non-Collagenated Xenografts: A Histological Study in Rabbits
by Yasushi Nakajima, Daniele Botticelli, Ermenegildo Federico De Rossi, Vitor Ferreira Balan, Eduardo Pires Godoy, Erick Ricardo Silva and Samuel Porfirio Xavier
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020031 - 26 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1499
Abstract
Background: The Schneiderian membrane (SM) that is in contact with biomaterial granules may become thinner and eventually perforate. It has been shown that these events are related to the biomaterial used. Hence, the main aim of the present study was to compare the [...] Read more.
Background: The Schneiderian membrane (SM) that is in contact with biomaterial granules may become thinner and eventually perforate. It has been shown that these events are related to the biomaterial used. Hence, the main aim of the present study was to compare the damaging effects of two xenografts with different resorbability rates on SM. The secondary aim was to evaluate the possible protection from damage offered by a collagen membrane placed adjacent to the SM and by inward displacement of the bone window with the SM during elevation. Methods: Thirty-six albino New Zealand rabbits underwent bilateral sinus elevation. One group of 18 animals received deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM group) and the other received swine-collagenated corticocancellous bone (collagenated group). Moreover, in the DBBM group, the bone window was displaced inward during elevation in one sinus together with the SM. In the collagenated group, a collagen membrane was placed adjacent to the SM in one sinus. Six animals were assessed per period after 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Results: The mean pristine mucosa width ranged between 67 µm and 113 µm, and none had a width of <40 µm. In the 2-week group, the elevated mucosa of the DBBM group presented 59 thinned sites and five perforations, while in the collagenated group, 14 thinned sites and one perforation were observed. Damage to SM decreased in number in the 4-week treatment group. In the 8-week group, the number of thinned sites in the DBBM group increased to 124, and the perforations to 8. In the collagenated group, 7 thinned sites and 1 small perforation were observed. Conclusions: More damage to the Schneiderian membrane was observed in the DBBM group than in the collagenated group. The presence of the inward bone window offered protection from damage to the Schneiderian membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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12 pages, 2615 KiB  
Article
Laser Cleaning Improves Stem Cell Adhesion on the Dental Implant Surface during Peri-Implantitis Treatment
by Taras V. Furtsev, Anastasia A. Koshmanova, Galina M. Zeer, Elena D. Nikolaeva, Ivan N. Lapin, Tatiana N. Zamay and Anna S. Kichkailo
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020030 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2784
Abstract
Dental implant therapy is a well-accepted treatment modality. Despite good predictability and success in the early stages, the risk of postplacement inflammation in the long-term periods remains an urgent problem. Surgical access and decontamination with chemical and mechanical methods are more effective than [...] Read more.
Dental implant therapy is a well-accepted treatment modality. Despite good predictability and success in the early stages, the risk of postplacement inflammation in the long-term periods remains an urgent problem. Surgical access and decontamination with chemical and mechanical methods are more effective than antibiotic therapy. The search for the optimal and predictable way for peri-implantitis treatment remains relevant. Here, we evaluated four cleaning methods for their ability to preserve the implant’s surface for adequate mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and differentiation. Implants isolated after peri-implantitis were subjected to cleaning with diamond bur; Ti-Ni alloy brush, air-flow, or Er,Cr:YSGG laser and cocultured with mice MSC for five weeks. Dental bur and titanium brushes destroyed the implants’ surfaces and prevented MSC attachment. Air-flow and laser minimally affected the dental implant surface microroughness, which was initially designed for good cell adhesion and bone remodeling and to provide full microbial decontamination. Anodized with titanium dioxide and sandblasted with aluminum oxide, acid-etched implants appeared to be better for laser treatment. In implants sandblasted with aluminum oxide, an acid-etched surface better preserves its topology when treated with the air-flow. These cleaning methods minimally affect the implant’s surface, so it maintains the capability to absorb osteogenic cells for further division and differentiation. Full article
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7 pages, 294 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Dentistry Journal in 2022
by Dentistry Journal Editorial Office
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020029 - 19 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1028
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
24 pages, 1388 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Laser Thermal Effect on Histological Evaluation of Oral Soft Tissue Biopsy: Systematic Review
by Gianluca Tenore, Ahmed Mohsen, Alessandro Nuvoli, Gaspare Palaia, Federica Rocchetti, Cira Rosaria Tiziana Di Gioia, Andrea Cicconetti, Umberto Romeo and Alessandro Del Vecchio
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020028 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2199
Abstract
The aim of the study is to review the literature to observe studies that evaluate the extent of the thermal effect of different laser wavelengths on the histological evaluation of oral soft tissue biopsies. An electronic search for published studies was performed on [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to review the literature to observe studies that evaluate the extent of the thermal effect of different laser wavelengths on the histological evaluation of oral soft tissue biopsies. An electronic search for published studies was performed on the PubMed and Scopus databases between July 2020 and November 2022. After the selection process, all the included studies were subjected to quality assessment and data extraction processes. A total of 28 studies met the eligibility criteria. The most studied laser was the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser, followed by the diode laser 940 nm–980 nm. Six studies were focused on each of the Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG), Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers, and diode lasers of 808 nm and 445 nm. Three studies were for the Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTP) laser, and four studies were for the Erbium, Chromium-doped Yttrium, Scandium, Gallium, and Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser. The quality and bias assessment revealed that almost all the animal studies were at a low risk of bias (RoB) in the considered domains of the used assessment tool except the allocation concealment domain in the selection bias and the blinding domain in the performance bias, where these domains were awarded an unclear or high score in almost all the included animal studies. For clinical studies, the range of the total RoB score in the comparative studies was 14 to 23, while in the non-comparative studies, it was 11 to 15. Almost all the studies concluded that the thermal effect of different laser wavelengths did not hinder the histological diagnosis. This literature review showed some observations. The thermal effect occurred with different wavelengths and parameters and what should be done is to minimize it by better adjusting the laser parameters. The extension of margins during the collection of laser oral biopsies and the use of laser only in non-suspicious lesions are recommended because of the difficulty of the histopathologist to assess the extension and grade of dysplasia at the surgical margins. The comparison of the thermal effect between different studies was impossible due to the presence of methodological heterogeneity. Full article
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