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Inorganics, Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2020) – 7 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Coordination-driven self-assembly methodology has been extensively used to construct bi- or [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Inorganics in 2019
Inorganics 2020, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8010007 - 17 Jan 2020
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Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not. [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Magnetic Materials and Systems: Domain Structure Visualization and Other Characterization Techniques for the Application in the Materials Science and Biomedicine
Inorganics 2020, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8010006 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 273
Abstract
Magnetic structures have attracted a great interest due to their multiple applications, from physics to biomedicine. Several techniques are currently employed to investigate magnetic characteristics and other physicochemical properties of magnetic structures. The major objective of this review is to summarize the current [...] Read more.
Magnetic structures have attracted a great interest due to their multiple applications, from physics to biomedicine. Several techniques are currently employed to investigate magnetic characteristics and other physicochemical properties of magnetic structures. The major objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the usage, advances, advantages, and disadvantages of a large number of techniques that are currently available to characterize magnetic systems. The present review, aiming at helping in the choice of the most suitable method as appropriate, is divided into three sections dedicated to characterization techniques. Firstly, the magnetism and magnetization (hysteresis) techniques are introduced. Secondly, the visualization methods of the domain structures by means of different probes are illustrated. Lastly, the characterization of magnetic nanosystems in view of possible biomedical applications is discussed, including the exploitation of magnetism in imaging for cell tracking/visualization of pathological alterations in living systems (mainly by magnetic resonance imaging, MRI). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Evaluation of 99mTc-Tricabonyl Labeled Isonitrile Conjugates for Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Image
Inorganics 2020, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8010005 - 14 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a biomarker expressed on the surface of prostate cancer (PCa). In an effort to improve the detection and treatment of PCa, small urea-based PSMA inhibitors have been studied extensively. In the present study, we aimed to develop 99m [...] Read more.
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a biomarker expressed on the surface of prostate cancer (PCa). In an effort to improve the detection and treatment of PCa, small urea-based PSMA inhibitors have been studied extensively. In the present study, we aimed to develop 99mTc-tricabonyl labeled urea-based PSMA conjugates containing isonitrile (CN-R)-coordinating ligands ([99mTc]Tc-15 and [99mTc]Tc-16). Both the PSMA conjugates were obtained at high radiochemical efficiency (≥98.5%). High in vitro binding affinity was observed for [99mTc]Tc-15 and [99mTc]Tc-16 (Kd = 5.5 and 0.2 nM, respectively) in PSMA-expressing 22Rv1 cells. Tumor xenografts were conducted using 22Rv1 cells and rapid accumulation of [99mTc]Tc-16 (1.87 ± 0.11% ID/g) was observed at 1 h post-injection, which subsequently increased to (2.83 ± 0.26% ID/g) at 4 h post-injection. However, [99mTc]Tc-15 showed moderate tumor uptake (1.48 ± 0.18% ID/g), which decreased at 4 h post-injection (0.81 ± 0.09% ID/g). [99mTc]Tc-16 was excreted from non-targeted tissues with high tumor-to-blood (17:1) and tumor-to-muscle ratio (41:1) at 4 h post-injection at approximately 4 times higher levels than [99mTc]Tc-15. Uptakes of [99mTc]Tc-15 and [99mTc]Tc-16 to PSMA-expressing tumor and tissues were significantly blocked by co-injection of 2-(Phosphonomethyl)-pentandioic acid (2-PMPA), suggesting that their uptakes are mediated by PSMA specifically. Whole-body single photon emission computed tomography imaging of [99mTc]Tc-16 verified the ex vivo biodistribution results and demonstrated clear visualization of tumors and tissues expressing PSMA compared to [99mTc]Tc-15. In conclusion, using [99mTc]Tc-16 rather than [99mTc]Tc-15 may be the preferable because of its relatively high tumor uptake and retention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Applications of Technetium Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Heteroleptic [Cu(P^P)(N^N)][PF6] Compounds with Isomeric Dibromo-1,10-Phenanthroline Ligands
Inorganics 2020, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8010004 - 10 Jan 2020
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Abstract
A series of [Cu(P^P)(N^N)][PF6] compounds are reported in which N^N is 2,9-dibromo-1,10-phenanthroline (2,9-Br2phen), 3,8-dibromo-1,10-phenanthroline (3,8-Br2phen) or 4,7-dibromo-1,10-phenanthroline (4,7-Br2phen) and P^P is bis(2-(diphenylphosphano)phenyl)ether (POP) or 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphano)-9,9-dimethylxanthene (xantphos). The compounds were characterized by solution multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, [...] Read more.
A series of [Cu(P^P)(N^N)][PF6] compounds are reported in which N^N is 2,9-dibromo-1,10-phenanthroline (2,9-Br2phen), 3,8-dibromo-1,10-phenanthroline (3,8-Br2phen) or 4,7-dibromo-1,10-phenanthroline (4,7-Br2phen) and P^P is bis(2-(diphenylphosphano)phenyl)ether (POP) or 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphano)-9,9-dimethylxanthene (xantphos). The compounds were characterized by solution multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and a single-crystal X-ray analysis. Each compound underwent a partially reversible or irreversible copper-centred oxidation, the highest potential being for 2,9-Br2phen-containing compounds. In solution, the compounds are weak yellow or orange emitters, whereas powdered samples exhibit yellow emissions with photoluminescence quantum yields of up to 45% for [Cu(xantphos)(2,9-Br2phen)][PF6] with an excited state lifetime τ1/2 = 9.9 μs. Values of λemmax for [Cu(POP)(2,9-Br2phen)][PF6] and [Cu(xantphos)(2,9-Br2phen)][PF6] are blue-shifted with respect to compounds with the 3,8-and 4,7-isomers, both in solution and in the solid state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photochemistry & Photophysics of Transition Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessReview
Nitrido Technetium-99 m Core in Radiopharmaceutical Applications: Four Decades of Research
Inorganics 2020, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8010003 - 31 Dec 2019
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Abstract
The knowledge on element 43 (Tc) of the periodic table, built over the years through the contributions given by the close relationship between chemistry and nuclear medicine, allowed the development of new and increasingly effective radiopharmaceuticals useful both as perfusion and target specific [...] Read more.
The knowledge on element 43 (Tc) of the periodic table, built over the years through the contributions given by the close relationship between chemistry and nuclear medicine, allowed the development of new and increasingly effective radiopharmaceuticals useful both as perfusion and target specific imaging agents for SPECT (single photon emission tomography). Among the manifold Tc-compounds, Tc(V) nitrido complexes played a relevant role in the search for new technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals, providing efficient labeling procedures that can be conveniently exploited for the design and synthesis of agents, also incorporating small organic molecules or peptides having defined structural features. With this work, we present an overview of four decades of research on the chemistry and on the nuclear medicine applications of Tc(V) nitrido complexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Applications of Technetium Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview
Thermotropic Liquid-Crystalline Materials Based on Supramolecular Coordination Complexes
Inorganics 2020, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8010002 - 22 Dec 2019
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Liquid crystals are among us, in living organisms and in electronic devices, and they have contributed to the development of our modern society. Traditionally developed by organic chemists, the field of liquid-crystalline materials is now involving chemists and physicists of all domains (computational, [...] Read more.
Liquid crystals are among us, in living organisms and in electronic devices, and they have contributed to the development of our modern society. Traditionally developed by organic chemists, the field of liquid-crystalline materials is now involving chemists and physicists of all domains (computational, physical, inorganic, supramolecular, electro-chemistry, polymers, materials, etc.,). Such diversity in researchers confirms that the field remains highly active and that new applications can be foreseen in the future. In this review, liquid-crystalline materials developed around coordination complexes are presented, focusing on those showing thermotropic behavior, a relatively unexplored family of compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Coordination Rings and Cages)
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Open AccessCommunication
Chiral Self-Sorting in Truxene-Based Metallacages
Inorganics 2020, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8010001 - 20 Dec 2019
Viewed by 368
Abstract
Two chiral face-rotating metalla-assembled polyhedra were constructed upon self-assembling achiral components, i.e., a tritopic ligand based on a truxene core (10,15-dihydro-5H-diindeno[1,2-a;1′,2′-c]fluorene) and two different hydroxyquinonato–bridged diruthenium complexes. Both polyhedra were characterized in solution as well as in the solid state by X-ray crystallography. [...] Read more.
Two chiral face-rotating metalla-assembled polyhedra were constructed upon self-assembling achiral components, i.e., a tritopic ligand based on a truxene core (10,15-dihydro-5H-diindeno[1,2-a;1′,2′-c]fluorene) and two different hydroxyquinonato–bridged diruthenium complexes. Both polyhedra were characterized in solution as well as in the solid state by X-ray crystallography. In both cases, the self-sorting process leading to only two homo-chiral enantiomers was governed by non-covalent interactions between both truxene units that faced each other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Coordination Rings and Cages)
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