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Open AccessArticle

Experimental Evaluation of Impairments in Unrepeatered DP-16QAM Link with Distributed Raman Amplification

1
Networking and Transmission Laboratory, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista SE-16425, Sweden
2
Optics and Photonics Division, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Kista SE-16440, Sweden
3
Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Photonics 2017, 4(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics4010016
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
The transmission impairments of a Raman amplified link using dual-polarization 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-16QAM) are experimentally characterized. The impact of amplitude and phase noise on the signal due to relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer from the pump are compared for two pumping configurations: first-order backward pumping and bi-directional pumping. Experimental results indicate that with increased Raman backward pump power, though the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is increased, so is the pump-induced amplitude and phase noise. The transmission performance is firstly improved by the enhanced OSNR at a low pump power until an optimum point is reached, and then the impairments due to pump-induced noise start to dominate. However, the introduction of a low pump power in the forward direction can further improve the system’s performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: Raman amplification; coherent communications; fiber optics communications Raman amplification; coherent communications; fiber optics communications
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pang, X.; Ozolins, O.; El-Taher, A.; Schatz, R.; Jacobsen, G.; Sergeyev, S.; Popov, S. Experimental Evaluation of Impairments in Unrepeatered DP-16QAM Link with Distributed Raman Amplification. Photonics 2017, 4, 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics4010016

AMA Style

Pang X, Ozolins O, El-Taher A, Schatz R, Jacobsen G, Sergeyev S, Popov S. Experimental Evaluation of Impairments in Unrepeatered DP-16QAM Link with Distributed Raman Amplification. Photonics. 2017; 4(1):16. https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics4010016

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars; El-Taher, Atalla; Schatz, Richard; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Sergeyev, Sergey; Popov, Sergei. 2017. "Experimental Evaluation of Impairments in Unrepeatered DP-16QAM Link with Distributed Raman Amplification" Photonics 4, no. 1: 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics4010016

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