Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Math. Comput. Appl., Volume 24, Issue 1 (March 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) In this study, an iterative scheme of six orders of convergence for solving systems of nonlinear [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-33
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Some Applications of Eigenvalue Problems for Tensor and Tensor–Block Matrices for Mathematical Modeling of Micropolar Thin Bodies
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010033
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
Viewed by 202 | PDF Full-text (343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The statement of the eigenvalue problem for a tensor–block matrix (TBM) of any order and of any even rank is formulated, and also some of its special cases are considered. In particular, using the canonical presentation of the TBM of the tensor of [...] Read more.
The statement of the eigenvalue problem for a tensor–block matrix (TBM) of any order and of any even rank is formulated, and also some of its special cases are considered. In particular, using the canonical presentation of the TBM of the tensor of elastic modules of the micropolar theory, in the canonical form the specific deformation energy and the constitutive relations are written. With the help of the introduced TBM operator, the equations of motion of a micropolar arbitrarily anisotropic medium are written, and also the boundary conditions are written down by means of the introduced TBM operator of the stress and the couple stress vectors. The formulations of initial-boundary value problems in these terms for an arbitrary anisotropic medium are given. The questions on the decomposition of initial-boundary value problems of elasticity and thin body theory for some anisotropic media are considered. In particular, the initial-boundary problems of the micropolar (classical) theory of elasticity are presented with the help of the introduced TBM operators (tensors–operators). In the case of an isotropic micropolar elastic medium (isotropic and transversely isotropic classical media), the TBM operator (tensors–operators) of cofactors to TBM operators (tensors–tensors) of the initial-boundary value problems are constructed that allow decomposing initial-boundary value problems. We also find the determinant and the tensor of cofactors to the sum of six tensors used for decomposition of initial-boundary value problems. From three-dimensional decomposed initial-boundary value problems, the corresponding decomposed initial-boundary value problems for the theories of thin bodies are obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences)
Open AccessArticle Global Sensitivity Analysis to Study the Impacts of Bed-Nets, Drug Treatment, and Their Efficacies on a Two-Strain Malaria Model
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010032
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 3 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
Viewed by 235 | PDF Full-text (469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Malaria is a deadly infectious disease, which is transmitted to humans via the bites of infected female mosquitoes. Antimalarial drug resistance has been identified as one of the characteristics of malaria that complicates control efforts. Typically, the use of insecticide-treated bed-nets (ITNs) and [...] Read more.
Malaria is a deadly infectious disease, which is transmitted to humans via the bites of infected female mosquitoes. Antimalarial drug resistance has been identified as one of the characteristics of malaria that complicates control efforts. Typically, the use of insecticide-treated bed-nets (ITNs) and drug treatment are some of the recommended control strategies against malaria. Here, the use of ITNs, drug treatment, and their efficacies and evolution of antimalarial drug resistance are considered to be the major driving forces in the dynamics of malaria transmissions. We formulate a mathematical model of two-strain malaria to assess the impacts of ITNs, drug treatment, and their efficacies on the transmission dynamics of the disease in a human population. We propose a simple mosquito biting rate function that depends on both the proportion of ITN usage and its efficacy. We show that both disease-free and co-existence equilibrium points are globally-asymptotically stable where they exist. The global uncertainty and sensitivity analysis conducted show that if about 95% of malaria cases can be treated with fewer than 5% treatment failure in a population with 95% ITN usage that remains 95% effective, malaria can be controlled. We find that the order in which numerous intervention measures are taken is important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Sciences)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Analytical Study of Adversely Affecting Radiation and Temperature Parameters on a Magnetohydrodynamic Elasto-viscous Fluid
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010031
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 10 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
Viewed by 199 | PDF Full-text (1369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An investigation of how the velocity of elasto-viscous fluid past an infinite plate, with slip and variable temperature, is influenced by combined thermal-radiative diffusion effects has been carried out. The study of dynamics of a flow model leads to the generation of characteristic [...] Read more.
An investigation of how the velocity of elasto-viscous fluid past an infinite plate, with slip and variable temperature, is influenced by combined thermal-radiative diffusion effects has been carried out. The study of dynamics of a flow model leads to the generation of characteristic fluid parameters ( G r , G m , M, F, S c and P r ). The interaction of these parameters with elasto-viscous parameter K is probed to describe how certain parametric range and conditions could be pre-decided to enhance the flow speed past a channel. In particular, the flow dynamics’ alteration in correspondence to the slip parameter’s choice, along with temperature provision to the boundary in temporal pattern, is determined through uniquely calculated exact expressions of velocity, temperature and mass concentration of the fluid. The complex multi-parametric model has been analytically solved using the Laplace and Inverse Laplace transform. Through study of calculated exact expressions, an identification of variables, adversely (M, F, S c and P r ) and favourably ( G r and G m ) affecting the flow speed and temperature has been made. The accuracy of our results have also been tested by computing matching numerical solutions and by graphical reasoning. The verification of existing results of Newtonian fluid with varying boundary condition of velocity and temperature has also been completed, affirming the veracity of present results. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Toward Optimality of Proper Generalised Decomposition Bases
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010030
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
Viewed by 273 | PDF Full-text (409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The solution of structural problems with nonlinear material behaviour in a model order reduction framework is investigated in this paper. In such a framework, greedy algorithms or adaptive strategies are interesting as they adjust the reduced order basis (ROB) to the problem of [...] Read more.
The solution of structural problems with nonlinear material behaviour in a model order reduction framework is investigated in this paper. In such a framework, greedy algorithms or adaptive strategies are interesting as they adjust the reduced order basis (ROB) to the problem of interest. However, these greedy strategies may lead to an excessive increase in the size of the ROB, i.e., the solution is no more represented in its optimal low-dimensional expansion. Here, an optimised strategy is proposed to maintain, at each step of the greedy algorithm, the lowest dimension of a Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD) basis using a randomised Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) algorithm. Comparing to conventional approaches such as Gram–Schmidt orthonormalisation or deterministic SVD, it is shown to be very efficient both in terms of numerical cost and optimality of the ROB. Examples with different mesh densities are investigated to demonstrate the numerical efficiency of the presented method. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Mathematical Model for Intimate Partner Violence
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010029
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
Viewed by 283 | PDF Full-text (317 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the context of mathematical models applied to social sciences, we present and analyze a model based on differential equations for the intimate partner violence (IPV). Such a model describes the dynamics of a heterosexual romantic couple in which the man perpetrates violence [...] Read more.
In the context of mathematical models applied to social sciences, we present and analyze a model based on differential equations for the intimate partner violence (IPV). Such a model describes the dynamics of a heterosexual romantic couple in which the man perpetrates violence against the woman. We focus on incorporating different key factors reported in the literature as causal or motivational factors to perpetrate IPV. Among the main factors included are the failures in self-regulation, the man’s need to control the woman, the social pressure on the woman to remain married, and empowerment programs. Another aspect that we include is periodic alcohol consumption for the man. The discussion of the model includes a stability analysis of its equilibrium points and the asymptotic behavior of its solutions. Also, the interpretation of results is presented in terms of IPV phenomenon. Finally, a brief review is given on different scales to quantify human behavioral traits and numerical simulations for some IPV scenarios. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Spectral Element Method Modeling of Eddy Current Losses in High-Frequency Transformers
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010028
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
Viewed by 307 | PDF Full-text (2701 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper concerns the modeling of eddy current losses in conductive materials in the vicinity of a high-frequency transformer; more specifically, in two-dimensional problems where a high ratio between the object dimensions and the skin-depth exists. The analysis is performed using the Spectral [...] Read more.
This paper concerns the modeling of eddy current losses in conductive materials in the vicinity of a high-frequency transformer; more specifically, in two-dimensional problems where a high ratio between the object dimensions and the skin-depth exists. The analysis is performed using the Spectral Element Method (SEM), where high order Legendre–Gauss–Lobatto polynomials are applied to increase the accuracy of the results with respect to the Finite Element Method (FEM). A convergence analysis is performed on a two-dimensional benchmark system, for both the SEM and FEM. The benchmark system consists of a high-frequency transformer confined by a conductive cylinder and is free of complex geometrical shapes. Two different objectives are investigated. First, the discretizations at which the relative error with respect to a reference solution is minimized are compared. Second, the discretizations at which the trade-off between computational effort and accuracy is optimized are compared. The results indicated that by applying the SEM to the two-dimensional benchmark system, a higher accuracy per degree of freedom and significantly lower computation time are obtained with respect to the FEM. Therefore, the SEM is proven to be particularly useful for this type of problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Trustworthiness in Modeling Unreinforced and Reinforced T-Joints with Finite Elements
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010027
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 16 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
Viewed by 207 | PDF Full-text (14032 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As required by regulations, Finite Element Analyses (FEA) can be used to investigate the behavior of joints which might be complex to design due to the presence of geometrical and material discontinuities. The static behavior of such problems is mesh dependent, thus these [...] Read more.
As required by regulations, Finite Element Analyses (FEA) can be used to investigate the behavior of joints which might be complex to design due to the presence of geometrical and material discontinuities. The static behavior of such problems is mesh dependent, thus these results must be calibrated by using laboratory tests or reference data. Once the Finite Element (FE) model is correctly setup, the same settings can be used to study joints for which no reference is available. The present work analyzes the static strength of reinforced T-joints and sheds light on the following aspects: shell elements are a valid alternative to solid modeling; the best combination of element type and mesh density for several configurations is shown; the ultimate static strength of joints can be predicted, as well as when mechanical properties are roughly introduced for some FE topologies. The increase in strength of 12 unreinforced and reinforced (with collar or doubler plate) T-joints subjected to axial brace loading is studied. The present studies are compared with the literature and practical remarks are given in the conclusion section. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Thermoelastic Diffusion Multicomponent Half-Space under the Effect of Surface and Bulk Unsteady Perturbations
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010026
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
Viewed by 252 | PDF Full-text (2503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents an algorithm for solving the unsteady problem of one-dimensional coupled thermoelastic diffusion perturbations propagation in a multicomponent isotropic half-space, as a result of surface and bulk external effects. One-dimensional physico-mechanical processes, in a continuum, have been described by a local-equilibrium [...] Read more.
This article presents an algorithm for solving the unsteady problem of one-dimensional coupled thermoelastic diffusion perturbations propagation in a multicomponent isotropic half-space, as a result of surface and bulk external effects. One-dimensional physico-mechanical processes, in a continuum, have been described by a local-equilibrium model, which included the coupled linear equations of an elastic medium motion, heat transfer, and mass transfer. The unknown functions of displacement, temperature, and concentration increments were sought in the integral form, which was a convolution of the surface and bulk Green’s functions and external effects functions. The Laplace transform on time and the Fourier sine and cosine transforms on the coordinate were used to find the Green’s functions. The obtained Green’s functions was analyzed. Test calculations were performed on the examples of some technological processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle On the Mixed Dirichlet–Steklov-Type and Steklov-Type Biharmonic Problems in Weighted Spaces
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010025
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 16 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
Viewed by 226 | PDF Full-text (264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We studied the properties of generalized solutions in unbounded domains and the asymptotic behavior of solutions of elliptic boundary value problems at infinity. Moreover, we studied the unique solvability of the mixed Dirichlet–Steklov-type and Steklov-type biharmonic problems in the exterior of a compact [...] Read more.
We studied the properties of generalized solutions in unbounded domains and the asymptotic behavior of solutions of elliptic boundary value problems at infinity. Moreover, we studied the unique solvability of the mixed Dirichlet–Steklov-type and Steklov-type biharmonic problems in the exterior of a compact set under the assumption that generalized solutions of these problems has a bounded Dirichlet integral with weight | x | a. Depending on the value of the parameter a, we obtained uniqueness (non-uniqueness) theorems of these problems or present exact formulas for the dimension of the space of solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences)
Open AccessArticle Exact Two-Dimensional Analytical Calculations for Magnetic Field, Electromagnetic Torque, UMF, Back-EMF, and Inductance of Outer Rotor Surface Inset Permanent Magnet Machines
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010024
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 17 February 2019
Viewed by 283 | PDF Full-text (5252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a two-dimensional analytical model of outer rotor permanent magnet machines equipped with surface inset permanent magnets. To obtain the analytical model, the whole model is divided into the sub-domains, according to the magnetic properties and geometries. Maxwell equations in each [...] Read more.
This paper presents a two-dimensional analytical model of outer rotor permanent magnet machines equipped with surface inset permanent magnets. To obtain the analytical model, the whole model is divided into the sub-domains, according to the magnetic properties and geometries. Maxwell equations in each sub-domain are expressed and analytically solved. By using the boundary/interface conditions between adjacent sub-regions, integral coefficients in the general solutions are obtained. At the end, the analytically calculated results of the air-gap magnetic flux density, electromagnetic torque, unbalanced magnetic force (UMF), back-electromotive force (EMF) and inductances are verified by comparing them with those obtained from finite element method (FEM). One of the merits of this method in comparison with the numerical model is the capability of rapid calculation with the highest precision, which made it suitable for optimization problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Models for the Design of Electrical Machines)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Elastodiffusive Orthotropic Euler–Bernoulli Beam Considering Diffusion Flux Relaxation
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010023
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
Viewed by 265 | PDF Full-text (1370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article considers an unsteady elastic diffusion model of Euler–Bernoulli beam oscillations in the presence of diffusion flux relaxation. We used the model of coupled elastic diffusion for a homogeneous orthotropic multicomponent continuum to formulate the problem. A model of unsteady bending for [...] Read more.
This article considers an unsteady elastic diffusion model of Euler–Bernoulli beam oscillations in the presence of diffusion flux relaxation. We used the model of coupled elastic diffusion for a homogeneous orthotropic multicomponent continuum to formulate the problem. A model of unsteady bending for the elastic diffusive Euler–Bernoulli beam was obtained using Hamilton’s variational principle. The Laplace transform on time and the Fourier series expansion by the spatial coordinate were used to solve the obtained problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Mathematical Analysis of a Prey–Predator System: An Adaptive Back-Stepping Control and Stochastic Approach
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010022
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
Viewed by 293 | PDF Full-text (4229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, stochastic analysis of a diseased prey–predator system involving adaptive back-stepping control is studied. The system was investigated for its dynamical behaviours, such as boundedness and local stability analysis. The global stability of the system was derived using the Lyapunov function. [...] Read more.
In this paper, stochastic analysis of a diseased prey–predator system involving adaptive back-stepping control is studied. The system was investigated for its dynamical behaviours, such as boundedness and local stability analysis. The global stability of the system was derived using the Lyapunov function. The uniform persistence condition for the system is obtained. The proposed system was studied with adaptive back-stepping control, and it is proved that the system stabilizes to its steady state in nonlinear feedback control. The value of the system is described mostly by the environmental stochasticity in the form of Gaussian white noise. We also established some conditions for oscillations of all positive solutions of the delayed system. Numerical simulations are illustrated, and sustained our analytical findings. We concluded that controlled harvesting on the susceptible and infected prey is able to control prey infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Sciences)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Minimizing an Insurer’s Ultimate Ruin Probability by Reinsurance and Investments
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010021
Received: 9 January 2019 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
Viewed by 317 | PDF Full-text (553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we work with a diffusion-perturbed risk model comprising a surplus generating process and an investment return process. The investment return process is of standard a Black–Scholes type, that is, it comprises a single risk-free asset that earns interest at a [...] Read more.
In this paper, we work with a diffusion-perturbed risk model comprising a surplus generating process and an investment return process. The investment return process is of standard a Black–Scholes type, that is, it comprises a single risk-free asset that earns interest at a constant rate and a single risky asset whose price process is modelled by a geometric Brownian motion. Additionally, the company is allowed to purchase noncheap proportional reinsurance priced via the expected value principle. Using the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) approach, we derive a second-order Volterra integrodifferential equation which we transform into a linear Volterra integral equation of the second kind. We proceed to solve this integral equation numerically using the block-by-block method for the optimal reinsurance retention level that minimizes the ultimate ruin probability. The numerical results based on light- and heavy-tailed individual claim amount distributions show that proportional reinsurance and investments play a vital role in enhancing the survival of insurance companies. But the ruin probability exhibits sensitivity to the volatility of the stock price. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Reduced-Order Modelling and Homogenisation in Magneto-Mechanics: A Numerical Comparison of Established Hyper-Reduction Methods
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010020
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
Viewed by 306 | PDF Full-text (2862 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The simulation of complex engineering structures built from magneto-rheological elastomers is a computationally challenging task. Using the FE2 method, which is based on computational homogenisation, leads to the repetitive solution of micro-scale FE problems, causing excessive computational effort. In this paper, the [...] Read more.
The simulation of complex engineering structures built from magneto-rheological elastomers is a computationally challenging task. Using the FE 2 method, which is based on computational homogenisation, leads to the repetitive solution of micro-scale FE problems, causing excessive computational effort. In this paper, the micro-scale FE problems are replaced by POD reduced models of comparable accuracy. As these models do not deliver the required reductions in computational effort, they are combined with hyper-reduction methods like the Discrete Empirical Interpolation Method (DEIM), Gappy POD, Gauss–Newton Approximated Tensors (GNAT), Empirical Cubature (EC) and Reduced Integration Domain (RID). The goal of this work is the comparison of the aforementioned hyper-reduction techniques focusing on accuracy and robustness. For the application in the FE 2 framework, EC and RID are favourable due to their robustness, whereas Gappy POD rendered both the most accurate and efficient reduced models. The well-known DEIM is discarded for this application as it suffers from serious robustness deficiencies. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle High-Order Methods Applied to Nonlinear Magnetostatic Problems
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010019
Received: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 26 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
Viewed by 351 | PDF Full-text (875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a comparison between two high-order modeling methods for solving magnetostatic problems under magnetic saturation, focused on the extraction of machine parameters. Two formulations are compared, the first is based on the Newton-Raphson approach, and the second successively iterates the local [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comparison between two high-order modeling methods for solving magnetostatic problems under magnetic saturation, focused on the extraction of machine parameters. Two formulations are compared, the first is based on the Newton-Raphson approach, and the second successively iterates the local remanent magnetization and the incremental reluctivity of the nonlinear soft-magnetic material. The latter approach is more robust than the Newton-Raphson method, and uncovers useful properties for the fast and accurate calculation of incremental inductance. A novel estimate for the incremental inductance relying on a single additional computation is proposed to avoid multiple nonlinear simulations which are traditionally operated with finite difference linearization or spline interpolation techniques. Fast convergence and high accuracy of the presented methods are demonstrated for the force calculation, which demonstrates their applicability for the design and analysis of electromagnetic devices. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Data Pruning of Tomographic Data for the Calibration of Strain Localization Models
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010018
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
Viewed by 309 | PDF Full-text (6972 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The development and generalization of Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) on X-ray computed tomography data highlight the issue of long-term storage. The present paper proposes a new model-free method for pruning experimental data related to DVC, while preserving the ability to identify constitutive equations [...] Read more.
The development and generalization of Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) on X-ray computed tomography data highlight the issue of long-term storage. The present paper proposes a new model-free method for pruning experimental data related to DVC, while preserving the ability to identify constitutive equations (i.e., closure equations in solid mechanics) reflecting strain localizations. The size of the remaining sampled data can be user-defined, depending on the needs concerning storage space. The proposed data pruning procedure is deeply linked to hyper-reduction techniques. The DVC data of a resin-bonded sand tested in uniaxial compression is used as an illustrating example. The relevance of the pruned data was tested afterwards for model calibration. A Finite Element Model Updating (FEMU) technique coupled with an hybrid hyper-reduction method aws used to successfully calibrate a constitutive model of the resin bonded sand with the pruned data only. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Multiple Tensor Train Approximation of Parametric Constitutive Equations in Elasto-Viscoplasticity
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010017
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
Viewed by 268 | PDF Full-text (1073 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents a novel approach to construct surrogate models of parametric differential algebraic equations based on a tensor representation of the solutions. The procedure consists of building simultaneously an approximation given in tensor-train format, for every output of the reference model. A [...] Read more.
This work presents a novel approach to construct surrogate models of parametric differential algebraic equations based on a tensor representation of the solutions. The procedure consists of building simultaneously an approximation given in tensor-train format, for every output of the reference model. A parsimonious exploration of the parameter space coupled with a compact data representation allows alleviating the curse of dimensionality. The approach is thus appropriate when many parameters with large domains of variation are involved. The numerical results obtained for a nonlinear elasto-viscoplastic constitutive law show that the constructed surrogate model is sufficiently accurate to enable parametric studies such as the calibration of material coefficients. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle On a Problem Arising in Application of the Re-Quantization Method to Construct Asymptotics of Solutions to Linear Differential Equations with Holomorphic Coefficients at Infinity
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010016
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 26 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
Viewed by 350 | PDF Full-text (298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The re-quantization method—one of the resurgent analysis methods of current importance—is developed in this study. It is widely used in the analytical theory of linear differential equations. With the help of the re-quantization method, the problem of constructing the asymptotics of the inverse [...] Read more.
The re-quantization method—one of the resurgent analysis methods of current importance—is developed in this study. It is widely used in the analytical theory of linear differential equations. With the help of the re-quantization method, the problem of constructing the asymptotics of the inverse Laplace–Borel transform is solved for a particular type of functions with holomorphic coefficients that exponentially grow at zero. Two examples of constructing the uniform asymptotics at infinity for the second- and forth-order differential equations with the help of the re-quantization method and the result obtained in this study are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Air Quality Monitoring Unit Using Cloudino and FIWARE Technologies
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010015
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
Viewed by 401 | PDF Full-text (5179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Smart City applications aim to improve the quality of life of citizens. Applying technologies of the Internet of Things (IoT) to urban environments is considered as a key of the development of smart cities. In this context, air pollution is one of the [...] Read more.
Smart City applications aim to improve the quality of life of citizens. Applying technologies of the Internet of Things (IoT) to urban environments is considered as a key of the development of smart cities. In this context, air pollution is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of life and the health of the increasing urban population of industrial societies. For this reason, it is essential to develop applications that allow citizens monitoring the concentration of pollutants and avoid places with high levels of pollution. Due to the increasing use of IoT in different areas, there are arising platforms which deal with the challenges IoT implies, such as FIWARE, which provides technologies to facilitate the development of IoT applications. In this paper, an Air Quality Monitoring Unit using Cloudino and Arduino devices and FIWARE technologies is presented. Through Cloudino and Arduino, the monitoring unit gather data from various sensors and transforms the data in a FIWARE data model. Then, the measurements are sent to the Orion Context Broker (OCB), which is a software component provided by FIWARE. The Orion Context Broker allows to manage and publish the data to be consumed by users and applications. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Hidden Markov Model for the Linguistic Analysis of the Voynich Manuscript
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010014
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
Viewed by 354 | PDF Full-text (653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hidden Markov models are a very useful tool in the modeling of time series and any sequence of data. In particular, they have been successfully applied to the field of mathematical linguistics. In this paper, we apply a hidden Markov model to analyze [...] Read more.
Hidden Markov models are a very useful tool in the modeling of time series and any sequence of data. In particular, they have been successfully applied to the field of mathematical linguistics. In this paper, we apply a hidden Markov model to analyze the underlying structure of an ancient and complex manuscript, known as the Voynich manuscript, which remains undeciphered. By assuming a certain number of internal states representations for the symbols of the manuscripts, we train the network by means of the α and β -pass algorithms to optimize the model. By this procedure, we are able to obtain the so-called transition and observation matrices to compare with known languages concerning the frequency of consonant andvowel sounds. From this analysis, we conclude that transitions occur between the two states with similar frequencies to other languages. Moreover, the identification of the vowel and consonant sounds matches some previous tentative bottom-up approaches to decode the manuscript. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Evolution of an Exponential Polynomial Family of Discrete Dynamical Systems
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010013
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
Viewed by 252 | PDF Full-text (5967 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we introduce and analyze a family of exponential polynomial discrete dynamical systems that can be considered as functional perturbations of a linear dynamical system. The stability analysis of equilibria of this family is performed by considering three different parametric scenarios, [...] Read more.
In this paper, we introduce and analyze a family of exponential polynomial discrete dynamical systems that can be considered as functional perturbations of a linear dynamical system. The stability analysis of equilibria of this family is performed by considering three different parametric scenarios, from which we show the intricate and complex dynamical behavior of their orbits. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Modeling the Macrophage-Mediated Inflammation Involved in the Bone Fracture Healing Process
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010012
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
Viewed by 354 | PDF Full-text (1309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new mathematical model is presented to study the effects of macrophages on the bone fracture healing process. The model consists of a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that represents the interactions among classically and alternatively activated macrophages, mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, [...] Read more.
A new mathematical model is presented to study the effects of macrophages on the bone fracture healing process. The model consists of a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that represents the interactions among classically and alternatively activated macrophages, mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. A qualitative analysis of the model is performed to determine the equilibria and their corresponding stability properties. Numerical simulations are also presented to support the theoretical results, and to monitor the evolution of a broken bone for different types of fractures under various medical interventions. The model can be used to guide clinical experiments and to explore possible medical treatments that accelerate the bone fracture healing process, either by surgical interventions or drug administrations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of MCA in 2018
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010011
Published: 16 January 2019
Viewed by 266 | PDF Full-text (155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Chaos and Relativistic Energy-Momentum of the Nonlinear Time Fractional Duffing Equation
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010010
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
Viewed by 284 | PDF Full-text (8248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper studies the nonlinear fractional undamped Duffing equation. The Duffing equation is one of the fundamental equations in engineering. The geographical areas of this model represent chaos, relativistic energy-momentum, electrodynamics, and electromagnetic interactions. These properties have many benefits in different science fields. [...] Read more.
This paper studies the nonlinear fractional undamped Duffing equation. The Duffing equation is one of the fundamental equations in engineering. The geographical areas of this model represent chaos, relativistic energy-momentum, electrodynamics, and electromagnetic interactions. These properties have many benefits in different science fields. The equation depicts the energy of a point mass, which is well thought out as a periodically-forced oscillator. We employed twelve different techniques to the nonlinear fractional Duffing equation to find explicit solutions and approximate solutions. The stability of the solutions was also examined to show the ability of our obtained solutions in the application. The main goals here were to apply a novel computational method (modified auxiliary equation method) and compare the novel method with other methods via the solutions that were obtained by each of these methods. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Block Preconditioning Matrices for the Newton Method to Compute the Dominant λ-Modes Associated with the Neutron Diffusion Equation
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010009
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
Viewed by 284 | PDF Full-text (7629 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In nuclear engineering, the λ-modes associated with the neutron diffusion equation are applied to study the criticality of reactors and to develop modal methods for the transient analysis. The differential eigenvalue problem that needs to be solved is discretized using a finite [...] Read more.
In nuclear engineering, the λ -modes associated with the neutron diffusion equation are applied to study the criticality of reactors and to develop modal methods for the transient analysis. The differential eigenvalue problem that needs to be solved is discretized using a finite element method, obtaining a generalized algebraic eigenvalue problem whose associated matrices are large and sparse. Then, efficient methods are needed to solve this problem. In this work, we used a block generalized Newton method implemented with a matrix-free technique that does not store all matrices explicitly. This technique reduces mainly the computational memory and, in some cases, when the assembly of the matrices is an expensive task, the computational time. The main problem is that the block Newton method requires solving linear systems, which need to be preconditioned. The construction of preconditioners such as ILU or ICC based on a fully-assembled matrix is not efficient in terms of the memory with the matrix-free implementation. As an alternative, several block preconditioners are studied that only save a few block matrices in comparison with the full problem. To test the performance of these methodologies, different reactor problems are studied. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Efficient Semi-Analytical Solution of a One-Dimensional Curvature Equation that Describes the Human Corneal Shape
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010008
Received: 8 December 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
Viewed by 305 | PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a numerical approach is proposed to find a semi analytical solution for a prescribed anisotropic mean curvature equation modeling the human corneal shape. The method is based on an integral operator that is constructed in terms of Green’s function coupled [...] Read more.
In this paper, a numerical approach is proposed to find a semi analytical solution for a prescribed anisotropic mean curvature equation modeling the human corneal shape. The method is based on an integral operator that is constructed in terms of Green’s function coupled with the implementation of Picard’s or Mann’s fixed point iteration schemes. Using the contraction principle, it will be shown that the method is convergent for both fixed point iteration schemes. Numerical examples will be presented to demonstrate the applicability, efficiency, and high accuracy of the proposed method. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Accurate Approximate Solution of Ambartsumian Delay Differential Equation via Decomposition Method
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010007
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 9 January 2019
Viewed by 294 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Ambartsumian delay equation is used in the theory of surface brightness in the Milky way. The Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is applied in this paper to solve this equation. Two canonical forms are implemented to obtain two types of the approximate solutions. [...] Read more.
The Ambartsumian delay equation is used in the theory of surface brightness in the Milky way. The Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is applied in this paper to solve this equation. Two canonical forms are implemented to obtain two types of the approximate solutions. The first solution is provided in the form of a power series which agrees with the solution in the literature, while the second expresses the solution in terms of exponential functions which is viewed as a new solution. A rapid rate of convergence has been achieved and displayed in several graphs. Furthermore, only a few terms of the new approximate solution (expressed in terms of exponential functions) are sufficient to achieve extremely accurate numerical results when compared with a large number of terms of the first solution in the literature. In addition, the residual error using a few terms approaches zero as the delay parameter increases, hence, this confirms the effectiveness of the present approach over the solution in the literature. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Mathematical Modeling and Characterization of the Spread of Chikungunya in Colombia
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010006
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
Viewed by 534 | PDF Full-text (1206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Chikungunya virus is the cause of an emerging disease in Asia and Africa, and also in America, where the virus was first detected in 2006. In this paper, we present a mathematical model of the Chikungunya epidemic at the population level that [...] Read more.
The Chikungunya virus is the cause of an emerging disease in Asia and Africa, and also in America, where the virus was first detected in 2006. In this paper, we present a mathematical model of the Chikungunya epidemic at the population level that incorporates the transmission vector. The epidemic threshold parameter R 0 for the extinction of disease is computed using the method of the next generation matrix, which allows for insights about what are the most relevant model parameters. Using Lyapunov function theory, some sufficient conditions for global stability of the the disease-free equilibrium are obtained. The proposed mathematical model of the Chikungunya epidemic is used to investigate and understand the importance of some specific model parameters and to give some explanation and understanding about the real infected cases with Chikungunya virus in Colombia for data belonging to the year 2015. In this study, we were able to estimate the value of the basic reproduction number R 0 . We use bootstrapping and Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques in order to study parameters’ identifiability. Finally, important policies and insights are provided that could help government health institutions in reducing the number of cases of Chikungunya in Colombia. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Approach for Integrating Uncertainty When Selecting an Anti-Torpedo Decoy in Brand New Warships
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010005
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
Viewed by 428 | PDF Full-text (2954 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Spanish Navy has planned that the F-80 frigates will be replaced by the brand new F-110 frigates in 2022. The F-110 program is in the conceptual design phase and one of the objectives is to provide the new F-110 frigate with a [...] Read more.
The Spanish Navy has planned that the F-80 frigates will be replaced by the brand new F-110 frigates in 2022. The F-110 program is in the conceptual design phase and one of the objectives is to provide the new F-110 frigate with a salient anti-submarine capability. Therefore, it is necessary to choose what anti-torpedo decoy should be installed in the warship. The Joint Chiefs of Navy Staff (EMA) established some guidelines and, considering the Navy guidance’s, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was applied. After applying the AHP method, none of the decoys obtained a better score to the other one to make a decision. This paper addresses the problem of the selection of the best anti-torpedo decoy to be installed in the new frigates. This allowed implementing a new approach, the Graphic Method of Measurement of Uncertainty Beyond Objectivity (GMUBO). This approach considers different scenarios from the AHP, quantifies the uncertainty, and evaluates which is the best alternative. The method integrates the uncertainty in the AHP and allows measuring the robustness of the selected alternative, also providing a useful graphical tool. Furthermore, GMUBO has a great ease of use and it is helpful to make decisions under uncertainty conditions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Construction of Regular Developable Bézier Patches
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca24010004
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 2 January 2019
Viewed by 315 | PDF Full-text (2615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The modeling of developable surfaces is considered a very important application in plat-metal-based industries. Relating to the purpose, this discussion aims to obtain some formulas for constructing the regular developable Bézier patches, in which each boundary curve must be laid in two parallel [...] Read more.
The modeling of developable surfaces is considered a very important application in plat-metal-based industries. Relating to the purpose, this discussion aims to obtain some formulas for constructing the regular developable Bézier patches, in which each boundary curve must be laid in two parallel planes. The results as follows: We find some formulas of the equation systems that are described by the constant, linear, and quadratic control parameters of the regular developable Bézier patches criteria. The new approach is numerically tested for constructing the regular developable Bézier patches, in which their boundary curves are defined, respectively, by the combination of four, five, and six degrees. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Math. Comput. Appl. EISSN 2297-8747 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top