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Modeling the Macrophage-Mediated Inflammation Involved in the Bone Fracture Healing Process

Department of Mathematics, The University of Texas at Arlington, P.O. Box 19408, Arlington, TX 76019-0408, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24(1), 12;
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Modelling in Engineering & Human Behaviour 2018)
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A new mathematical model is presented to study the effects of macrophages on the bone fracture healing process. The model consists of a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that represents the interactions among classically and alternatively activated macrophages, mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. A qualitative analysis of the model is performed to determine the equilibria and their corresponding stability properties. Numerical simulations are also presented to support the theoretical results, and to monitor the evolution of a broken bone for different types of fractures under various medical interventions. The model can be used to guide clinical experiments and to explore possible medical treatments that accelerate the bone fracture healing process, either by surgical interventions or drug administrations. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone repair; macrophages; immune system; cytokines; stem cells bone repair; macrophages; immune system; cytokines; stem cells

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Trejo, I.; Kojouharov, H.; Chen-Charpentier, B. Modeling the Macrophage-Mediated Inflammation Involved in the Bone Fracture Healing Process. Math. Comput. Appl. 2019, 24, 12.

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