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Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ., Volume 10, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Short introduction: Consumers’ increased use of ready-to-eat food has led to high consumption of foods prepared without further cooking. These products must be handled and stored properly. Health education, including food safety, is a priority of government and consumer organizations. Information must be meaningful, useful, and designed to engage and motivate consumers and be science-based and consumer-focused. Providing consumers with aids that enhance behavioral control, reduce barriers, and describe risk may be more effective than just providing knowledge. This study describes a process of developing schematics for health campaigns and social health marketing. We propose a simplified schematic (cover image) that uses a primary message title, a graphic, and an action slogan. It is quick and easy to understand and takes little space on magnets, handouts, or websites to promote [...] Read more.
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Article
Revisiting the Women Workplace Culture Scale: Validation and Psychometric Properties of a Three-Factor Structure in an Iranian Study Sample
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 915-934; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030065 - 21 Sep 2020
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Abstract
This paper describes the validation process of the Persian version of the Women Workplace Culture Scale and provides information about the perception of this culture in an Iranian working environment. A 30-item Persian version of the Women Workplace Culture (WWC) Questionnaire was administered [...] Read more.
This paper describes the validation process of the Persian version of the Women Workplace Culture Scale and provides information about the perception of this culture in an Iranian working environment. A 30-item Persian version of the Women Workplace Culture (WWC) Questionnaire was administered to women working in public departments of the city of Bojnord, Iran (N = 200). As a result of a theory- and data-driven bottom-up empirical approach, a reduced 10-item three-dimensional scale was achieved entailing (I) perceived societal barriers for career development, (II) perceived organizational barriers, and (III) sexual harassment. This parsimonious solution showed satisfactory values of reliability, factorial validity and convergent-discriminant validity analysis based on correlations with the unidimensional 10-item Perceived Stress Scale and the 12-item Career Success Questionnaire. The scale can be used to measure women workplace culture in Iran and other Persian-speaking, Islamic-Arabic countries. It can also constitute a starting point for organizational diagnosis in projects aimed to enhance working women’s occupational health and societal participation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Occupational Health: The State of the Art)
Article
Intrapersonal Emotional Intelligence during Adolescence: Sex Differences, Connection with other Variables, and Predictors
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 899-914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030064 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
This study explores Intrapersonal Emotional Intelligence (IEI) with the objectives of: (1) analyzing possible differences due to sex and age, and the request for psychological assistance for behavioral and emotional problems; (2) finding evidence of personality traits, social behaviors, and parental socialization styles [...] Read more.
This study explores Intrapersonal Emotional Intelligence (IEI) with the objectives of: (1) analyzing possible differences due to sex and age, and the request for psychological assistance for behavioral and emotional problems; (2) finding evidence of personality traits, social behaviors, and parental socialization styles that are characteristic of adolescents with low IEI; and (3) identifying variables that predict high IEI. The sample comprised 2283 participants aged 12–17 years from the Basque Country (northern Spain). Results: (1) Females had greater emotional attention capacity but there were no sex differences in emotional comprehension and emotion regulation; (2) adolescents aged 12–14 showed higher scores in comprehension and emotion regulation than those aged 15–17; (3) adolescents who consulted a psychologist for problems (anxiety, depression, violence, etc.) had lower emotion regulation; (4) adolescents with low IEI had less empathy, self-esteem, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and responsibility, and lower use of cooperative and passive conflict-resolution strategies, and their parents had a low level of acceptance-affection towards their children. They also engaged in more bullying/cyberbullying and antisocial behaviors. (5) High IEI predictor variables were: using cooperative conflict-resolution strategies; traits such as extroversion, responsibility, openness, and empathy; and a high level of maternal acceptance-affection. The work identifies relevant variables for designing intervention programs and shows the importance of promoting IEI and interpersonal emotional intelligence as a factor in the development and prevention of bullying/cyberbullying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research in Cyberbullying and Cybervictimization)
Review
Effectiveness of Cognitive Interventions in Older Adults: A Review
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 876-898; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030063 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1106
Abstract
(1) Introduction: With older adults, cognitive intervention programs are most often used for preventing or reversing a decline in cognitive functions, but it has been recently noted that there are insufficient high-quality research studies that report the effects of cognitive intervention on the [...] Read more.
(1) Introduction: With older adults, cognitive intervention programs are most often used for preventing or reversing a decline in cognitive functions, but it has been recently noted that there are insufficient high-quality research studies that report the effects of cognitive intervention on the cognitive functioning of older adults. (2) Objective: To analyze the available evidence concerning the effect of cognitive interventions for improving or maintaining the general cognitive status of older adults who present different cognitive levels. (3) Method: a review of studies published between 2010 and 2019 using the following databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Google Scholar, ProQuest and Medline. (4) Results: We selected 13 systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses. The results showed that the cognitive intervention programs improved general cognitive functioning and specific cognitive functions regardless of the initial cognitive level; that cognitive decline was slowed in older persons with dementia; and there was improvement in activities of daily living. Regarding duration of the results, benefits were maintained for periods of 2 months to 5 years. (5) Conclusion: Cognitive interventions have proven effective for maintaining and/or improving cognitive functioning in older adults regardless of their initial cognitive status. Even so, there are few studies that follow up these results to see whether they are maintained in the long term and whether there is transfer to other skills of daily life. However, we were able to observe in the present review how the participants’ cognitive level varied according to sociodemographic differences, and to identify which components of cognitive programs make them more effective. Based on the results found, we highlight the importance of designing cognitive intervention programs that meet these effectiveness criteria, in order to maximize the positive effects of such programs when working with a population of older adults. Full article
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Article
Developing a Messaging Graphic for Storage Times of Refrigerated Ready to Eat (RTE) Foods for a Consumer Food Safety Health Campaign
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 859-875; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030062 - 01 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1188
Abstract
This study developed and evaluated risk communication messages for ready to eat (RTE) foods targeted towards consumer storage practices in a food safety health campaign. Concepts were determined from a fractional factorial design of five categories of attributes potentially present in health promotion: [...] Read more.
This study developed and evaluated risk communication messages for ready to eat (RTE) foods targeted towards consumer storage practices in a food safety health campaign. Concepts were determined from a fractional factorial design of five categories of attributes potentially present in health promotion: title, message, graphic, slogan, and icon. Consumers viewed a subset of concepts and scored how useful the concept was in remembering to throw away RTE foods that were stored too long. Regression analysis determined which combinations of message attributes were most likely to result in using the information to throw out foods, which could help prevent foodborne illness. Findings showed that for this type of information, a graphic is a critical element for the printed schematic. The slogan (i.e., a short statement similar to a jingle or tag-line in a commercial) may be important to consumers, but the icon was not important. Full article
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Article
Integrating Social Emotional Learning Strategies in Higher Education
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 848-858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030061 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
Social and emotional learning (SEL) strategies develop skills linked to cognitive development, encourage student focus and motivation, improve relationships between students and teachers, and increase student confidence and success. More attention should be paid to students’ emotions in higher education to enhance students’ [...] Read more.
Social and emotional learning (SEL) strategies develop skills linked to cognitive development, encourage student focus and motivation, improve relationships between students and teachers, and increase student confidence and success. More attention should be paid to students’ emotions in higher education to enhance students’ engagement in the classroom and improve social awareness (i.e., respecting others, understanding other perspectives, providing help to those who need it), motivation, and academic achievement. This article focuses on the implementation of practices that promote SEL in higher education and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs. The paper aims to assess the academic and behavioral-related outcomes of applying SEL in mineralogy, an Earth science introductory course in a four-year university. The results of the present paper reveal that instructional practices supporting SEL are suited for engaging and stimulating learners’ multiple intelligences. The observed student course assessment performance suggests that integrating SEL may be a viable strategy for promoting student interest in science, building stress resilience, and creating more positive engagement with students. The instructional practices reported in this paper could support science instructors in designing teaching methods that promote self-management and social awareness to increase students’ academic outcomes. Full article
Review
Scientific Mapping of Gamification in Web of Science
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 832-847; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030060 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
Education is a constantly changing field. The new teaching processes are developed today and all teachers should be prepared. Gamification is one of the methodologies with the greatest impact on the learning process. The objective of the study is to analyze the relevance [...] Read more.
Education is a constantly changing field. The new teaching processes are developed today and all teachers should be prepared. Gamification is one of the methodologies with the greatest impact on the learning process. The objective of the study is to analyze the relevance and progression that the concepts “gamification” and “learning” have acquired in the scientific literature of Web of Science. This research has been based on a bibliometric methodology. A classic bibliometric and thematic analyses have been carried out. A 1230 document matrix analysis has been selected. For descriptive bibliometrics, the Bibliometrix library is used, while Scimat is used for the thematic analysis. Both tools are widely used in this type of study. Results indicate that growth on the study of these topics is booming. There are also authors who accumulate most of the documents, such as Martí Parreño. English is positioned as the predominant language. The topics studied have evolved from how classic games affect learning to the study of video games and their impact on performance. It is concluded that these types of studies are still relevant and with a great future prospect. Furthermore, research focuses especially on video games, on the effects of technology on learning and on the study of flipped learning experiences. Full article
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Article
Characteristics of Academic Adaptation and Subjective Well-Being in University Students with Chronic Diseases
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 816-831; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030059 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Studying academic adaptation and subjective well-being in students with chronic diseases can help to explain psychological compensatory mechanisms and help with the development of socio-psychological support programs. It is supposed that the defining role is played by general adaptive potential, and the presence [...] Read more.
Studying academic adaptation and subjective well-being in students with chronic diseases can help to explain psychological compensatory mechanisms and help with the development of socio-psychological support programs. It is supposed that the defining role is played by general adaptive potential, and the presence of chronic diseases results in variations in academic adaptation, which, alongside other variables, acts as a predictor of subjective well-being and satisfaction of basic needs. The sample consisted of first-year university students aged 17–26 years (mean = 19.6, SD = 2.8, 18.4% male; n = 419 persons, of which 34.8% with chronic diseases of various etiologies). To evaluate the components of students’ academic adaptation, we used the Academic Adaptation Scale; general adaptive potential was measured using the Multilevel Personal Adaptability Questionnaire; to evaluate subjective well-being, we used the Subjective Well-Being Scale; and satisfaction using the Life Scale. Satisfaction of basic needs was defined with the Basic Needs Satisfaction in General Scale. Students with chronic diseases demonstrated lower manifested adaptive potential, general markers of academic adaptation, subjective well-being, and satisfaction of basic psychological needs. The results showed that interrelations between various markers in students are largely mediated by academic adaptation and adaptive potential. Thus, the interconnection between adaptive potential and satisfaction of basic needs is significantly mediated by students’ academic adaptation, whereas the interconnection between chronic diseases and academic adaptation is mediated by adaptive potential. In other words, the findings support the assumption regarding the significant mediating role of these variables in subjective well-being. Cognitive, motivational, and communicative components of academic adaptation can serve as compensatory factors for experiencing subjective well-being in students with chronic diseases. Full article
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Article
Awareness, Policy, Privacy, and More: Post-Secondary Students Voice Their Solutions to Cyberbullying
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 795-815; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030058 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1559
Abstract
This paper discusses solutions to cyberbullying posed by post-secondary students from four Canadian universities. The qualitative data used in this analysis were drawn from one open-ended question on an online student survey completed by 1458 undergraduate students, as well as 10 focus group [...] Read more.
This paper discusses solutions to cyberbullying posed by post-secondary students from four Canadian universities. The qualitative data used in this analysis were drawn from one open-ended question on an online student survey completed by 1458 undergraduate students, as well as 10 focus group transcripts involving a total of 36 students. Seven key themes emerged: awareness and education; policy; protecting one’s privacy; technology-based solutions; empowering better choices and responses; university culture; and disciplinary measures. The findings show that post-secondary institutions need to make preventing and curtailing cyberbullying more of a priority within their campus communities, including engaging in responsive consultation with key stakeholder groups, such as students, to develop meaningful solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research in Cyberbullying and Cybervictimization)
Article
A Mobile-Based Tailored Recommendation System for Parents of Children with Overweight or Obesity: A New Tool for Health Care Centers
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 779-794; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030057 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1452
Abstract
Childhood obesity is associated with unbalanced lifestyle patterns, and new strategies are needed to support parents in the compliance with the guidelines for children’s age. Tailored automatic recommendations mimic interpersonal counseling and are promising strategies to be considered for health promotion programs. This [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity is associated with unbalanced lifestyle patterns, and new strategies are needed to support parents in the compliance with the guidelines for children’s age. Tailored automatic recommendations mimic interpersonal counseling and are promising strategies to be considered for health promotion programs. This study aimed to develop and test a mobile recommendation system for parents of preschool children identified with overweight/obesity at health care centers. Evidence-based recommendations related to children’s eating, drinking, moving, and sleeping habits were developed and tested using a questionnaire. A pilot study was conducted in a health care center to test how using an app with those tailored recommendations, in video format, influenced parents’ perceptions of the child’s weight status and their knowledge about the guidelines, compared to a control group. The chi-squared test was used for categorical variables and the Mann–Whitney U test for continuous variables (p < 0.05). A high proportion of parents were already informed about the guidelines, but their children were not meeting them. After watching the tailored recommendations, there was an increased knowledge of the guideline on water intake, but there was no improvement in the perception of the child’s excessive weight. Parents may benefit from a mobile-based tailored recommendation system to improve their knowledge about the guidelines. However, there is a need to work with parents on motivation to manage the child’s weight with additional strategies. Full article
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Article
Development and Validation of the Social Network Addiction Scale (SNAddS-6S)
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 763-778; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030056 - 26 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
The use of social networks has increased exponentially, especially among youth. These tools offer many advantages but also carry some risks such as addiction. This points to the need for a valid multifactorial instrument to measure social network addiction, focusing on the core [...] Read more.
The use of social networks has increased exponentially, especially among youth. These tools offer many advantages but also carry some risks such as addiction. This points to the need for a valid multifactorial instrument to measure social network addiction, focusing on the core components of addiction that can serve researchers and practitioners. This study set out to validate a reliable multidimensional social network addiction scale based on the six core components of addiction (SNAddS-6S) by using and adapting the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale. A total of 369 users of social networks completed a questionnaire. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed, and different competing models were explored. The external validity of the scale was tested across its relations with different measures. Evidence for the validity and reliability of both the multidimensional SNAddS-6S and the unidimensional Short SNAddS-6S was provided. The SNAddS-6S was composed of 18 items and five different factors (time-management, mood modification, relapse, withdrawal, and conflict), with the time-management factor as a higher-order factor integrated by salience and tolerance as sub-factors. The Short SNAddS-6S was composed of six items and a unifactorial structure. This scale could be of relevance for researchers and practitioners to assess the extent to which individuals suffer from social network addiction and to study the potential predictors and risks of such addiction. Full article
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Article
Comparative Dynamics of Individual Ageing among the Investigative Type of Professionals Living in Russia and Russian Migrants to the EU Countries
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 749-762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030055 - 26 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2335
Abstract
The goal of this study was to uncover the influence of professional activity, migration, and gender on dynamics of subjective age and ageing biomarkers. We examined the representatives of investigative types of professions (ITP), 30–75 years old in Russia, (101/62 women), and Russian [...] Read more.
The goal of this study was to uncover the influence of professional activity, migration, and gender on dynamics of subjective age and ageing biomarkers. We examined the representatives of investigative types of professions (ITP), 30–75 years old in Russia, (101/62 women), and Russian migrants to the European Union, (101/56 women). ITPs appeared to be ageing slower than statistical standards; men age faster than women; the pre-retirement group (51–65 years old) showed acceleration of relative biological ageing in the Russian sample (women +4.5 years, men +10.7 years) against the EU sample, suggesting a boost of pre-retirement stress in Russia; subjectively, Russian people (51–65 years old) feel close to their chronological age, while EU people perceive themselves far below their calendar age (men—lower by 20.4, women—lower by 10.9 years). The subjective ageing depends on the country of residence, while biological ageing depends on occupation, gender, and negative expectations of retirement. Full article
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Article
Knowledge in Transition in Healthcare
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 733-748; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030054 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
Organizations are challenged by the need to transform Dynamic Knowledge, embedded in each worker, into Static Knowledge, rooted in factual documental information. However, innovation and knowledge creation seem to be facilitated by the personal knowledge and life experiences of people, which appear to [...] Read more.
Organizations are challenged by the need to transform Dynamic Knowledge, embedded in each worker, into Static Knowledge, rooted in factual documental information. However, innovation and knowledge creation seem to be facilitated by the personal knowledge and life experiences of people, which appear to be dynamic. The tensions between Dynamic and Static Knowledge in facilitating the transfer and sharing of knowledge arise as compelling research as well as practical topic for organizations. Our paper aims to investigate such tensions by employing a case study. We decided to deepen such dynamics in the healthcare field, given its importance for business and society. In more detail, we analyzed one Emergency Room (ER) department through a series of interviews. Our findings highlight the importance of the right balance between Static and Dynamic Knowledge. On the one hand, the healthcare organization recognized the need to incorporate knowledge into practical and tangible instruments. On the other hand, the flows of Dynamic Knowledge must be fostered through a culture of knowledge translation and sharing, and the development of soft skills. Full article
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Article
Effectiveness of Educational Practices in University Students’ Knowledge about Sun Protection and Its Relation to Sunlight Exposure: An Exploratory Study in a Portuguese Higher Education Institution
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 720-732; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030053 - 15 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1076
Abstract
Nowadays, there is worldwide recognition that health and educational outcomes are inextricably linked. It is also recognized that health education comprises opportunities to improve health literacy, including the improvement of knowledge and the development of life skills to promote individual health. It is [...] Read more.
Nowadays, there is worldwide recognition that health and educational outcomes are inextricably linked. It is also recognized that health education comprises opportunities to improve health literacy, including the improvement of knowledge and the development of life skills to promote individual health. It is also known that the behavioral practices regarding sun exposure are an important risk factor for skin cancer. Research is needed in this area to understand the contribution of the “Education for Health” curricular unit to these issues. Our exploratory research sought to collect information about the knowledge and practices regarding sun exposure of a group of Portuguese university students who have already attended this curricular unit. The results indicate that the participants show that, notwithstanding that they have already attended this curricular unit, they do not have more literacy on skin health, do not perceive that sun exposure habits are related to skin health and do not perceive that photoprotection constitutes prevention of skin cancer. The results support the need to promote the necessary reflection and debate on the way in which health education should be taught, as well as what is taught, in order to empower students to get decision-making skills associated with the adoption of healthier attitudes and practices, thus helping to prevent skin cancer. Full article
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Article
The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Anxiety Disorders. A Systematic Meta-Review
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 704-719; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030052 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1849
Abstract
Objective: There has been a growing interest in the study of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Many clinical trials and experimental designs have been implemented, with different samples and diverse MBI procedures. Reviews have shown unclear results, apart from a tendency to [...] Read more.
Objective: There has been a growing interest in the study of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Many clinical trials and experimental designs have been implemented, with different samples and diverse MBI procedures. Reviews have shown unclear results, apart from a tendency to identify low-to-moderate effectiveness. The purpose of this review is to examine the effectiveness of MBIs on anxiety complaints, analyzing available systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Method: The literature search was done in MEDLINE (PubMed) and PsycINFO, from the first available review in 2003 until March 2020. From 82 initial references, 12 reviews were selected. Results: Reviews confirmed a moderate effect size of MBIs in improving anxiety symptoms. This efficacy was similar to that of well-established therapies for reducing anxiety symptoms, such as cognitive behavioral therapies. A large effect size was found when well-developed MBI protocols were applied. Discussion: More refined clinical trials are needed to establish clear conditions of MBI effectiveness (protocols, samples, psychological mechanisms, etc.). In addition, considering mindfulness processes, new outcome measures are needed (such as acceptance, self-awareness, or well-being) to test the incremental value of MBIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emotional Intelligence and Life Satisfaction)
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Article
Traversing the Funambulist’s Fine Line between Nursing and Male Identity: A Systematic Review of the Factors that Influence Men as They Seek to Navigate the Nursing Profession
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 691-703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030051 - 05 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4937
Abstract
Nursing has seen a dominance of women within the profession, and today, the presence of men in the role remains less understood and appreciated. Males considering or entering nursing face challenges concerning role misconception, marginalization, and gender bias. With a looming shortage of [...] Read more.
Nursing has seen a dominance of women within the profession, and today, the presence of men in the role remains less understood and appreciated. Males considering or entering nursing face challenges concerning role misconception, marginalization, and gender bias. With a looming shortage of nurses on the horizon, it is more important now than ever before to find better ways of engaging males into nursing. The aim of the study was to examine the psychological constructs that influence male perceptions of nursing as they seek to navigate the profession, and what aspects influence men to consider nursing as a career. To achieve this, a systematic review and mixed research synthesis (integrated design) was conducted. English language research published between 1999 and 2019 was eligible. The methodological rigor of qualitative articles followed the Critical Appraisal Skills Program, while the Best Evidence Medical Education guided the quantitative review. Among the 24 publications identified, three sub-themes emerged from the overarching theme of the funambulist or tightrope walker. Sub-themes included societal, inner and collective voices that inform men’s place in nursing or their decision making about entering the profession. There is a need to re-visit what it means to be a nurse in order to address the gendered stereotypes that impact men entering the nursing profession. Full article
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Article
Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement Used to Justify School Violence in Sicilian Primary School
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 682-690; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030050 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1493
Abstract
This study investigated the mechanisms of moral disengagement most commonly used to justify school violence in Sicilian primary school. The main objective of this study was to analyze the mechanisms of moral disengagement that are set in motion by those involved in situations [...] Read more.
This study investigated the mechanisms of moral disengagement most commonly used to justify school violence in Sicilian primary school. The main objective of this study was to analyze the mechanisms of moral disengagement that are set in motion by those involved in situations of school violence (victims, aggressors, and bystanders) in Sicilian primary school. Likewise, the differences by gender and age are investigated. A total of 113 subjects in primary school were recruited (56.6% girls). The ages ranged from 8 to 11 (M = 9.56, SD = 0.99). The first scale used was the Bullying Inventory by Olweus (1993) in the Italian translation by Genta, Menesini, Fonzi, Costabile, and Smith (1996) and the questionnaire on moral disengagement developed by Caprara, Barbaranelli, Vicino, and Bandura (1996) is also used. The regression analysis showed that the sociodemographic variables and the mechanisms of moral disengagement are different depending on a person’s role (aggressor, victim, or bystander). Moral justification predicted the role of victim in school violence, dehumanization predicted the role of the aggressor (and gender), and the disclosure of responsibility (and dehumanization) predicted the role of the bystander in school violence. The conclusions of this study will facilitate the prevention of school violence, for example, by promoting social integration and minimizing situations of school violence (emphasizing morality, ethics, etc.), thereby establishing balanced and satisfactory interpersonal relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research in Cyberbullying and Cybervictimization)
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