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Children, Volume 9, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 179 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This review examines the quantitative behavioural studies that have evaluated the effects of Montessori pedagogy on children’s psychological development and school learning. Many features in Montessori pedagogy positively take children’s developmental needs into account and should be an integral part of teachers’ working modalities in so-called “conventional” public schools. However, Montessori’s view of the role played by language as well as by pretend-play should be analysed more carefully and could also partly explain the contrasting results of the different studies highlighted in this article. View this paper
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9 pages, 1741 KiB  
Article
Vesicoscopic Cross-Trigonal Ureteral Reimplantation for Vesicoureteral Reflux: Intermediate Results
by Christian Kruppa, Guido Fitze and Katrin Schuchardt
Children 2022, 9(2), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020298 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3120
Abstract
For the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux, the introduction of vesicoscopic procedures offers new perspectives for improving patient comfort and quality. Our aim was to examine whether minimally invasive vesicoscopic cross-trigonal ureteral reimplantation (VCUR) would meet expectations. Between 2012 and 2021, 99 girls and [...] Read more.
For the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux, the introduction of vesicoscopic procedures offers new perspectives for improving patient comfort and quality. Our aim was to examine whether minimally invasive vesicoscopic cross-trigonal ureteral reimplantation (VCUR) would meet expectations. Between 2012 and 2021, 99 girls and 35 boys with high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) underwent VCUR. For two boys, we failed to establish the pneumovesicum, leading to conversion to open surgery. The mean age was 4.5 years, ranging from 10 months to 18 years. VCUR was successfully performed in 132 patients, including 75 patients with bilateral VUR and 12 children with double ureters with unilateral or bilateral VUR, corresponding to a total of 229 operated ureters. The mean time of operation was 151 min for all patients. There were no perioperative complications, with the exception of three cases of pneumoperitoneum without consequences. Postoperatively, we recognized three cases of acute hydronephrosis, two of them required transient drainage. Three patients developed extravasation of urine after the postoperative removal of the transurethral catheter, rapidly resolved by new drainage. In two patients, we combined VCUR with laparoscopic heminephrectomy and opposite laparoscopic nephrectomy, respectively. Overall, mean postoperative hospital stay was 4.2 days. We observed recurrent VUR in seven ureters, resulting in a success rate for VCUR of 96.9%. These results demonstrate the feasibility of VCUR and its potential to displace open surgery with high safety and wide applicability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Development of Pediatric Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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12 pages, 16736 KiB  
Review
Rex Shunt for Extra-Hepatic Portal Venous Obstruction in Children
by Jinshan Zhang and Long Li
Children 2022, 9(2), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020297 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 8606
Abstract
Rex shunt, which was first put in use in 1992, has been considered as an ideal surgical method for the treatment of extra-hepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO) due to its reconstruction of the hepatopetal portal blood flow. However, despite its long tradition, there [...] Read more.
Rex shunt, which was first put in use in 1992, has been considered as an ideal surgical method for the treatment of extra-hepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO) due to its reconstruction of the hepatopetal portal blood flow. However, despite its long tradition, there are only a few reports about the application and advances in Rex shunt for the treatment of EHPVO in children. In this paper, we summarized the literature related to Rex shunt and discussed the new advances of Rex shunt in the following aspects: surgical method of Rex shunt, the indications of Rex shunt, the strengths of Rex shunt, the effectiveness of Rex shunt, factors affecting the efficacy of Rex shunt, methods that improve the prognosis of Rex shunt, and treatment strategy for recurrence after Rex shunt. Full article
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13 pages, 803 KiB  
Article
Maternal Milk Provision in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Mother–Infant Emotional Connection for Preterm Infants
by Clare Viglione, Sara Cherkerzian, Wendy Timpson, Cindy H. Liu, Lianne J. Woodward and Mandy B. Belfort
Children 2022, 9(2), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020296 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2312
Abstract
Maternal milk (MM) intake during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization is associated with improved neurodevelopment in preterm infants. Underlying mechanisms may include stronger mother–infant emotional connection. This paper examines associations between MM provision in the NICU with maternal connection to her infant [...] Read more.
Maternal milk (MM) intake during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization is associated with improved neurodevelopment in preterm infants. Underlying mechanisms may include stronger mother–infant emotional connection. This paper examines associations between MM provision in the NICU with maternal connection to her infant using three factors validated in our sample: maternal sensitivity, emotional concern, and positive interaction/engagement. We studied 70 mothers of infants born <1500 g and/or <32 weeks’ gestation. Associations between MM provision and mother–infant connection were modeled using median regression adjusted for clustering. Mothers who provided exclusive MM (i.e., 100% MM, no other milk) reported higher levels of maternal sensitivity by a median score of 2 units (β = 2.00, 95% CI: 0.76, 3.24, p = 0.002) than the mixed group (i.e., MM < 100% days, other milk ≥1 days), as well as greater emotional concern (β = 3.00, 95% CI: −0.002, 6.00, p = 0.05). Among mothers of very preterm infants, greater milk provision was associated with greater maternal sensitivity, but also with greater emotional concern about meeting the infant’s needs. These findings highlight the importance of supporting MM provision and early infant care as an integrated part of lactation support. The findings may also provide insight into links between MM provision in the NICU and infant neurodevelopment. Full article
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9 pages, 709 KiB  
Case Report
Is Rituximab-Associated Hypogammaglobulinemia Always Linked to B-Cell Depletion?
by Anthie Damianaki, Marianna Tzanoudaki, Maria Kanariou, Emmanouil Liatsis, Alexandros Panos, Alexandra Soldatou and Lydia Kossiva
Children 2022, 9(2), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020295 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2316
Abstract
We describe a case of a 3-year-old male toddler with a history of severe and refractory warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia (w-AIHA) since early infancy and hypogammaglobulinemia persisting 20 months after rituximab administration (second-line rescue therapy). Specifically, although peripheral blood flow cytometry B-cell [...] Read more.
We describe a case of a 3-year-old male toddler with a history of severe and refractory warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia (w-AIHA) since early infancy and hypogammaglobulinemia persisting 20 months after rituximab administration (second-line rescue therapy). Specifically, although peripheral blood flow cytometry B-cell population counts signified B-cell recovery following completion of rituximab therapy, IgG levels were barely detectable. Detailed laboratory evaluation did not reveal any humoral or cell-mediated immunity impairment and the patient remained asymptomatic, without any infections or recurrence of w-AIHA. Due to severe hypogammaglobulinemia, he was placed on immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IVIG). The implemented PID (primary immunodeficiency) gene panel identified only variants of uncertain significance (VUS). The aim of this report is to underline the documentation of persisting hypogammaglobulinemia after rituximab despite peripheral blood B-cell reconstitution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Hematology & Oncology)
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18 pages, 427 KiB  
Review
Early Motor Signs in Autism Spectrum Disorder
by Annio Posar and Paola Visconti
Children 2022, 9(2), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020294 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 7151
Abstract
A growing number of literature data suggest the presence of early impairments in the motor development of children with autism spectrum disorder, which could be often recognized even before the appearance of the classical social communication deficits of autism. In this narrative review, [...] Read more.
A growing number of literature data suggest the presence of early impairments in the motor development of children with autism spectrum disorder, which could be often recognized even before the appearance of the classical social communication deficits of autism. In this narrative review, we aimed at performing an update about the available data on the early motor function in children with autism spectrum disorder. Early motor impairment in these children can manifest itself both as a mere delay of motor development and as the presence of atypicalities of motor function, such as a higher rate and a larger inventory, of stereotyped movements both with and without objects. In the perspective of a timely diagnosis, the presence of early motor signs can be an important clue, especially in an individual considered at high risk for autism. Motor and communication (both verbal and non-verbal) skills are connected and a pathogenetic role of early motor dysfunctions in the development of autism can be hypothesized. From this, derives the importance of an early enabling intervention aimed at improving motor skills, which could also have favorable effects on other aspects of development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autism and Children)
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11 pages, 561 KiB  
Article
Misreporting of Energy Intake Is Related to Specific Food Items in Low-Middle Income Chilean Adolescents
by Angela Martínez-Arroyo, Lais Duarte Batista, Camila Corvalán Aguilar and Regina Mara Fisberg
Children 2022, 9(2), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020293 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2202
Abstract
Background: Misreporting of energy intake (EI) in self-reported dietary assessment is inevitable, and even less is known about which food items are misreported by low-middle income adolescents. We evaluated the prevalence of misreporting of energy intake and its relationship with nutrients and food [...] Read more.
Background: Misreporting of energy intake (EI) in self-reported dietary assessment is inevitable, and even less is known about which food items are misreported by low-middle income adolescents. We evaluated the prevalence of misreporting of energy intake and its relationship with nutrients and food intake. Methods: We analyzed 24 h dietary recalls collected from 576 adolescents (52.08% boys) from southeastern Santiago. Anthropometrics measurements and information about sociodemographic characteristics were obtained during clinical visits. The method proposed by McCrory et al. was used to identify under-reporters (UnRs), over-reporters (OvRs), or plausible reporters (PRs). Food items were collapsed into 28 categories and every food item was expressed as a percentage of total EI. Logistic regression models were performed to investigate the factors associated with misreporting, and a two-part model was used to estimate the difference in the percentage of EI between UnRs versus PRs, and OvRs versus PRs in each food item. Results: Half of the participants were classified as UnRs and 9% were OvRs. UnR was higher among boys (62%) and adolescents with overweight and obesity (72%). OvR was higher among adolescents with normal weight. UnRs had a lower intake of energy from cookies/cake, chocolate/confectionery, and a higher intake of vegetables and eggs than PRs. OvRs had a higher intake of cookies/cake, chocolate/confectionery, and a lower intake of fruit, white milk, and yogurt than PRs. Conclusions: A high frequency of UnR among boys and participants with excess weight was found in this study. Healthy and unhealthy foods are reported differently between UnRs and OvRs of energy intake, indicating that bias is specific for some food items that adolescents commonly eat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Pediatric Health)
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6 pages, 2730 KiB  
Case Report
A Unique Case of Primary Cutaneous Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Associated with Aplasia Cutis Congenita in a Four-Year-Old Female: A Case Report
by Andrea Zulli, Alessandra Martin, Flavio Facchini, Riccardo Coletta, Angela Tamburini, Teresa Oranges, Cesare Filippeschi, Andrea Bassi, Anna Maria Buccoliero and Antonino Morabito
Children 2022, 9(2), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020292 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1976
Abstract
Introduction: Primary cutaneous adenoid-cystic carcinoma (PCACC) is a rare malignant tumour reported in only about 450 cases in the literature, with only two adolescent cases reported. PCACC seems to occur between the fifth and seventh decade of life, and the most frequent regions [...] Read more.
Introduction: Primary cutaneous adenoid-cystic carcinoma (PCACC) is a rare malignant tumour reported in only about 450 cases in the literature, with only two adolescent cases reported. PCACC seems to occur between the fifth and seventh decade of life, and the most frequent regions involved are head and neck (46%). Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) has an incidence of 1:10,000, and it seems to be rarely associated with neoplastic lesions. Interestingly, the association between PCACC and ACC has, so far, never been described. Methods: We report a case of PCACC in the scalp associated with ACC in a four-year-old patient. Discussion: The patient was under follow-up at the dermatology unit, but suddenly a red lesion appeared within the ACC. This red, ulcerated area increased rapidly over six months, so it was surgically removed, and the pathological examination results were suggestive for cribriform PCACC. According to the guidelines for skin tumours, the patient underwent widening resection, and an advancement-sliding skin flap was performed to recreate the scalp. After one year of follow-up, the patient has no local or widespread recurrence of the PCACC, and the surgical scar appears to have healed well. Conclusions: This clinical case is the first known patient with PCACC associated with ACC. A skin excision biopsy should be performed with wide margins to avoid a second widening resection of skin in a similar scenario. Genetic studies may help to identify the origin of this rare association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Surgery)
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16 pages, 882 KiB  
Article
Stress, Inflammation and Metabolic Biomarkers Are Associated with Body Composition Measures in Lean, Overweight, and Obese Children and Adolescents
by Eirini V. Christaki, Panagiota Pervanidou, Ioannis Papassotiriou, Despoina Bastaki, Eleni Valavani, Aimilia Mantzou, Giorgos Giannakakis, Dario Boschiero and George P. Chrousos
Children 2022, 9(2), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020291 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3908
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the associations between multiple indices of stress, inflammation and metabolism vs. body composition parameters in 121 (43 boys, 78 girls) children and adolescents, aged 5–15 y. Subjects were divided into two groups: normal weight (N) [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the associations between multiple indices of stress, inflammation and metabolism vs. body composition parameters in 121 (43 boys, 78 girls) children and adolescents, aged 5–15 y. Subjects were divided into two groups: normal weight (N) (N = 40, BMI z-score = −0.1923 ± 0.6), and overweight/obese (OB) (N = 81, BMI z-score = 2.1947 ± 1.4). All subjects completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) and Children’s Depression Inventory, and underwent cortisol measurements in hair, diurnal series of saliva, and morning serum. Circulating concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and other inflammation biomarkers were also obtained. Body composition analysis was performed with a clinically validated, advanced bioimpedance apparatus (BIA), while heart rate variability (HRV) was measured as a stress biomarker by photoplethysmography (PPG). The OB group had a higher STAIC-state score, waist-to-hip ratio, skeletal muscle mass, and total and abdominal fat mass, and a lower percent fat-free mass (FFM) and bone density than the N group. HRV did not differ between the groups. In the entire population, percent fat mass correlated strongly with circulating hsCRP (r = 0.397, p = 0.001), ferritin, and other inflammatory biomarkers, as well as with indices of insulin resistance. A strong correlation between serum hsCRP and hair cortisol was also observed (r = 0.777, p < 0.001), suggesting interrelation of chronic stress and inflammation. Thus, body fat accumulation in children and adolescents was associated with an elevation in clinical and laboratory biomarkers of stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance. BIA-ACC and PPG can be utilized as a direct screening tool for assessing overweight- and obesity -related health risks in children and adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Pediatric Health)
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11 pages, 1787 KiB  
Article
Differential Diagnosis of Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis and Malignant Lymphoma with Simple Clinical Findings
by Taichi Omachi, Naho Atsumi, Takashi Yamazoe, Sohsaku Yamanouchi, Ryosuke Matsuno, Tomoki Kitawaki and Kazunari Kaneko
Children 2022, 9(2), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020290 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4311
Abstract
It is desirable that noninvasive differential diagnosis takes place without lymph node biopsy for histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (HNL) or malignant lymphoma (ML). In this study, we propose a novel scoring model for the differential diagnosis of these diseases using clinical information and clinical [...] Read more.
It is desirable that noninvasive differential diagnosis takes place without lymph node biopsy for histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (HNL) or malignant lymphoma (ML). In this study, we propose a novel scoring model for the differential diagnosis of these diseases using clinical information and clinical findings. We retrospectively analyzed the data from 15 HNL and 13 ML pediatric patients. First, a univariate analysis identified 14 clinical factors with significant differences. Second, a subsequent analysis using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis identified three factors among them with area under the ROC curve values of >0.95: body temperature (°C), maximum lymph node size (cm), and serum β2-microglobulin level (mg/L). Finally, the cut-off values of each of these three factors were determined and examined for the 28 cases. All 15 HNL cases were within 2–3 of the cut-off values among the three factors, no ML case was within two or more cut-off values. Thus, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this novel scoring system were both 100%, indicating that clinical scoring with body temperature, maximum lymph node size, and β2-microglobulin are useful for distinguishing between HNL and ML. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Hematology & Oncology)
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11 pages, 851 KiB  
Article
Tracheal Tube Misplacement after Emergency Intubation in Pediatric Trauma Patients: A Retrospective, Exploratory Study
by Franziska Rost, Bernd Donaubauer, Holger Kirsten, Thomas Schwarz, Peter Zimmermann, Manuela Siekmeyer, Daniel Gräfe, Sebastian Ebel, Christian Kleber, Martin Lacher and Manuel Florian Struck
Children 2022, 9(2), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020289 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2523
Abstract
Inadvertent tracheal tube misplacement and particularly endobronchial intubation are well-known complications of emergency endotracheal intubation (ETI) in pediatric trauma patients, which require repositioning of the tube to avoid impairment of gas exchange. The main aim of study was to identify the frequency of [...] Read more.
Inadvertent tracheal tube misplacement and particularly endobronchial intubation are well-known complications of emergency endotracheal intubation (ETI) in pediatric trauma patients, which require repositioning of the tube to avoid impairment of gas exchange. The main aim of study was to identify the frequency of tube misplacement and associated factors of pediatric trauma patients who received ETI either by prehospital physician-staffed emergency medical service (EMS), or at emergency department (ED) admission to a single level-1 trauma center. Sixty-five patients (median age 14 years and median injury severity score 29) were included. Of these, 30 underwent helicopter EMS ETI, 29 ground EMS ETI, and 6 ED ETI. Seventeen cases (26%) of tracheal tube misplacement were recognized. After multivariable analysis, tracheal tube misplacement was independently negatively associated with body weight (OR 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76–0.99; p = 0.032) and helicopter EMS ETI (OR 0.20; 95% CI, 0.04–0.97; p = 0.036). Two of nineteen patients received tube thoracostomy due to endobronchial intubation. Mortality and length of stay were comparable in patients with misplaced tubes and correctly placed tubes. The results suggest that particularly small children require attention to avoid tracheal tube misplacement, which emphasizes the need for special training. Helicopter EMS physicians’ expertise might be beneficial in prehospital pediatric trauma patients requiring advanced airway management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Considerations in Pediatric Emergency Medicine)
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12 pages, 28981 KiB  
Article
Foam Splint versus Spica Cast—Early Mobilization after Hip Reconstructive Surgery in Children—Preliminary Data from a Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial
by Lorenz Pisecky, Gerhard Großbötzl, Manuel Gahleitner, Christian Stadler, Stella Stevoska, Christina Haas, Tobias Gotterbarm and Matthias Christoph Michael Klotz
Children 2022, 9(2), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020288 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4686
Abstract
Background: Surgical hip joint reconstruction may be the method of choice for children and adolescents with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), as well as neurogenic dislocation of the hip (NDH) and Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease (LCPD). Following pelvic surgery, immobilization using a spica cast [...] Read more.
Background: Surgical hip joint reconstruction may be the method of choice for children and adolescents with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), as well as neurogenic dislocation of the hip (NDH) and Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease (LCPD). Following pelvic surgery, immobilization using a spica cast is considered to be the gold standard, despite the fact that casting may cause complications, such as hygienic problems, skin lesions, neurological deficits, and rigidity of the adjacent joints. An alternative for postoperative immobilization is a foam splint. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to compare spica cast and foam splint immobilization after hip reconstruction in children and adolescents with DDH, NDH, and LCPD. Methods: In a prospective randomized clinical trial, children and adolescents (age: 4–14 years), who received hip reconstructive surgery (osteotomy of the ilium and proximal femur, open reduction, soft tissue techniques) for DDH, NDH, and LCPD were included. Patient recruitment, group allocation, surgery, and aftercare were carried out in a department for orthopaedic surgery in Central Europe. Standardized questionnaires SF-36 (Short Form-36), EQ-5D (Euro Quality of Life 5D and CPCHILD (Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities) were gathered before, six, and twelve weeks after surgery from each patient. Group one received a spica cast and group two a foam splint for a period of six weeks postoperatively. There was no difference in surgical treatment. Results: Twenty-one out of thirty planned patients were enrolled in the study. One patient had to be excluded because of a lack of compliance. All quality of life (QOL) scores showed a significant reduction at the 6-week follow-up compared to the preoperative assessment. After twelve weeks, the scores came back close to the preoperative values. A significant reduction was seen in the spica cast group pre- vs. postoperatively for the variables CPCHILD (81% vs. 64%, p = 0.001), EQ-5d (65% vs. 45%, p = 0.014), and SF-36 (85% vs. 74%, p = 0.004). The corresponding values for the foam splint group also presented a reduction for all scores, but without statistical significance. Complications occurred in five cases. Conclusions: Recent retrospective studies suggest that foam splint immobilization after hip reconstruction surgery is a safe and feasible method, promising fewer complications compared to spica casting. The preliminary results of this prospective randomized clinical trial show an improvement of the scores when using a foam splint compared to the conventionally used spica cast. Benefits for the patients may be fewer adverse events and no need to undergo a second round of anaesthesia for recasting. Data suggest higher patient and caretaker satisfaction in the foam splint group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopedics and Trauma in Children)
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12 pages, 593 KiB  
Article
A Cross-National Analysis of the Effects by Bullying and School Exclusion on Subjective Happiness in 10-Year-Old Children
by Diego Gomez-Baya, Francisco Jose Garcia-Moro, Javier Augusto Nicoletti and Rocio Lago-Urbano
Children 2022, 9(2), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020287 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5783
Abstract
Literature to date has well supported the detrimental consequences of bullying and school exclusion in different countries, with negative outcomes in school adjustment or child psychological adjustment, among others. However, more research is needed to understand the effects on positive indicators of psychological [...] Read more.
Literature to date has well supported the detrimental consequences of bullying and school exclusion in different countries, with negative outcomes in school adjustment or child psychological adjustment, among others. However, more research is needed to understand the effects on positive indicators of psychological well-being in children as subjective happiness. Cross-national studies are also recommended to examine the differential effects by country. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine bullying and school exclusion, and their effects on child subjective happiness, from a cross-national perspective. Data from the Second Wave of Children’s Worlds: International Survey of Children’s Well-being (ISCWeB) was used, from a sample of 12,623 children aged 10 years old from 15 countries. Participants completed self-report measures of bullying, school exclusion and subjective happiness. Results showed that 20.8% of children suffered harassment and 17.6% felt excluded, twice or more times, at school. Negative effects of bullying and exclusion on subjective happiness were observed in all the sample. Furthermore, differences by country were found in the frequency of bullying and exclusion, as well as in the size of their effects on happiness. These results underline the need to protect child psychological well-being by preventing bullying and school exclusion. Full article
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12 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
Influence of Personal, Academic, Social, and Level of Physical Activity Variables on Emotional Intelligence
by Iago Portela-Pino, José Domínguez-Alonso, Myriam Alvariñas-Villaverde and Juan José Chinchilla-Mira
Children 2022, 9(2), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020286 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2292
Abstract
In the diverse and complex society in which we live, the support that an appropriate emotional intelligence can provide to adolescents to achieve a satisfactory, balanced, and peaceful coexistence is increasing. The aim of this research was to determine whether personal, academic, and [...] Read more.
In the diverse and complex society in which we live, the support that an appropriate emotional intelligence can provide to adolescents to achieve a satisfactory, balanced, and peaceful coexistence is increasing. The aim of this research was to determine whether personal, academic, and social variables influenced emotional intelligence in adolescent populations. A descriptive-inferential study was carried out with 964 students of compulsory secondary education (M = 14.18; SD = 1.28), applying the emotional intelligence scale Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24). The results show better emotional attention in boys who practice physical exercise and have good social skills; better emotional clarity in girls who practice physical exercise and have good social skills; and better emotional repair in girls under 13 years of age, who practice physical exercise, have a good academic record and good social skills. In conclusion, a solid and specific knowledge of the personal, academic, and social variables that may influence the development of emotional intelligence in the adolescent period allows helping students in the prevention or modification of undesirable aspects they may have in their relationships with society. Full article
14 pages, 295 KiB  
Review
A Review of Parent-Implemented Early Start Denver Model for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
by Rong-An Jhuo and Szu-Yin Chu
Children 2022, 9(2), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020285 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3946
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of findings from selected research published between 2012 and 2022 in English-language peer-reviewed journals to evaluate the effectiveness of the parent-implemented Early Start Denver Model (P-ESDM). Thirteen studies used quantitative methods to examine [...] Read more.
The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of findings from selected research published between 2012 and 2022 in English-language peer-reviewed journals to evaluate the effectiveness of the parent-implemented Early Start Denver Model (P-ESDM). Thirteen studies used quantitative methods to examine the relationship between variables. We considered four categories of variables in the analysis: child characteristics, intervention intensity and duration, child outcome measures, and parent-related outcome measures and parental fidelity. The findings revealed positive child–parent-related outcomes. In addition, the quality of implementation, relating to parent fidelity, should be considered when evaluating the efficacy of the intervention. However, only half the studies revealed that the standard benchmark for acceptable fidelity was being achieved. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. Full article
10 pages, 273 KiB  
Article
Effects of Family Nurture Intervention in the NICU on Theory of Mind Abilities in Children Born Very Preterm: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Morgan R. Firestein, Michael M. Myers, Katherine J. Feder, Robert J. Ludwig and Martha G. Welch
Children 2022, 9(2), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020284 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1967
Abstract
Preterm infants are at risk for socioemotional deficits, neurodevelopmental disorders, and potentially theory of mind (ToM) deficits. Preterm infants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) received Standard Care (SC) or Family Nurture Intervention (FNI). Children (N [...] Read more.
Preterm infants are at risk for socioemotional deficits, neurodevelopmental disorders, and potentially theory of mind (ToM) deficits. Preterm infants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) received Standard Care (SC) or Family Nurture Intervention (FNI). Children (N = 72; median age 61.8 ± 2.6 months; FNI: 35 (55%), SC:2 9 (45%)) completed a ToM task, of whom 64 (54% male; born to White (43.8%), Black (18.7%), and Hispanic (25.0%) mothers) contributed to this analysis. FNI and SC infants born extremely preterm to very preterm differed significantly: 78% (14 of 18) of FNI children passed vs. 30% (3 of 10) SC children (p = 0.01, effect size = 1.06). This large effect size suggests that FNI in the NICU may ameliorate deficits in social-cognitive skills of extreme to very preterm infants by school age. Full article
13 pages, 645 KiB  
Article
Health-Related Quality of Life Assessments by Children and Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease and Their Parents in Portugal
by Clara Abadesso, Susana Pacheco, Maria Céu Machado and G. Allen Finley
Children 2022, 9(2), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020283 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2580
Abstract
Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) can be used to measure the impact of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) on the child and their family and is generally reduced. No research has yet measured HRQL in Portuguese pediatric SCD patients. Objectives: (1) Describe and compare [...] Read more.
Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) can be used to measure the impact of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) on the child and their family and is generally reduced. No research has yet measured HRQL in Portuguese pediatric SCD patients. Objectives: (1) Describe and compare HRQL of children with SCD reported by them and their parents; (2) Compare with a pediatric population with no SCD; (3) Find predictive factors of HRQL in SCD children. Methods: Descriptive, case-control study that included sixty-eight children and adolescents with SCD (aged 3 to 18 years) and their parents. Control group—children with no SCD, matched by age, gender and ethnic background. HRQL was assessed using the multidimensional self-report PedsQL® 4.0 Generic Scales. Summary scores for overall HRQL and subscale scores for physical, emotional, social and school functioning were compared within groups (children-parents) and with the control group. Clinical and socio-demographic variables were analyzed to find predictive factors of HRQL in pediatric SCD patients. Results: Children with SCD and their parents had significantly lower overall and all subdomains of HRQL, compared with the control group. Children with SCD also rated lower when compared with their parents (only significant for social functioning), with low to moderate correlations. Children and parent reports declined with increasing age. Higher pain frequency was associated with worse total and psychosocial domains of HRQL. The number of hospitalizations was a predictor of worse school score, and female gender was a predictor of worse emotional score. Conclusions: SCD significantly affects children’s HRQL. Parents can provide a good proxy report, although both evaluations are beneficial. Disease status, like number of hospitalizations and frequency of pain, influences HRQL. Interventions in SCD should consider improvements in HRQL as an important outcome. Full article
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9 pages, 879 KiB  
Article
Total Intravenous Anesthesia with Ketofol versus Combination of Ketofol and Lidocaine for Short-Term Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients; Double Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial of Effects on Recovery
by Ana Nevešćanin Biliškov, Danijela Gulam, Marija Žaja and Zenon Pogorelić
Children 2022, 9(2), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020282 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2599
Abstract
Background: Ketofol admixture has been proposed to be useful for sedation and general anesthesia. The beneficial effect of the combination of ketofol with lidocaine may be a shortened time of anesthesia and recovery period. This study aimed to establish the effect of total [...] Read more.
Background: Ketofol admixture has been proposed to be useful for sedation and general anesthesia. The beneficial effect of the combination of ketofol with lidocaine may be a shortened time of anesthesia and recovery period. This study aimed to establish the effect of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with ketofol and ketofol with lidocaine on recovery in children. Methods: Two hundred children from the ages of 1–12 years who underwent short surgical procedures were randomly allocated into two groups. Propofol mixtures (ketofol) were prepared for group l. A ratio of 1:4 of ketofol was used for induction and for the maintenance of anesthesia a ratio of was used 1:7. For the induction and maintenance of anesthesia ketofol with lidocaine (lidoketofol) was used in group II. The McFarlan infusion regimen was used with reduction. The extubating time, anesthesia duration and the length of stay in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) were recorded. Results: Extubation time showed to be considerably shorter in the lidoketofol group than in the ketofol group (120 s versus 240 s; p < 0.00001). The anesthesia duration was also significantly shorter in the lidoketofol group (35 min vs. 50 min; p < 0.00001). The lidoketofol group showed to have a lower length of stay in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) than the ketofol group (20 min vs. 35 min; p < 0.00001). The lidoketofol group showed lower fentanyl consumption per kg (2.1 µg per kg vs. 2.3 µg per kg; p < 0.056) and lower propofol consumption (6.6 mg per kg vs. 7.6 mg per kg; p < 0.032). Conclusion: The recovery in pediatric anesthesia can improve with usage of TIVA with ketofol plus lidocaine admixture with a reduced McFarlan dose regimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine)
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10 pages, 648 KiB  
Article
Anterior Chamber Angle in Adults Born Extremely, Very, and Moderately Preterm with and without Retinopathy of Prematurity—Results of the Gutenberg Prematurity Eye Study
by Achim Fieß, Sandra Gißler, Eva Mildenberger, Michael S. Urschitz, Agnes Fauer, Heike M. Elflein, Fred Zepp, Bernhard Stoffelns, Norbert Pfeiffer and Alexander K. Schuster
Children 2022, 9(2), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020281 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
Purpose: To determine whether prematurity and associated factors affect the anterior chamber angle (ACA) width in adulthood. Methods: The Gutenberg Prematurity Eye Study (GPES) is a retrospective cohort study with a prospective ophthalmologic examination of adults (age 18–52 years) in Germany. All participants [...] Read more.
Purpose: To determine whether prematurity and associated factors affect the anterior chamber angle (ACA) width in adulthood. Methods: The Gutenberg Prematurity Eye Study (GPES) is a retrospective cohort study with a prospective ophthalmologic examination of adults (age 18–52 years) in Germany. All participants were examined with Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam HR, Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany) using linear regression analysis to assess the associations of ACA in the different sectors with gestational age (GA), birth weight, birth weight percentile, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), ROP treatment, placental insufficiency, preeclampsia, and breastfeeding. Results: In total, 516 eyes of 319 preterm and full-term individuals (aged 28.9 ± 8.8 years, 188 females) were examined. ROP treatment was associated with smaller ACA width in the nasal (B = −9.6 [95%CI: −14.7; −4.5] degree; p < 0.001) and temporal positions (B = −11.5 [95%CI: −17.7; −5.3] degree; p = 0.001), whereas non-treated individuals with ROP had an unaltered ACA width, as did individuals with low gestational age without ROP. Conclusion: Advanced stages of ROP following treatment with laser- and cryocoagulation lead to a smaller ACA width until adulthood, and hence may increase the risk of angle closure in later life. Full article
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12 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Mentalization and Parental Stress: How Do They Predict Mother–Child Interactions?
by María-Pía Santelices and Pamela A. Cortés
Children 2022, 9(2), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020280 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2559
Abstract
Parent–child interactions can be negatively influenced by contextual, individual, and familial factors. The present study examines how parental stress and parental mentalization predicts interactions between 36–48-month-old preschoolers and their mothers. The sample comprises 106 mother–child dyads from Santiago, Chile, from a mid-low SES. [...] Read more.
Parent–child interactions can be negatively influenced by contextual, individual, and familial factors. The present study examines how parental stress and parental mentalization predicts interactions between 36–48-month-old preschoolers and their mothers. The sample comprises 106 mother–child dyads from Santiago, Chile, from a mid-low SES. The instruments used were the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), Mentalization in the Significant Adult during Interaction with the Child between 10 to 48 months old, and Parenting Interactions with Children: Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO). A regression model was used to determine the significant impacts of mentalization and parental stress on interactions. The results indicate that the Encouragement dimension of parent–child interaction is predicted by emotional mentalization and parental distress, while the Teaching dimension of parent–child interaction is impacted by the cognitive dimension of mentalization and the perception that the child is difficult (stress difficult child). No association for the Responsivity and Affectivity dimension was observed. Full article
13 pages, 1726 KiB  
Article
Association between Coagulation Profile and Clinical Outcome in Children with SARS-CoV-2 Infection or MIS-C: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study
by Danilo Buonsenso, Francesco Mariani, Luca Pierri, Rosa Morello, Adriana Yock-Corrales, Olguita Del Aguila, Ilaria Lazzareschi, Giuseppe Zampino, Francesco Nunziata, Piero Valentini and Andrea Lo Vecchio
Children 2022, 9(2), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020279 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3250
Abstract
Limited data on the coagulation profile in children affected by the SARS-CoV-2 infection are available. We aimed to evaluate the role of d-dimers as predictors of poor outcomes in a pediatric population affected by the SARS-CoV-2 infection or multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). We [...] Read more.
Limited data on the coagulation profile in children affected by the SARS-CoV-2 infection are available. We aimed to evaluate the role of d-dimers as predictors of poor outcomes in a pediatric population affected by the SARS-CoV-2 infection or multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). We performed a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study. Data from four different centers were collected. Laboratory tests, when performed, were collected at the time of diagnosis, and 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and beyond 120 h from diagnosis; blood counts with formula, an international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), D-dimers and fibrinogen values were collected. Data regarding clinical history, management and outcome of the patients were also collected. Three hundred sixteen patients with a median age of 3.93 years (IQR 0.62–10.7) diagnosed with COVID-19 or MIS-C were enrolled. Fifty-eight patients (18.3%) showed a severe clinical outcome, 13 (4.1%) developed sequelae and 3 (0.9%) died. The univariate analysis showed that age, high D-dimer values, hyperfibrinogenemia, INR and aPTT elongation, and low platelet count were associated with an increased risk of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission (p < 0.01). Three multivariate logistic regressions showed that a d-dimer level increase was associated with a higher risk of PICU admission. This study shows that D-dimer values play an important role in predicting the more severe spectrum of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and was higher also in those that developed sequelae, including long COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood Innate Immunity and Infectious Diseases)
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17 pages, 73623 KiB  
Article
Comparison between Digital Casts and Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Measuring Maxillary Transverse Dimensions in Patients with Impacted Canines
by Elena Martinez Madero, Jaime García Montarelo, Grace Stefany Aguayo and Conchita Martin
Children 2022, 9(2), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020278 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1929
Abstract
Cone beam computed tomography (CBTCT) scans (n = 45) and digital dental casts (n = 45) were both used to measure the maxillary transverse dimensions in patients with impacted maxillary canines. The objectives were to explore the associations of these dimensions [...] Read more.
Cone beam computed tomography (CBTCT) scans (n = 45) and digital dental casts (n = 45) were both used to measure the maxillary transverse dimensions in patients with impacted maxillary canines. The objectives were to explore the associations of these dimensions with the impaction and patient characteristics, and to compare the measurements between these techniques. The maxillary width was measured on scans and casts at the Walaridge, and the intermolar width and interpremolar width levels were measured at the first and second premolars (measured from the buccal grooves and the palatal cuspids, and the palatal and lingual amelocemental junctions). Two examiners independently compared the measurements between the control quadrants (without impaction) and the case quadrants (with impaction) in patients with unilateral impactions, and between the unilateral and bilateral impaction groups. The interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to assess the interexaminer reliability and paired or independent Student’s t-tests and ANOVAs were used for comparisons. The ICCs were 0.887 and 0.919, globally, for the measurements on the CBCT scans and casts, respectively, which indicates the excellent interexaminer reliability. On the CBCT scans, statistically significant differences were found between the case and control quadrants in the transverse measurements at the lingual level on the upper first molars, and at the WALA ridge level on the upper second premolars (p < 0.05) in the unilateral impaction group. Significant differences were found between the case quadrants in the unilateral versus the bilateral groups at the WALA ridge on the second premolars in casts (p < 0.05), and at the lingual point on the first molars on the CBCT scans (p < 0.05). No statistically significant differences in the transverse measurements were observed between the impacted buccal and palatal canines on either the casts or CBCT scans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the transverse measurements between digital models and CBCT scans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Promotion in Paediatric Population)
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9 pages, 962 KiB  
Article
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Emergency Care Utilization and Outcomes in Pediatric Patients with Intussusception
by Jin Hee Lee, Young Sun Ro, Hyuksool Kwon, Dongbum Suh and Sungwoo Moon
Children 2022, 9(2), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020277 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
Background: We determined whether a decrease in healthcare utilization patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic affected the treatment process of pediatric patients with intussusception. Methods: Patients with suspected intussusception who had ICD-10 code K561 as their discharge diagnosis from the national database were selected, [...] Read more.
Background: We determined whether a decrease in healthcare utilization patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic affected the treatment process of pediatric patients with intussusception. Methods: Patients with suspected intussusception who had ICD-10 code K561 as their discharge diagnosis from the national database were selected, and those who underwent either radiologic and/or surgical reduction were defined as true intussusception patients. We compared the time periods from patients visiting the ED to ultrasound, radiologic reduction and/or surgical reduction between the study group (first half of 2020, COVID-19 period) and the control groups (control group 1: first half of 2019, control group 2: second half of 2019). Results: The number of suspected intussusception patients in each group was 1223, 1576, and 624, and the incidence rates were 7.85, 11.30, and 4.19 per 100,000 person-half-years (control group 1, control group 2, study group, respectively, p < 0.05). No differences in terms of the time from the ED visit to ultrasound, radiological reduction and/or surgical reduction were noted between the study group and the control groups. Conclusions: In Korea, the COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly affect the ED treatment process or the results of patients with intussusception. Full article
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13 pages, 918 KiB  
Article
Association of Weight Changes by Three Days after Birth and Mortality and/or Severe Neurological Injury in Preterm Infants < 29 Weeks Gestational Age: A Multicenter Cohort Study
by Carlos Zozaya, Khalid Aziz, Nalini Singhal, Xiang Y. Ye, Christine Drolet, Julie Emberley, Kyong-Soon Lee, Vibhuti S. Shah and on behalf of the Canadian Neonatal Network (CNN) Investigators
Children 2022, 9(2), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020276 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1568
Abstract
Objective: This study aimed to determine the range of weight loss, at 3 days postnatal age, associated with the lowest risk of mortality/short-term morbidity in preterm infants <29 weeks gestational age (GA). Study design: This multicenter retrospective cohort study employed data from the [...] Read more.
Objective: This study aimed to determine the range of weight loss, at 3 days postnatal age, associated with the lowest risk of mortality/short-term morbidity in preterm infants <29 weeks gestational age (GA). Study design: This multicenter retrospective cohort study employed data from the Canadian Neonatal Network database. The primary outcome was a composite of mortality and/or severe neurological injury. Multivariable quadratic and linear regression models which adjusted for potential confounders were built. Results: A total of 9275 preterm infants (median GA 26, IQR 25, 28 weeks) were included. The optimal weight change range at day three, after adjustment for potential confounders for the primary outcomes, was −15 to −8.9%. Conclusions: There is a ‘U’-shaped relationship between weight change from birth to day three and mortality and/or severe neurological injury. Interventional studies, which target weight loss within the range found in this study and evaluate the impact on neonatal outcomes, are needed to corroborate our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care in Premature Infants)
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11 pages, 567 KiB  
Article
Cold Ischemia Time and Graft Fibrosis Are Associated with Autoantibodies after Pediatric Liver Transplantation: A Retrospective Cohort Study of the European Reference Network TransplantChild
by Norman Junge, Angelo Di Giorgio, Muriel Girard, Zeynep Demir, Diana Kaminska, Maria Janowska, Vaidotas Urbonas, Dominykas Varnas, Giuseppe Maggiore, Tommaso Alterio, Christoph Leiskau, Florian W. R. Vondran, Nicolas Richter, Lorenzo D’Antiga, Rafael Mikolajczyk, Eva-Doreen Pfister and Ulrich Baumann
Children 2022, 9(2), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020275 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
The reported prevalence of autoantibodies (AAB) (ANA, SMA, LKM, SLA) after pediatric liver transplantation (pLTX) varies considerably from 26–75%, but their clinical impact on outcome is uncertain. We aimed to study the prevalence of AAB after pLTX, their association with donor-, transplant-, and [...] Read more.
The reported prevalence of autoantibodies (AAB) (ANA, SMA, LKM, SLA) after pediatric liver transplantation (pLTX) varies considerably from 26–75%, but their clinical impact on outcome is uncertain. We aimed to study the prevalence of AAB after pLTX, their association with donor-, transplant-, and recipient-characteristics, and their relation to outcome. In our multicenter retrospective study, we aimed to clarify conflicting results from earlier studies. Six ERN TransplantChild centers reported data on 242 patients, of whom 61% were AAB positive. Prevalence varied across these centers. Independent of the interval between pLTX and AAB analysis, a one-hour increase in CIT resulted in an odds ratio (OR) of 1.37 (95% CI 1.11–1.69) for SMA positivity and an OR of 1.42 (95%CI 1.18–1.72) for ANA positivity. Steroid-free immunosuppression (IS) versus steroid-including IS (OR 5.28; 95% CI 1.45–19.28) was a risk factor for SMA positivity. Liver enzymes were not associated with ANA or SMA positivity. We did not observe an association of rejection activity index with ANA or SMA. However, the liver fibrosis score in follow-up biopsies was associated with ANA titer and donor age. In conclusion, this first multicenter study on AAB after pLTX showed high AAB prevalence and varied widely between centers. Longer CIT and prednisolone-free-IS were associated with AAB positivity, whereas AAB were not indicative of rejection, but instead were associated with graft fibrosis. The detection of AAB may be a marker of liver fibrosis and may be taken into consideration when indications for liver biopsy and immunosuppressive regimes, or reduction of immunosuppression in long-term follow-up, are being discussed. Prospective immunological profiling of pLTX patients, including AAB, is important to further improve our understanding of transplant immunology and silent graft fibrosis. Full article
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14 pages, 240 KiB  
Article
Bereaved Parent Perspectives on End-of-Life Conversations in Pediatric Oncology
by Rhonda Robert, Shehla Razvi, Lisa L. Triche, Eduardo Bruera and Karen M. Moody
Children 2022, 9(2), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020274 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2466
Abstract
Background: Professional education pertaining to end-of-life care with pediatric oncology patients is limited. Pediatric trainees learn about end-of-life conversations largely from the provider’s perspective. Bereaved parents can inform the education of oncologists and the interdisciplinary team by sharing their perceptions and preferences through [...] Read more.
Background: Professional education pertaining to end-of-life care with pediatric oncology patients is limited. Pediatric trainees learn about end-of-life conversations largely from the provider’s perspective. Bereaved parents can inform the education of oncologists and the interdisciplinary team by sharing their perceptions and preferences through personal narratives. Methods: The aim of this project was to enhance the healthcare teams’ understanding of bereaved parents’ end-of-life care preferences through narratives. Bereaved parents were recruited from our institution’s Pediatric Supportive Care Committee membership. Parents were tasked with identifying elements of care that were of the greatest importance to them, based upon their personal experiences during their child’s end-of-life care. Narratives were analyzed using standard qualitative methods. Results: Parents of five patients participated, including four mothers and three fathers. Ten themes summarizing essential elements of end-of-life care were identified, including early ongoing and stepwise prognostic disclosure, honoring the child’s voice, support of hope and realism, anticipatory guidance on dying, and continued contact with the bereaved. Conclusion: Bereaved parents emphasize the need for providers to have ongoing honest conversations that support realism and hope that can help them to best prepare for their child’s end of life and to remain in contact with them after death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Total Pain Management in Children with Cancer)
10 pages, 274 KiB  
Review
Acute Facial Nerve Palsy in Children: Gold Standard Management
by Delphine Wohrer, Thomas Moulding, Luigi Titomanlio and Léa Lenglart
Children 2022, 9(2), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020273 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5025
Abstract
Facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a common illness in the paediatric emergency department. Missed or delayed diagnosis can have a serious impact on a patient’s quality of life. The aim of this article is to give a recent overview of this pathology in [...] Read more.
Facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a common illness in the paediatric emergency department. Missed or delayed diagnosis can have a serious impact on a patient’s quality of life. The aim of this article is to give a recent overview of this pathology in terms of the causes, diagnosis, red flag symptoms, complementary examinations, treatments and follow-up in the child population. In cases of acquired, acute onset and isolated FNP, Bell’s palsy can be assumed, and no further investigation is required. In any other scenario, complementary examinations are required. Treatment depends on the aetiology. Corticosteroids, in addition to antiviral medication, are recommended to treat Bell’s palsy whenever a viral infection is suspected. However, the lack of randomised control trials in the paediatric population does not allow us to comment on the effectiveness of these treatments. In all cases, treated or not, children have a very good recovery rate. This review emphasises the necessity of randomised control trials concerning this frequent neurological pathology in order to better treat these children. Full article
18 pages, 1349 KiB  
Article
Finding the True Number of Females with Autistic Spectrum Disorder by Estimating the Biases in Initial Recognition and Clinical Diagnosis
by Robert McCrossin
Children 2022, 9(2), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020272 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 28893
Abstract
The proportion of females whose ASD diagnosis is missed is unknown. The ratio of males to females with ASD is generally quoted as 4:1, though it is believed that there are biases preventing females from being diagnosed and that the true ratio is [...] Read more.
The proportion of females whose ASD diagnosis is missed is unknown. The ratio of males to females with ASD is generally quoted as 4:1, though it is believed that there are biases preventing females from being diagnosed and that the true ratio is lower. These biases have not been clearly identified or quantified. Starting with a clinical dataset of 1711 children <18 years old, four different methods were employed in an inductive study to identify and quantify the biases and calculate the proportion of females missed. A mathematical model was constructed to compare the findings with current published data. The true male-to-female ratio appears to be 3:4. Eighty percent of females remain undiagnosed at age 18, which has serious consequences for the mental health of young women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Adolescent Health and Development)
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9 pages, 1464 KiB  
Article
Preparedness for Life-Threatening Situations in a Pediatric Tertiary-Care University Children’s Hospital: A Survey
by Francis Ulmer, Sabine Pallivathukal, Andreas Bartenstein, Ruth Bieri, Daniela Studer and Sebastiano A. G. Lava
Children 2022, 9(2), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020271 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2331
Abstract
Pediatric nurses and physicians are rarely exposed to life-threatening events. Understanding the needs of clinicians is key for designing continuing training programs. A survey exploring preparedness to manage life-threatening events as well as training needs was mailed to all clinically active nurses and [...] Read more.
Pediatric nurses and physicians are rarely exposed to life-threatening events. Understanding the needs of clinicians is key for designing continuing training programs. A survey exploring preparedness to manage life-threatening events as well as training needs was mailed to all clinically active nurses and physicians at a tertiary-level referral children’s hospital. Overall, 469 participants out of 871 answered the questionnaire (54% response rate). Respondents felt well or very well (nurses 93%, physicians 74%) prepared to recognize a deteriorating child and rated their theoretical understanding (70% well or very well prepared) of how to manage life-threatening situations significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) preparedness (52% well or very well prepared). Both perceived theoretical understanding (p < 0.0001) and CPR preparedness (p < 0.002) were rated higher among nurses than physicians. Arrhythmias, shock, cardiac arrest and airway management constitute main areas of perceived training need. In conclusion, although a majority of pediatric nurses and physicians felt sufficiently trained to recognize a deteriorating child, their perceived ability to actively manage life-threatening events was inferior to their theoretical understanding of how to resuscitate a child. A high degree of institutional confidence and identification of areas of training need provide a good foundation for customizing future continuing education programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nursing)
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8 pages, 241 KiB  
Article
Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) Performance of Early-Term Greek Infants: The Impact of Shorter Gestation on Gross Motor Development among “Term-Born” Infants
by Dimitris Syrengelas, Eirini Nikaina, Paraskevi Kleisiouni and Tania Siahanidou
Children 2022, 9(2), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020270 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3158
Abstract
Early-term birth (37+0 to 38+6 gestational weeks) may have a negative impact on infants’ neurodevelopment compared to delivery at 39 weeks or beyond. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gross motor development of early-term infants using the Alberta [...] Read more.
Early-term birth (37+0 to 38+6 gestational weeks) may have a negative impact on infants’ neurodevelopment compared to delivery at 39 weeks or beyond. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gross motor development of early-term infants using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). A total of 1087 healthy infants (559 early-term and 528 full-term infants born at 39+0 to 41+6 weeks of gestation) were studied. Mean AIMS scores were compared between the two groups at monthly intervals. The impact of gestational age on total AIMS scores was assessed by linear regression, after adjustment for chronological age, sex and SGA. Mean total AIMS scores, albeit within normal range, were significantly lower in early-term than full-term infants at the 2nd, 6th, 7th, 8th and 12th month of age; differences between groups were within three points. In multivariate regression analysis, a longer gestation by one week had a positive impact on total AIMS score during the first year of life (β = 0.90; 95% CI 0.45, 1.35). In conclusion, early-term infants exhibit worse gross motor performance during the first year of life in comparison with their full-term peers; however, the differences between the two groups are small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics)
12 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
Parental Worries, Child Maltreatment Risk and Empowerment: How Are They Noticed in Child and Family Services?
by Sari Johanna Lepistö, Noora Ellonen, Heidi Eveliina Rantanen, Maaret Kristiina Vuorenmaa, Mika Tapio Helminen and Eija Paavilainen
Children 2022, 9(2), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020269 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2471
Abstract
Parental empowerment has been related to their well-being and self-efficacy. Learning more about the signs describing child maltreatment risk are crucial for the welfare of children and families. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of child maltreatment (CM) and [...] Read more.
Parental empowerment has been related to their well-being and self-efficacy. Learning more about the signs describing child maltreatment risk are crucial for the welfare of children and families. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of child maltreatment (CM) and related worrying factors of parents and associations between the CM risk, worries and parental empowerment. The study is based on self-report surveys administered to parents in primary health care and hospital settings. The risk of CM and related worrying factors were measured by the Brief Child Abuse Potential Inventory (BCAP) from 453 parents. Family empowerment was measured by The Generic Family Empowerment Scale (G-FES). Parents expressed worries such as loneliness and distress (20%), feelings of persecution (9%), family conflict (17%), rigidity (21%) and financial insecurity (4%). The BCAP found 27 parents with increased risk. Parents with CM risk expressed more empowerment in connection to services for their child and family. It is crucial to discuss worries in child and family services before they raise the risk level. Tools such as the BCAP are useful in systematically identifying the child maltreatment risk and parental worries under discussion, offering possibilities for preventing child maltreatment and increasing well-being of children. Full article
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