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Children, Volume 6, Issue 1 (January 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Summary: Given the power asymmetries between adults and young people, youth involvement in research [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Children Are Born to Dance! Pediatric Medical Dance/Movement Therapy: The View from Integrative Pediatric Oncology
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
Children freely expressing themselves through spontaneous dance is a natural part of childhood. The healing powers of dance are universal in all cultures across history. Dance/movement therapy (DMT) in pediatric oncology is little known and underutilized. This article discusses DMT, specifically focusing on [...] Read more.
Children freely expressing themselves through spontaneous dance is a natural part of childhood. The healing powers of dance are universal in all cultures across history. Dance/movement therapy (DMT) in pediatric oncology is little known and underutilized. This article discusses DMT, specifically focusing on pediatric oncology. It defines and clarifies the difference between medical DMT as a psychotherapeutic modality aimed at addressing the patient’s psychosocial needs, and dance and therapeutic dance used recreationally to engage patients during their hospital visits. A literature review of DMT with medically ill children in the United States and worldwide is provided. It culminates with a focus on advancements in the field, discussing the future of pediatric medical DMT. Grounded in a biopsychosocial perspective, the intrinsically nonverbal and embodied nature of pediatric medical DMT is uniquely positioned to be a strong component of integrative oncology services. The use of DMT to synthesize potentially traumatic aspects of the medical experience is proposed. It ends with a call for research posing the question: Can pediatric medical DMT support the patient to express feelings while in cancer treatment within the context of a psychotherapeutic milieu, enabling the patient to create an embodied coherent narrative that fosters expressivity and empowerment? Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrative Medicine in Pediatric Oncology)
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Open AccessReview
The Power of Massage in Children with Cancer—How Can We Do Effective Research?
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Children with cancer experience multiple troubling symptoms. Massage offers a safe, non-pharmacological approach to address these symptoms. Numerous studies of massage in children and adults with cancer have been performed, yet most are unable to demonstrate significant benefit. This review aims to summarize [...] Read more.
Children with cancer experience multiple troubling symptoms. Massage offers a safe, non-pharmacological approach to address these symptoms. Numerous studies of massage in children and adults with cancer have been performed, yet most are unable to demonstrate significant benefit. This review aims to summarize what we know about the role of massage and sets goals and challenges for future massage research. This paper descriptively reviews the existing literature available in PubMed (both prior reviews and select papers) and the holes in prior research studies. Prior research on massage has been limited by small sample size/insufficient power, inappropriate outcome measures or timing, heterogeneous patient populations, inconsistent intervention techniques, and other design flaws. Based on the findings and limitations of previous work, numerous suggestions are made for future studies to increase the potency of findings, including thoughts about appropriate dosing, control groups, type of intervention, outcome measures, patient selection, feasibility, and statistics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrative Medicine in Pediatric Oncology)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Neuroblastoma: Tumor Biology and Its Implications for Staging and Treatment
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, has widely variable outcomes dependent on the specific biology of the tumor. In this review, current biologic principles that are used to stratify risk and guide treatment algorithms are discussed. The role for surgical [...] Read more.
Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, has widely variable outcomes dependent on the specific biology of the tumor. In this review, current biologic principles that are used to stratify risk and guide treatment algorithms are discussed. The role for surgical resection in neuroblastoma is also reviewed, including the indications and timing of surgery within the greater treatment plan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Surgical Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle
Risk Factors for Peer Victimization among Middle and High School Students
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Peer victimization at school is a pressing public health issue. Peer victimization has a deleterious impact on the victim and can lead to lifelong negative outcomes such as depression. The purpose of the present study is to examine peer victimization and potential individual, [...] Read more.
Peer victimization at school is a pressing public health issue. Peer victimization has a deleterious impact on the victim and can lead to lifelong negative outcomes such as depression. The purpose of the present study is to examine peer victimization and potential individual, school, and peer correlates in a national sample of middle and high school students. A secondary data analysis of the School Crime and Safety survey was conducted to investigate study aims. Greater than one in 20 (7.2%) of students reported peer victimization at school. Multiple individual factors were found to increase the odds of victimization including grade level, grades received, and school avoidance among other variables. School and peer factors were also found to be significant. Study findings may be useful to school personnel for reducing peer victimization at school. Specific recommendations for school personnel are offered. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Family Income at Birth and Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder at Age 15: Racial Differences
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) resources protect children and adults against the risk of medical and psychiatric conditions. According to the Minorities’ Diminished Returns theory, however, such protective effects are systemically weaker for the members of racial and ethnic minority groups compared to Whites. [...] Read more.
Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) resources protect children and adults against the risk of medical and psychiatric conditions. According to the Minorities’ Diminished Returns theory, however, such protective effects are systemically weaker for the members of racial and ethnic minority groups compared to Whites. Aims: Using a national data set with 15 years of follow up, we compared Black and White youth for the effects of family SES at birth on the risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) at age 15. Methods: The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS, 1998–2016) is a longitudinal prospective study of urban youth from birth to age 15. This analysis included 2006 youth who were either White (n = 360) or Black (n = 1646). The independent variable was family income, the dependent variable was ADHD at age 15. Child gender, maternal age, and family type at birth were covariates, and race was the focal moderator. We ran logistic regressions in the overall sample and specific to race. Results: In the overall sample, high family income at birth was not associated with the risk of ADHD at age 15, independent of all covariates. Despite this relationship, we found a significant interaction between race and family income at birth on subsequent risk of ADHD, indicating a stronger effect for Whites compared to Blacks. In stratified models, we found a marginally significant protective effect of family SES against the risk of ADHD for White youths. For African American youth, on the other hand, family SES was shown to have a marginally significant risk for ADHD. Conclusions: The health gain that follows family income is smaller for Black than White families, which is in line with the Minorities’ Diminished Returns. The solution to health disparities is not simply policies that aim to reduce the racial gap in SES, because various racial health disparities in the United States are not due to differential access to resources but rather the impact of these resources on health outcomes. Public policies, therefore, should go beyond equalizing access to resources and also address the structural racism and discrimination that impact Blacks’ lives. Policies should fight racism and should help Black families to overcome barriers in their lives so they can gain health from their SES and social mobility. As racism is multi-level, multi-level interventions are needed to tackle diminished returns of SES. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Children in 2018
Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Children maintains high quality standards for its published papers [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Association between Access to Electronic Devices in the Home Environment and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Children
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
This study examined the association between access to electronic devices in the home and cardiorespiratory fitness in children. Participants were children aged 8–12 years from a local elementary school (n = 106, mean age = 9.7 + 1.1 years, male = 50). [...] Read more.
This study examined the association between access to electronic devices in the home and cardiorespiratory fitness in children. Participants were children aged 8–12 years from a local elementary school (n = 106, mean age = 9.7 + 1.1 years, male = 50). Child access to electronic devices was measured with a 37-item parent-reported questionnaire. Estimated maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 Peak) was calculated from The Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) using a validated algorithm. The association between access to electronic devices in the home and cardiorespiratory fitness was explored by employing hierarchical ridge regression, using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model, controlling for the covariates of sex, age, and Body Mass Index (BMI). Controlling for sex, age, and BMI, the number of electronic items in a child’s bedroom was significantly inversely related to the estimated VO2 Peak (b = −1.30 mL/kg/min, 95% C.I.: −2.46 mL/kg/min, −0.15 mL/kg/min, p = 0.028) and PACER laps (b = −3.70 laps, 95% C.I.: −6.97 laps, −0.41 laps, p = 0.028) However, the total number of electronic items in the home and total number of electronic items owned did not significantly relate to the estimated VO2 Peak (p = 0.847, 0.964) or the number of PACER laps (p = 0.847, 0.964). Child health behavior interventions focused on the home environment should devote specific attention to the bedroom as a primary locus of easily modifiable intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Integrative Pediatrics)
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Open AccessReview
Factors Affecting Vitamin D Status in Infants
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Vitamin D is critical to children’s skeletal development and health. Despite this, the factors which determine vitamin D concentrations during infancy remain incompletely understood. This article reviews the literature assessing the factors which can affect vitamin D status in infancy, including antenatal and [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is critical to children’s skeletal development and health. Despite this, the factors which determine vitamin D concentrations during infancy remain incompletely understood. This article reviews the literature assessing the factors which can affect vitamin D status in infancy, including antenatal and postnatal vitamin D supplementation. Observational data supports that dietary intake of vitamin D, UV exposure, and geographic factors contribute significantly to infants’ vitamin D status, but the relationship is unclear regarding genetic variation, ethnicity, and maternal vitamin D status. Randomised controlled trials have compared higher versus lower doses of infant vitamin D supplementation, but no studies have compared infant vitamin D supplementation to placebo and eliminated external sources of vitamin D to fully quantify its effect on vitamin D status. Knowledge gaps remain regarding the factors associated with optimal vitamin D concentrations in infants—including key factors such as ethnicity and genetic variation—and further studies are needed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Pulmonary Metastasectomy in Pediatric Solid Tumors
Received: 2 December 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Metastatic disease and the complications of treating metastatic disease are the primary causes of mortality in children with solid malignancies. Nearly 25% of children with solid tumors have metastatic disease at initial diagnosis and another 20% develop metastases during or after treatment. The [...] Read more.
Metastatic disease and the complications of treating metastatic disease are the primary causes of mortality in children with solid malignancies. Nearly 25% of children with solid tumors have metastatic disease at initial diagnosis and another 20% develop metastases during or after treatment. The most common location of these metastases is the lung. The role of surgery in metastatic disease depends greatly on the histology of the primary. In general, tumors that are refractory to adjuvant therapies are most appropriate for pulmonary metastasectomy. This article will summarize the indications for metastasectomy in pediatric solid tumors and discuss the ongoing debate over the technique of metastasectomy in osteosarcoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Surgical Oncology)
Open AccessArticle
Non-High-Risk Neuroblastoma: Classification and Achievements in Therapy
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 23 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Neuroblastoma, a tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extra-cranial neoplasm of childhood. Variables with prognostic significance in patients with neuroblastoma, including age at diagnosis, disease stage, tumor histology, MYCN gene amplification, tumor cell ploidy, and the presence of segmental [...] Read more.
Neuroblastoma, a tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extra-cranial neoplasm of childhood. Variables with prognostic significance in patients with neuroblastoma, including age at diagnosis, disease stage, tumor histology, MYCN gene amplification, tumor cell ploidy, and the presence of segmental chromosomal aberrations are utilized to classify patients based on risk of disease recurrence. Patients with non-high-risk neuroblastoma, low- and intermediate-risk categories, represent nearly half of all newly diagnosed cases. This group has an excellent event-free and overall survival with current therapy. Over time, the objective in treatment of non-high-risk neuroblastoma has been reduction of therapy intensity to minimize short- and long-term adverse events all the while maintaining excellent outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Neuroblastoma)
Open AccessReview
Chest Compressions in the Delivery Room
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
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Abstract
Annually, an estimated 13–26 million newborns need respiratory support and 2–3 million newborns need extensive resuscitation, defined as chest compression and 100% oxygen with or without epinephrine in the delivery room. Despite such care, there is a high incidence of mortality and neurologic [...] Read more.
Annually, an estimated 13–26 million newborns need respiratory support and 2–3 million newborns need extensive resuscitation, defined as chest compression and 100% oxygen with or without epinephrine in the delivery room. Despite such care, there is a high incidence of mortality and neurologic morbidity. The poor prognosis associated with receiving chest compression alone or with medications in the delivery room raises questions as to whether improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation methods specifically tailored to the newborn could improve outcomes. This review discusses the current recommendations, mode of action, different compression to ventilation ratios, continuous chest compression with asynchronous ventilations, chest compression and sustained inflation optimal depth, and oxygen concentration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
Open AccessArticle
Conceptualizing Youth Participation in Children’s Health Research: Insights from a Youth-Driven Process for Developing a Youth Advisory Council
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 23 December 2018 / Published: 28 December 2018
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Abstract
Given the power asymmetries between adults and young people, youth involvement in research is often at risk of tokenism. While many disciplines have seen a shift from conducting research on youth to conducting research with and for youth, engaging children and teens in [...] Read more.
Given the power asymmetries between adults and young people, youth involvement in research is often at risk of tokenism. While many disciplines have seen a shift from conducting research on youth to conducting research with and for youth, engaging children and teens in research remains fraught with conceptual, methodological, and practical challenges. Arnstein’s foundational Ladder of Participation has been adapted in novel ways in youth research, but in this paper, we present a new rendering: a ‘rope ladder.’ This concept came out of our youth-driven planning process to develop a Youth Advisory Council for the Human Environments Analysis Laboratory, an interdisciplinary research laboratory focused on developing healthy communities for young people. As opposed to a traditional ladder, composed of rigid material and maintaining a static position, the key innovation of our concept is that it integrates a greater degree of flexibility and mobility by allowing dynamic movement beyond a 2D vertical plane. At the same time, the pliable nature of the rope makes it both responsive and susceptible to exogenous forces. We argue that involving youth in the design of their own participatory framework reveals dimensions of participation that are important to youth, which may not be captured by the existing participatory models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Longitudinal Changes in Sitting Patterns, Physical Activity, and Health Outcomes in Adolescents
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 23 December 2018
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Abstract
This study examined two-year changes in patterns of activity and associations with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among adolescents. Inclinometers (activPAL) assessed sitting, sitting bouts, standing, stepping, and breaks from sitting. ActiGraph-accelerometers assessed sedentary time (SED), light-intensity physical activity (LIPA, [...] Read more.
This study examined two-year changes in patterns of activity and associations with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among adolescents. Inclinometers (activPAL) assessed sitting, sitting bouts, standing, stepping, and breaks from sitting. ActiGraph-accelerometers assessed sedentary time (SED), light-intensity physical activity (LIPA, stratified as low- and high-LIPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Anthropometric measures were objectively assessed at baseline and self-reported at follow-up. Data from 324 and 67 participants were obtained at baseline and follow-up, respectively. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models examined changes over time, and associations between baseline values and BMI and WC at follow-up. There were significant increases in BMI (0.6 kg/m2) and durations of prolonged sitting (26.4 min/day) and SED (52 min/day), and significant decreases in stepping (−19 min/day), LIPA (−33 min/day), low-LIPA (−26 min/day), high-LIPA (−6.3 min/day), MVPA (−19 min/day), and the number of breaks/day (−8). High baseline sitting time was associated (p = 0.086) with higher BMI at follow-up. There were no significant associations between baseline sitting, prolonged sitting, LIPA, or MVPA with WC. Although changes in daily activity patterns were not in a favourable direction, there were no clear associations with BMI or WC. Research with larger sample sizes and more time points is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessReview
Hepatoblastoma—The Evolution of Biology, Surgery, and Transplantation
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
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Abstract
The most common primary malignant liver tumor of childhood, hepatoblastoma has increased in incidence over the last 30 years, but little is still known about its pathogenesis. Discoveries in molecular biology provide clues but have yet to define targeted therapies. Disease-free survival varies [...] Read more.
The most common primary malignant liver tumor of childhood, hepatoblastoma has increased in incidence over the last 30 years, but little is still known about its pathogenesis. Discoveries in molecular biology provide clues but have yet to define targeted therapies. Disease-free survival varies according to stage, but is greater than 90% in favorable risk populations, in part due to improvements in chemotherapeutic regimens, surgical resection, and earlier referral to liver transplant centers. This article aims to highlight the principles of disease that guide current treatment algorithms. Surgical treatment, especially orthotopic liver transplantation, will also be emphasized in the context of the current Children’s Oncology Group international study of pediatric liver cancer (AHEP-1531). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Surgical Oncology)
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