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Children 2019, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6010007

Factors Affecting Vitamin D Status in Infants

1
Monash University, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences; Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
2
Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, 50 Flemington Road, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
3
University of Melbourne, School of Population and Global Health, Grattan Street, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
4
Monash Children’s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, 246 Clayton Road, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
5
University of Melbourne, Department of Paediatrics, Grattan Street, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
6
Royal Children’s Hospital, Department of Allergy and Immunology, 50 Flemington Road, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
7
University of Manchester, The Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract

Vitamin D is critical to children’s skeletal development and health. Despite this, the factors which determine vitamin D concentrations during infancy remain incompletely understood. This article reviews the literature assessing the factors which can affect vitamin D status in infancy, including antenatal and postnatal vitamin D supplementation. Observational data supports that dietary intake of vitamin D, UV exposure, and geographic factors contribute significantly to infants’ vitamin D status, but the relationship is unclear regarding genetic variation, ethnicity, and maternal vitamin D status. Randomised controlled trials have compared higher versus lower doses of infant vitamin D supplementation, but no studies have compared infant vitamin D supplementation to placebo and eliminated external sources of vitamin D to fully quantify its effect on vitamin D status. Knowledge gaps remain regarding the factors associated with optimal vitamin D concentrations in infants—including key factors such as ethnicity and genetic variation—and further studies are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; infants; vitamin D supplementation; maternal supplementation; ethnicity; infant formula; breastfeeding; UV exposure; latitude; socioeconomic status vitamin D; infants; vitamin D supplementation; maternal supplementation; ethnicity; infant formula; breastfeeding; UV exposure; latitude; socioeconomic status
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Fink, C.; Peters, R.L.; Koplin, J.J.; Brown, J.; Allen, K.J. Factors Affecting Vitamin D Status in Infants. Children 2019, 6, 7.

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