Special Issue "Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation"

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Satyan Lakshminrusimha
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of California at Davis Children’s Hospital, 2516, Stockton Blvd, Sacramento CA, USA
Interests: neonatal resuscitation; oxygen toxicity; persistent pulmonary hypertension

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

According to WHO, birth asphyxia is thought to account for four million deaths worldwide every year. Approximately a third of all deaths below five years of age occur secondary to perinatal asphyxia. Many of these deaths can be prevented with basic neonatal resuscitation maneuvers aimed at effectively ventilating the lung.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American Heart Association (AHA), along with similar bodies from other countries, evaluate resuscitation science through the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). This Special Issue focuses on emerging concepts in neonatal resuscitation—science of resuscitation, improvement in education techniques and dissemination of knowledge. Hot topics in resuscitation science include oxygen use in the delivery room for premature infants, placental transfusion during resuscitation, approach to meconium stained amniotic fluid and coordination of chest compressions and ventilation.

We invite you to contribute articles on any aspect of neonatal resuscitation to this Special Issue. Both reviews and original research will be considered for publication.

Prof. Satyan Lakshminrusimha
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • birth asphyxia
  • hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
  • oxygen
  • chest compressions
  • epinephrine
  • simulation
  • telemedicine
  • ventilation
  • placental transfusion

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
NICU Admissions for Meconium Aspiration Syndrome before and after a National Resuscitation Program Suctioning Guideline Change
Children 2019, 6(5), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6050068 - 07 May 2019
Abstract
The Textbook of Neonatal Resuscitation, seventh edition, does not suggest routine endotracheal suctioning for non-vigorous infants born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid. We compared 301,150 infants at ≥35 weeks’ gestational age inborn at 311 Vermont Oxford Network member centers in the United States (U.S.) [...] Read more.
The Textbook of Neonatal Resuscitation, seventh edition, does not suggest routine endotracheal suctioning for non-vigorous infants born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid. We compared 301,150 infants at ≥35 weeks’ gestational age inborn at 311 Vermont Oxford Network member centers in the United States (U.S.) and admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) who were born before (2013 to 2015) and after (2017) the guideline change. Logistic regression models adjusting for clustering of infants within centers were used to calculate risk ratios. NICU admissions for infants with a diagnosis of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) decreased from 1.8% to 1.5% (risk ratio: 0.82; 95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.97) and delivery room endotracheal suctioning in this group decreased from 57.0% to 28.9% (0.51; 0.41, 0.62). Treatment with conventional or high frequency ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation remained unchanged 42.3% vs. 40.3% (0.95; 0.80, 1.13) among infants with MAS and 9.1% vs. 8.2% (0.91; 0.87, 0.95) among infants without MAS. The use of surfactant among infants with MAS increased from 24.6% to 30% (1.22; 1.02, 1.48). Mortality (2.6 to 2.9%, 1.12; 0.74, 1.69) and moderate/severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (5.4 to 6.8%, 1.24; 0.91, 1.69) increased slightly in 2017. Subgroup analyses of infants with 1 min Apgar scores of ≤3 found similar results. While NICU admissions for MAS and tracheal suctioning decreased after the introduction of the new guideline with no subsequent increase in severe respiratory distress among infants with and without a MAS diagnosis, limitations in our study preclude inferring that the new guideline is safe or effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
Open AccessArticle
Safety and Ergonomic Challenges of Ventilating a Premature Infant During Delayed Cord Clamping
Children 2019, 6(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6040059 - 13 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Delayed cord clamping (DCC) is endorsed by multiple professional organizations for both term and preterm infants. In preterm infants, DCC has been shown to reduce intraventricular hemorrhage, lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, and reduce the need for transfusions. Furthermore, in preterm animal models, [...] Read more.
Delayed cord clamping (DCC) is endorsed by multiple professional organizations for both term and preterm infants. In preterm infants, DCC has been shown to reduce intraventricular hemorrhage, lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, and reduce the need for transfusions. Furthermore, in preterm animal models, ventilation during DCC leads to improved hemodynamics. While providing ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during DCC may benefit infants, the logistics of performing such a maneuver can be complicated. In this simulation-based study, we sought to explore attitudes of providers along with the safety and ergonomic challenges involved with safely resuscitating a newborn infant while attached to the placenta. Multidisciplinary workshops were held simulating vaginal and Caesarean deliveries, during which providers started positive pressure ventilation and transitioned to holding CPAP on a preterm manikin. Review of videos identified 5 themes of concerns: sterility, equipment, mobility, space and workflow, and communication. In this study, simulation was a key methodology for safe identification of various safety and ergonomic issues related to implementation of ventilation during DCC. Centers interested in implementing DCC with ventilation are encouraged to form multidisciplinary work groups and utilize simulations prior to performing care on infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of a Neonatal Resuscitation Curriculum in Liberia
Children 2019, 6(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6040056 - 08 Apr 2019
Abstract
Neonatal mortality in Africa is among the highest in the world. In Liberia, providers face significant challenges due to lack of resources, and providers in referral centers need to be prepared to appropriately provide neonatal resuscitation. A team of American Heart Association health [...] Read more.
Neonatal mortality in Africa is among the highest in the world. In Liberia, providers face significant challenges due to lack of resources, and providers in referral centers need to be prepared to appropriately provide neonatal resuscitation. A team of American Heart Association health care providers taught a two-day neonatal resuscitation curriculum designed for low-resource settings at a regional hospital in Liberia. The goal of this study was to evaluate if the curriculum improved knowledge and comfort in participation. The curriculum included simulations and was based on the Neonatal Resuscitation Protocol (NRP). Students learned newborn airway management, quality chest compression skills, and resuscitation interventions through lectures and manikin-based simulation sessions. Seventy-five participants were trained. There was a 63% increase in knowledge scores post training (p < 0.00001). Prior cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training, age, occupation, and pre-intervention test score did not have a significant effect on post-intervention knowledge test scores. The median provider comfort score improved from a 4 to 5 (p < 0.00001). Factors such as age, sex, prior NRP education, occupation, and post-intervention test scores did not have a significant effect on the post-intervention comfort level score. A modified NRP and manikin simulation-based curriculum may be an effective way of teaching health care providers in resource-limited settings. Training of providers in limited-resource settings could potentially help decrease neonatal mortality in Liberia. Modification of protocols is sometimes necessary and an important part of providing context-specific training. The results of this study have no direct relation to decreasing neonatal mortality until proven. A general resuscitation curriculum with modified NRP training may be effective, and further work should focus on the effect of such interventions on neonatal mortality rates in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
Open AccessArticle
Oxygenation and Hemodynamics during Chest Compressions in a Lamb Model of Perinatal Asphyxia Induced Cardiac Arrest
Children 2019, 6(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6040052 - 03 Apr 2019
Abstract
The current guidelines recommend the use of 100% O2 during resuscitation of a neonate requiring chest compressions (CC). Studies comparing 21% and 100% O2 during CC were conducted in postnatal models and have not shown a difference in incidence or timing [...] Read more.
The current guidelines recommend the use of 100% O2 during resuscitation of a neonate requiring chest compressions (CC). Studies comparing 21% and 100% O2 during CC were conducted in postnatal models and have not shown a difference in incidence or timing of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The objective of this study is to evaluate systemic oxygenation and oxygen delivery to the brain during CC in an ovine model of perinatal asphyxial arrest induced by umbilical cord occlusion. Pulseless cardiac arrest was induced by umbilical cord occlusion in 22 lambs. After 5 min of asystole, lambs were resuscitated with 21% O2 as per Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) guidelines. At the onset of CC, inspired O2 was either increased to 100% O2 (n = 25) or continued at 21% (n = 9). Lambs were ventilated for 30 min post ROSC and FiO2 was gradually titrated to achieve preductal SpO2 of 85–95%. All lambs achieved ROSC. During CC, PaO2 was 21.6 ± 1.6 mm Hg with 21% and 23.9 ± 6.8 mm Hg with 100% O2 (p = 0.16). Carotid flow was significantly lower during CC (1.2 ± 1.6 mL/kg/min in 21% and 3.2 ± 3.4 mL/kg/min in 100% oxygen) compared to baseline fetal levels (27 ± 9 mL/kg/min). Oxygen delivery to the brain was 0.05 ± 0.06 mL/kg/min in the 21% group and 0.11 ± 0.09 mL/kg/min in the 100% group and was significantly lower than fetal levels (2.1 ± 0.3 mL/kg/min). Immediately after ROSC, lambs ventilated with 100% O2 had higher PaO2 and pulmonary flow. It was concluded that carotid blood flow, systemic PaO2, and oxygen delivery to the brain are very low during chest compressions for cardiac arrest irrespective of 21% or 100% inspired oxygen use during resuscitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
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Open AccessArticle
Does the Number of Fingers on the Bag Influence Volume Delivery? A Randomized Model Study of Bag-Valve-Mask Ventilation in Infants
Children 2018, 5(10), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/children5100132 - 21 Sep 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
We sought to compare the effectiveness of two versus five fingers used for bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation on effective tidal volume (VTeff) delivery in an infant resuscitation model. In a randomised cross-over study, 40 healthcare professionals ventilated a modified leak-free infant resuscitation [...] Read more.
We sought to compare the effectiveness of two versus five fingers used for bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation on effective tidal volume (VTeff) delivery in an infant resuscitation model. In a randomised cross-over study, 40 healthcare professionals ventilated a modified leak-free infant resuscitation manikin with both two and five fingers, using a self-inflating bag. The delivered and effective tidal volumes, ventilation rate, and mask leak were measured and recorded using a respiratory function monitor. We found no significant differences in the VTeff (five-finger 61.7 ± 23.9 vs. two-finger 58.8 ± 16.6 mL; p = 0.35) or ventilatory minute volume (2.71 ± 1.59 vs. 2.76 ± 1.24 L/min; p = 0.40) of both BVM ventilation techniques. However, there was an increase in the delivered tidal volume (VTdel) and mask leak when using the five-finger technique compared with the two-finger technique (VTdel 96.1 ± 19.4 vs. 87.7 ± 15.5 mL; p < 0.01; and mask leak 34.6 ± 23.0 vs. 30.0 ± 21.0%; p = 0.02). Although the five-finger technique was associated with an increased mask leak, the number of fingers used during the BVM ventilation had no effect on VTeff in an infant resuscitation model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Ergonomic Challenges Inherent in Neonatal Resuscitation
Children 2019, 6(6), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6060074 - 03 Jun 2019
Abstract
Neonatal resuscitation demands that healthcare professionals perform cognitive and technical tasks while working under time pressure as a team in order to provide efficient and effective care. Neonatal resuscitation teams simultaneously process and act upon multiple data streams, perform ergonomically challenging technical procedures, [...] Read more.
Neonatal resuscitation demands that healthcare professionals perform cognitive and technical tasks while working under time pressure as a team in order to provide efficient and effective care. Neonatal resuscitation teams simultaneously process and act upon multiple data streams, perform ergonomically challenging technical procedures, and coordinate their actions within a small physical space. An understanding and application of human factors and ergonomics science broadens the areas of need in resuscitation research, and will lead to enhanced technologies, systems, and work environments that support human limitations and maximize human performance during neonatal resuscitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
Open AccessReview
Neonatal Resuscitation with an Intact Cord: Current and Ongoing Trials
Children 2019, 6(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6040060 - 22 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Correction
Abstract
Premature and full-term infants are at high risk of morbidities such as intraventricular hemorrhage or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The sickest infants at birth are the most likely to die and or develop intraventricular hemorrhage. Delayed cord clamping has been shown to reduce these morbidities, [...] Read more.
Premature and full-term infants are at high risk of morbidities such as intraventricular hemorrhage or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The sickest infants at birth are the most likely to die and or develop intraventricular hemorrhage. Delayed cord clamping has been shown to reduce these morbidities, but is currently not provided to those infants that need immediate resuscitation. This review will discuss recently published and ongoing or planned clinical trials involving neonatal resuscitation while the newborn is still attached to the umbilical cord. We will discuss the implications on neonatal management and delivery room care should this method become standard practice. We will review previous and ongoing trials that provided respiratory support compared to no support. Lastly, we will discuss the implications of implementing routine resuscitation support outside of a research setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
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Open AccessReview
Epinephrine in Neonatal Resuscitation
Children 2019, 6(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6040051 - 02 Apr 2019
Abstract
Epinephrine is the only medication recommended by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation for use in newborn resuscitation. Strong evidence from large clinical trials is lacking owing to the infrequent use of epinephrine during neonatal resuscitation. Current recommendations are weak as they are [...] Read more.
Epinephrine is the only medication recommended by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation for use in newborn resuscitation. Strong evidence from large clinical trials is lacking owing to the infrequent use of epinephrine during neonatal resuscitation. Current recommendations are weak as they are extrapolated from animal models or pediatric and adult studies that do not adequately depict the transitioning circulation and fluid-filled lungs of the newborn in the delivery room. Many gaps in knowledge including the optimal dosing, best route and timing of epinephrine administration warrant further studies. Experiments on a well-established ovine model of perinatal asphyxial cardiac arrest closely mimicking the newborn infant provide important information that can guide future clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
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Open AccessReview
Use of Telemedicine to Improve Neonatal Resuscitation
Children 2019, 6(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6040050 - 01 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Most newborn infants do well at birth; however, some require immediate attention by a team with advanced resuscitation skills. Providers at rural or community hospitals do not have as much opportunity for practice of their resuscitation skills as providers at larger centers and [...] Read more.
Most newborn infants do well at birth; however, some require immediate attention by a team with advanced resuscitation skills. Providers at rural or community hospitals do not have as much opportunity for practice of their resuscitation skills as providers at larger centers and are, therefore, often unable to provide the high level of care needed in an emergency. Education through telemedicine can bring additional training opportunities to these rural sites in a low-resource model in order to better prepare them for advanced neonatal resuscitation. Telemedicine also offers the opportunity to immediately bring a more experienced team to newborns to provide support or even lead the resuscitation. Telemedicine can also be used to train and assist in the performance of emergent procedures occasionally required during a neonatal resuscitation including airway management, needle thoracentesis, and umbilical line placement. Telemedicine can provide unique opportunities to significantly increase the quality of neonatal resuscitation and stabilization in rural or community hospitals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
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Open AccessReview
Optimal Inspired Fraction of Oxygen in the Delivery Room for Preterm Infants
Children 2019, 6(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6020029 - 19 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Postnatal adaptation of preterm infants entails a series of difficulties among which the immaturity of the respiratory system is the most vital. To overcome respiratory insufficiency, caregivers attending in the delivery room use positive pressure ventilation and oxygen. A body of evidence in [...] Read more.
Postnatal adaptation of preterm infants entails a series of difficulties among which the immaturity of the respiratory system is the most vital. To overcome respiratory insufficiency, caregivers attending in the delivery room use positive pressure ventilation and oxygen. A body of evidence in relation of oxygen management in the delivery room has been accumulated in recent years; however, the optimal initial inspired fraction of oxygen, the time to achieve specific oxygen saturation targets, and oxygen titration have not been yet clearly established. The aim of this review is to update the reader by critically analyzing the most relevant literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
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Open AccessReview
Chest Compressions in the Delivery Room
Children 2019, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6010004 - 03 Jan 2019
Abstract
Annually, an estimated 13–26 million newborns need respiratory support and 2–3 million newborns need extensive resuscitation, defined as chest compression and 100% oxygen with or without epinephrine in the delivery room. Despite such care, there is a high incidence of mortality and neurologic [...] Read more.
Annually, an estimated 13–26 million newborns need respiratory support and 2–3 million newborns need extensive resuscitation, defined as chest compression and 100% oxygen with or without epinephrine in the delivery room. Despite such care, there is a high incidence of mortality and neurologic morbidity. The poor prognosis associated with receiving chest compression alone or with medications in the delivery room raises questions as to whether improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation methods specifically tailored to the newborn could improve outcomes. This review discusses the current recommendations, mode of action, different compression to ventilation ratios, continuous chest compression with asynchronous ventilations, chest compression and sustained inflation optimal depth, and oxygen concentration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)

Other

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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Anup C. Katheria. Neonatal Resuscitation with an Intact Cord: Current and Ongoing Trials. Children 2019, 6, 60
Children 2019, 6(5), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6050071 - 21 May 2019
Abstract
The author wishes to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
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