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Open AccessArticle

Reflux Incidence among Exclusively Breast Milk Fed Infants: Differences of Feeding at Breast versus Pumped Milk

1
Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
2
Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27516, USA
3
Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Genevieve Becker
Children 2016, 3(4), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/children3040018
Received: 1 July 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
The practice of feeding infants expressed breast milk is increasing in the United States, but the impacts on infant and maternal health are still understudied. This study examines the monthly incidence of regurgitation (gastro-esophageal reflux) in exclusively breast milk fed infants from ages two to six months. Among infants whose mothers participated in the Infant Feeding Practices II Study (IFPS II; 2005–2007), data on reflux and feeding mode were collected by monthly questionnaires. A longitudinal, repeated measures analysis was used, with feeding mode lagged by one month in order to compare reflux incidence among infants fed directly at the breast to infants receiving pumped breast milk. Mothers in both feeding groups had similar characteristics, although a greater proportion feeding at least some pumped milk were primiparous. The number of exclusively breastfed infants decreased steadily between months 2 and 6, although the proportion fed at the breast remained similar over time. An association between feeding mode and reflux incidence was not found; however, the analyses were limited by a small number of reported reflux cases. More studies are needed to further explain the relationship between different feeding modes and infant reflux. View Full-Text
Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding; breast milk feeding; reflux exclusive breastfeeding; breast milk feeding; reflux
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Yourkavitch, J.; Zadrozny, S.; Flax, V.L. Reflux Incidence among Exclusively Breast Milk Fed Infants: Differences of Feeding at Breast versus Pumped Milk. Children 2016, 3, 18.

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