Special Issue "The Potential Impact of Reliance on Expressed Milk Feeding for Maternal and Child Health"

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Genevieve Becker

BEST - Breastfeeding Education Support and Training - Services, 2 Kylemore Park, Taylor’s Hill, Galway, Ireland
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: health worker training and performamnce assessment related to supporting infant and young child feeding, research methodology for breastfeeding, milk expression, Baby Friendly Initiative

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Breastfeeding is truly the keystone of maternal child health and the great equalizer to ensure best health and development for mothers and children worldwide, no matter what their circumstances. While there is an increasing data base of evidence of the impact of breastfeeding on various risk factors, there remains a lack of consistency in the definitions used, timing of follow-up, measurement of outcomes, etc. across studies, has made it virtually impossible to pin down the exact risks and benefits of any particular behavior. This is further compounded by the fact that more and more women are feeding their infants expressed milk. Unfortunately, while this remains an excellent nutritional resource for every baby, there is a huge physiological loss for both mother and child when breastfeeding is replaced with expressed human milk feeding. This situation is compounded by the fact that "breastfeeding" has been defined primarily from the perspective of infant nutrition, rather than from the perspective of potential impact on both maternal and child health. Infant nutrition is primarily concerned with what is ingested on average over the course of the day, as the feeding of human milk. This definition has caused additional problems with the interpretation of the literature, as the every changing quality of the milk that occurs with breastfeeding at the breast is lost, as is the physiological interaction and closeness that leads to changes in brain function and development. This special issue in Children will serve as a forum to explore what research is needed to address gaps in the understanding of the true benefits of breastfeeding at the breast, what is retained in the feeding of stored human milk, and to explicitly explore what is lost when we are forced by societal pressures to turn from breastfeeding to feeding of expressed pooled milk.

I look forward to receiving your contributions!

Miriam H Labbok, MD, MPH, IBCLC, FACPM, FABM, FILCA.
Guest Editor.

Founding Professor and Director Carolina Global Breastfeeding Institute (CGBI)
Founder, Past President and Board Member, Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Board Member, World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action
WHO Collaborating Centre on Sexual and Reproductive Health
EMPower: Enhancing Maternity Practices, Breastfeeding Team Leader
Department of Maternal and Child Health, Gillings School of Global Public Health
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill, NC USA 27599-7445
[email protected] tel: 919-966-0928   fax:919-966-0458
http://breastfeeding.unc.edu
http://www.breastfeeding4health.com/

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • breastfeeding
  • expressed human milk feeding
  • breastfeeding at the breast vs feeding of expressed milk
  • milk quality from hand milk expression vs pump expression
  • maternal health outcomes

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial The Potential Impact of Reliance on Expressed Milk Feeding for Maternal and Child Health
Received: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
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Abstract
Human milk has nourished human babies for thousands of years and its importance is widely recognised.[...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Mothers’ Use of Social Media to Inform Their Practices for Pumping and Providing Pumped Human Milk to Their Infants
Received: 27 June 2016 / Revised: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 21 October 2016 / Published: 31 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (600 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite U.S. mothers’ wide adoption of pumps and bottles to provide human milk (HM) to their infants, mothers lack comprehensive, evidence-based guidelines for these practices. Thus, some women use online sources to seek information from each other. We aimed to characterize the information
[...] Read more.
Despite U.S. mothers’ wide adoption of pumps and bottles to provide human milk (HM) to their infants, mothers lack comprehensive, evidence-based guidelines for these practices. Thus, some women use online sources to seek information from each other. We aimed to characterize the information women sought online about pumping. We used data provided by ~25,000 women in an open cohort within a discussion forum about parenting. We examined 543 posts containing questions about providing pumped HM cross-sectionally and longitudinally in three time intervals: prenatal, 0 through 1.5 months postpartum, and 1.5 to 4.5 months postpartum. We used thematic analysis with Atlas.ti to analyze the content of posts. During pregnancy, women commonly asked questions about how and where to obtain pumps, both out-of-pocket and through insurance policies. Between 0–1.5 months postpartum, many mothers asked about how to handle pumped HM to ensure its safety as fed. Between 1.5–4.5 months postpartum, mothers sought strategies to overcome constraints to pumping both at home and at work and also asked about stopping pumping and providing their milk. Women’s questions related to ensuring the safety of pumped HM represent information women need from health professionals, while their questions related to obtaining pumps suggest that women may benefit from clearer guidelines from their insurance providers. The difficulties women face at home and at work identify avenues through which families and employers can support women to meet their goals for providing HM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reflux Incidence among Exclusively Breast Milk Fed Infants: Differences of Feeding at Breast versus Pumped Milk
Received: 1 July 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (845 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The practice of feeding infants expressed breast milk is increasing in the United States, but the impacts on infant and maternal health are still understudied. This study examines the monthly incidence of regurgitation (gastro-esophageal reflux) in exclusively breast milk fed infants from ages
[...] Read more.
The practice of feeding infants expressed breast milk is increasing in the United States, but the impacts on infant and maternal health are still understudied. This study examines the monthly incidence of regurgitation (gastro-esophageal reflux) in exclusively breast milk fed infants from ages two to six months. Among infants whose mothers participated in the Infant Feeding Practices II Study (IFPS II; 2005–2007), data on reflux and feeding mode were collected by monthly questionnaires. A longitudinal, repeated measures analysis was used, with feeding mode lagged by one month in order to compare reflux incidence among infants fed directly at the breast to infants receiving pumped breast milk. Mothers in both feeding groups had similar characteristics, although a greater proportion feeding at least some pumped milk were primiparous. The number of exclusively breastfed infants decreased steadily between months 2 and 6, although the proportion fed at the breast remained similar over time. An association between feeding mode and reflux incidence was not found; however, the analyses were limited by a small number of reported reflux cases. More studies are needed to further explain the relationship between different feeding modes and infant reflux. Full article
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Figure 1

Other

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Open AccessBrief Report Reliance on Pumped Mother’s Milk Has an Environmental Impact
Received: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 31 August 2016 / Published: 10 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Breastfeeding is an environmentally friendly process; however when feeding relies on pumped mother’s milk, the environmental picture changes. Waste plastics and heavy metals raise concerns regarding resource efficiency, waste treatment, and detrimental effects on health. Reliance on pumped milk rather than breastfeeding may
[...] Read more.
Breastfeeding is an environmentally friendly process; however when feeding relies on pumped mother’s milk, the environmental picture changes. Waste plastics and heavy metals raise concerns regarding resource efficiency, waste treatment, and detrimental effects on health. Reliance on pumped milk rather than breastfeeding may also effect obesity and family size, which in turn have further environmental impacts. Information on pump equipment rarely includes environmental information and may focus on marketing the product for maximum profit. In order for parents, health workers, and health policy makers to make informed decisions about the reliance on pumped mother’s milk, they need information on the broad and far reaching environmental aspects. There was no published research found that examined the environmental impact of using pumped mother’s milk. A project is ongoing to examine this issue. Full article
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