Next Issue
Volume 10, April
Previous Issue
Volume 10, February
 
 

Children, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2023) – 193 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Hospitals can be especially stressful for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) due to the communication and social skills deficits, lower capacity to adapt to disruption, and sensory hypersensitivity that are typical of these patients. This study investigated how healthcare professionals experienced the clinical care and management of children with ASD undergoing medical testing in a day hospital setting and assessed the rate of successful completion of laboratory tests and instrumental examinations, including ECG and EEG. Aggressive behavior and communication deficits were reported to be major challenges when providing care to these children, and parents were seen as an important resource for managing behavior. Despite the difficulties, there was a high completion rate of scheduled medical exams and assessments. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
17 pages, 731 KiB  
Review
Orthodontic Approaches in the Management of Mandibular Fractures: A Scoping Review
by Alessandro Polizzi, Vincenzo Ronsivalle, Antonino Lo Giudice, Gaetano Isola, Alberto Bianchi, Simona Santonocito, Rosalia Leonardi and Stefano Mummolo
Children 2023, 10(3), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030605 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2854
Abstract
Non-surgical approaches have been proposed in the management of mandibular fractures, especially in children, but there is a lack of clear guidelines on the clinical indications of conservative approaches. The aim of this scoping review is to provide the available evidence of the [...] Read more.
Non-surgical approaches have been proposed in the management of mandibular fractures, especially in children, but there is a lack of clear guidelines on the clinical indications of conservative approaches. The aim of this scoping review is to provide the available evidence of the role of the orthodontist in the management of mandibular fractures. The PRISMA-ScR guidelines were followed to select eligible articles from the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases according to precise inclusion criteria. The research questions were formulated as follows: “what is the scientific evidence concerning the rule of orthodontists in the management of mandibular fractures” and “the preferential use of the direct bonding technique with orthodontic brackets rather than rigid arch bars”? Seventeen articles were included. Five articles presented the use of removable acrylic splints or functional appliances, six articles concerned the employment of cemented acrylic or rigid splints, and six articles described the management of mandibular fractures in adults and children using orthodontic brackets or mini-screws. Most of these techniques have been employed in children and growing subjects, while fewer data were available regarding conservative treatments in adults. Preliminary evidence suggests that condylar and some minor parasymphyseal fractures in children may be managed with conservative approaches. In adults, minor condylar and stable body mandibular fractures with minimal displacement have been reduced similarly. However, there are no sufficient elements that could suggest the preferential use of orthodontic brackets over rigid arch bars in adults. Further randomized and non-randomized clinical trials with long follow-ups will be needed to better define the clinical indications of the orthodontic approaches in the management of mandibular fractures based on severity, location, and age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Dentistry & Oral Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 327 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Self-Perceived Physical Fitness of Physical Education Students in Public Schools in Extremadura (Spain)
by Carmen Galán-Arroyo, David Manuel Mendoza-Muñoz, Jorge Pérez-Gómez, Claudio Hernández-Mosqueira and Jorge Rojo-Ramos
Children 2023, 10(3), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030604 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2485
Abstract
Adolescence is a stage of crucial physiological and psychological changes within the individual’s life cycle, where fitness work is important. With self-perception being crucial in relation to adolescent health and well-being, a positive perception of fitness is directly related to increased practice or [...] Read more.
Adolescence is a stage of crucial physiological and psychological changes within the individual’s life cycle, where fitness work is important. With self-perception being crucial in relation to adolescent health and well-being, a positive perception of fitness is directly related to increased practice or higher level of physical activity (PA). Thus, the aims were: (1) to analyze, with the Visual Analogue Fitness Perception Scale for Adolescents (FP VAS A), the self-perceived physical fitness (PF) of high school students, (2) to investigate if there are differences according to sex and school location, and (3) to study the correlations between the items of the FP VAS A with age and body mass index (BMI). For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was designed with a total of 961 participants, 48.8% boys and 51.2% girls in secondary education, where 31.9% studied in rural schools and 68.1% in urban schools. The FP VAS A scale was used to assess self-reported PF. Regarding the results, there were statistically significant differences between sexes (p < 0.001), with boys showing higher scores than girls in all the items of the FP VAS A scale, with the exception of global flexibility. Inverse, mean and significant correlations were established between BMI and self-perceived overall PF (r = −0.202; p < 0.001), cardiorespiratory endurance (r = −0.226; p < 0.001) and movement speed (r = −0.268; p < 0.001). Between age and self-perceived cardiorespiratory endurance (r = −0.138; p < 0.001) an inverse, mean and significant correlation was also observed. In conclusion, boys showed a better self-perception of PF than girls for all physical abilities, with the exception of flexibility. School location was not shown to influence students’ self-perceived PF. In addition, most of the self-perceived PF abilities for overall fitness correlated inversely with BMI. Full article
12 pages, 482 KiB  
Review
Emotional Regulation Interventions on Developmental Course for Preterm Children: A Systematic Review of Randomized Control Trials
by Vincenza Dell’Aversana, Marco Tofani and Donatella Valente
Children 2023, 10(3), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030603 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1988
Abstract
Children born preterm (<37 weeks of gestation) are at increased risk of socio-emotional difficulties. This study aims to determine the effects of rehabilitation intervention on the emotional regulation of children born preterm through a systematic review. We conducted a systematic review according to [...] Read more.
Children born preterm (<37 weeks of gestation) are at increased risk of socio-emotional difficulties. This study aims to determine the effects of rehabilitation intervention on the emotional regulation of children born preterm through a systematic review. We conducted a systematic review according to PRISMA guidelines. The literature screening was carried out on PUBMED, SCOPUS and WEB OF SCIENCE in August 2022. An author identified eligible studies based on predefined inclusion criteria and extracted the data. RCT quality was assessed using the JADAD and PEDro scales. We selected five RCTs for qualitative synthesis, having the common objective of evaluating the changes in emotional regulation after a rehabilitation intervention. Evidence of benefits was found after parent training intervention (PCIT; p < 0.05). Moreover, there was an improvement in day-to-day executive life and fewer behavioral problems after mindfulness intervention. Clinical, but not statistical, efficacy was found for the group-based physiotherapy intervention. In conclusion, parent training and mindfulness interventions can be helpful rehabilitation techniques, but the relatively small sample limited statistical power, so the discovery needs to be interpreted cautiously. Further research on these aspects is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Issues in Treatment of Preterm Infants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 712 KiB  
Review
Effects of Sepsis on Immune Response, Microbiome and Oxidative Metabolism in Preterm Infants
by Anna Parra-Llorca, Alejandro Pinilla-Gonzlez, Laura Torrejón-Rodríguez, Inmaculada Lara-Cantón, Julia Kuligowski, María Carmen Collado, María Gormaz, Marta Aguar, Máximo Vento, Eva Serna and María Cernada
Children 2023, 10(3), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030602 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
This is a narrative review about the mechanisms involved in bacterial sepsis in preterm infants, which is an illness with a high incidence, morbidity, and mortality. The role of the innate immune response and its relationship with oxidative stress in the pathogenesis are [...] Read more.
This is a narrative review about the mechanisms involved in bacterial sepsis in preterm infants, which is an illness with a high incidence, morbidity, and mortality. The role of the innate immune response and its relationship with oxidative stress in the pathogenesis are described as well as their potential implementation as early biomarkers. Moreover, we address the impact that all the mechanisms triggered by sepsis have on the dysbiosis and the changes on neonatal microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Diseases and Type 2 Inflammation in Children)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1049 KiB  
Review
Investigating the Link between Early Life and Breast Anomalies
by Panagiotis Christopoulos, Alkis Matsas, Makarios Eleftheriades, Georgia Kotsira, Anna Eleftheriades and Nikolaos F. Vlahos
Children 2023, 10(3), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030601 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1438
Abstract
Several factors during childhood and adolescence are thought to be associated with the development of proliferative benign breast diseases and breast cancer in adulthood. In order to identify them, the authors conducted an extensive review of the literature up to October 2022, searching [...] Read more.
Several factors during childhood and adolescence are thought to be associated with the development of proliferative benign breast diseases and breast cancer in adulthood. In order to identify them, the authors conducted an extensive review of the literature up to October 2022, searching for clinical studies, reports, and guidelines in English. A thorough Medline/Pubmed and Google scholar database research was performed, investigating the link between diet, exercise, age of menarche, body mass index, ionizing radiation exposure during childhood and adolescence, and proliferative breast diseases and breast cancer in adulthood. A list of keywords, including breast disorders, adolescence, childhood, and breast cancer was included in our search algorithm. Numerous studies concede that the development of breast disease in adulthood is influenced by various risk factors, whose influence begins during early childhood and adolescence. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 5652 KiB  
Article
EEG Alpha Band Responses Reveal Amplification Benefits in Infants with Hearing Loss
by Kristin Uhler, Daniel J. Tollin and Phillip M. Gilley
Children 2023, 10(3), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030600 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
Our objective was to examine the effects of hearing aid amplification on auditory detection and discrimination in infants who were hard of hearing (IHH) using a physiological measure of auditory perception. We recorded EEG from 41 sleeping IHH aged 1.04 [...] Read more.
Our objective was to examine the effects of hearing aid amplification on auditory detection and discrimination in infants who were hard of hearing (IHH) using a physiological measure of auditory perception. We recorded EEG from 41 sleeping IHH aged 1.04 to 5.62 months while presenting auditory stimuli in a mismatch response paradigm. Responses were recorded during two listening conditions for each participant: aided and unaided. Temporal envelopes of the mismatch response in the EEG alpha band (6–12 Hz) were extracted from the latent, time-frequency transformed data. Aided alpha band responses were greater than unaided responses for the deviant trials but were not different for the standard trials. Responses to the deviant trials were greater than responses to the standard trials for the aided conditions but were not different for the unaided conditions. These results suggest that the alpha band mismatch can be used to examine both detection and discrimination of speech and non-speech sounds in IHH. With further study, the alpha band mismatch could expand and refine our abilities to validate hearing aid fittings at younger ages than current clinical protocols allow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Congenital Hearing Loss in Children)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 824 KiB  
Article
Does Problematic Use of Social Network Mediate the Association between Bullying Victimization and Loneliness among Lebanese Adolescents?
by Elia Eid, Feten Fekih-Romdhane, Abir Sarray El Dine, Diana Malaeb, Souheil Hallit and Sahar Obeid
Children 2023, 10(3), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030599 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
(1) Background: Bullying victimization has been associated with several behavioral outcomes, particularly loneliness. Similarly, an increase in social network use has been identified in recent years, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, and has been shown to be associated with bullying and loneliness. Investigating [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Bullying victimization has been associated with several behavioral outcomes, particularly loneliness. Similarly, an increase in social network use has been identified in recent years, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, and has been shown to be associated with bullying and loneliness. Investigating the mediating factors of loneliness among bullied adolescents is useful for taking preventive measures in the Lebanese population. This study aims to examine the association between bullying victimization and loneliness among Lebanese adolescents while considering the indirect effect of problematic social network use. (2) Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study, between January and April 2022, that enrolled 379 adolescent Lebanese students (64.9% females, mean age 16.07 ± 1.19 years) who were current residents of Lebanon (15 to 18 years), and were from the five governorates of Lebanon (Beirut, Mount Lebanon, North, South and Bekaa). The snowball method was applied to select our sample; an electronic copy of the questionnaire was created using the Google Forms software and an online strategy was designed to collect the data. (3) Results: Negative social comparison and addictive consequences of problematic use of social network mediated the association between bullying victimization and loneliness. Higher bullying victimization was significantly associated with higher negative social comparison and addictive consequences of problematic use of social network, which in turn were significantly associated with more loneliness. Finally, higher bullying victimization was directly significantly associated with more loneliness. (4) Conclusions: Studying the mediating factors of loneliness in bullied adolescents can improve our understanding of this topic, allowing us to propose new interventions to prevent psychological problems in adolescents. Future studies are needed to further clarify the physiological processes that underlie the associations between social triggers and loneliness during adolescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Abuse and Neglect)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 2397 KiB  
Article
Association between Bullying Victimization and Aggression in Lebanese Adolescents: The Indirect Effect of Repetitive Negative Thinking—A Path Analysis Approach and Scales Validation
by Feten Fekih-Romdhane, Diana Malaeb, Abir Sarray El Dine, Ecem Yakın, Souheil Hallit and Sahar Obeid
Children 2023, 10(3), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030598 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2959
Abstract
(1) Background: The purpose of the present study was to validate the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ) and the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Short Form (BPAQ-SF) and test whether repetitive negative thinking plays an indirect role in the relationship between bullying victimization and aggression among Lebanese [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The purpose of the present study was to validate the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ) and the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Short Form (BPAQ-SF) and test whether repetitive negative thinking plays an indirect role in the relationship between bullying victimization and aggression among Lebanese adolescents. (2) Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and May 2022 and included 379 Lebanese adolescent students (64.9% females, mean age 16.07 years). (3) Results: The three-factor solution of the PTQ and the four-factor solution of the BPAQ-SF showed excellent model fit. PTQ mediated the association between bullying victimization and physical aggression, verbal aggression, hostility, and anger. (4) Conclusions: This study expands on previous research by showing that repetitive negative thinking, an impactful socio-cognitive factor for students’ mental health, has a mediating (indirect) effect on the cross-sectional relationship between bullying victimization and aggression. This suggests that interventions aiming to prevent aggressive behaviors among adolescent students may be more effective if focused on repetitive negative thinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Mental Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 518 KiB  
Article
Risk Factors for Persistent Anosmia and Dysgeusia in Children with SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Retrospective Study
by Francesco Mariani, Rosa Morello, Daniele Omar Traini, Anna La Rocca, Cristina De Rose, Piero Valentini and Danilo Buonsenso
Children 2023, 10(3), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030597 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
Background: Olfactory and gustative dysfunctions are two of the most common post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, which can have a negative impact on the routines of children and families. As several children have had COVID-19 since the Omicron variant, it is [...] Read more.
Background: Olfactory and gustative dysfunctions are two of the most common post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, which can have a negative impact on the routines of children and families. As several children have had COVID-19 since the Omicron variant, it is important to investigate if this increase in infections is reflected in higher olfactory/taste disfunctions. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the presence of olfactory/gustative problems in a cohort of children, its evolution, and its association with risk factors such as COVID-19 variant, hospitalization, presence of olfactory/gustative dysfunction during the acute phase, and vaccination. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of children with microbiologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection evaluated in person at a referral pediatric post-COVID-19 clinic in Rome, Italy. We included children younger than 19 years old, evaluated from the beginning of the pandemic up to October 2022. At specific timepoints, we investigated the presence of olfactory/taste disfunctions and evaluated them according to the SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating at the time of infection. Results: A total of 1250 children (650 females; 52.0%) with a mean age of 6.77 (±4.12) years were included in the study. At 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, 12 (9.6%), 7 (5.6%), 2 (1.6%), and 1 (0.8%) of the children reported anosmia and dysgeusia post-COVID-19 infection, respectively. The presence of anosmia and dysgeusia during the acute phase of infection and being infected with a pre-Omicron variant were found to be significant risk factors for persistent olfactory and gustatory dysfunction during all follow-up periods. Conclusions: anosmia and dysgeusia symptoms tended to decrease gradually over time, but not all children recovered quickly. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 10456 KiB  
Article
Permanent Tooth Agenesis and Associated Dental Anomalies among Orthodontically Treated Children
by Shirley Schonberger, Rana Kadry, Yehoshua Shapira and Tamar Finkelstein
Children 2023, 10(3), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030596 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3389
Abstract
(1) Background: Tooth agenesis is one of the most common developmental dental anomalies often affecting the maxillary incisors area and premolar regions. (2) Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of permanent tooth agenesis and the associated [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Tooth agenesis is one of the most common developmental dental anomalies often affecting the maxillary incisors area and premolar regions. (2) Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of permanent tooth agenesis and the associated dental abnormalities among orthodontically treated children. (3) Materials and Methods: This study was carried out utilizing 3000 pretreatment records of children who underwent orthodontic treatment, 1780 (59%) females and 1220 (41%) males, aged 10–25 years (mean age 15 years). Tooth agenesis and other dental anomalies were surveyed using their panoramic radiographs, according to gender, pattern, and location. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 using t-test or Chi-Square tests. (4) Results: The total number of missing teeth, excluding third molars, was 518 (17%) found in 326 (11%) children. The majority were the maxillary lateral incisors, which was 176 teeth (34%) (p < 0.05). Of them, 111 (63%) were in females, and 65 (37%) were in males. The second most common missing tooth was mandibular second premolars, which was 137 teeth (26%), followed by missing 73 (14%) maxillary second premolars. Impacted teeth had the highest associated dental anomaly prevalence (14.3%), while transposition showed the lowest anomaly prevalence (0.5%). (5) Conclusions: A prevalence of 11% for tooth agenesis was detected in this study. More teeth were missing in the maxilla compare with the mandible. A significant association was found between missing maxillary lateral incisors and missing premolars (p < 0.05). Associated dental anomalies included an increased number of peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors, palatally displaced and impacted maxillary canines, ectopic teeth, and infra-occluded (submerged) primary second molars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Dentistry & Oral Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1189 KiB  
Case Report
Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency from an Ophthalmologist’s Perspective—Case Report and Literature Review
by Michael P. Schittkowski, Sabine Naxer, Mohamed Elabbasy, Leonie Herholz, Vivian Breitling, Alan Finglas, Jutta Gärtner and Lars Schlotawa
Children 2023, 10(3), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030595 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is an extremely rare autosomal recessively inherited disease with a prevalence of 1:500.000 caused by mutations on the sulfatase-modifying-Factor 1 gene (SUMF1). MSD is most specifically characterised by a combination of developmentally retarded psychomotoric functions, neurodegeneration that entails the [...] Read more.
Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is an extremely rare autosomal recessively inherited disease with a prevalence of 1:500.000 caused by mutations on the sulfatase-modifying-Factor 1 gene (SUMF1). MSD is most specifically characterised by a combination of developmentally retarded psychomotoric functions, neurodegeneration that entails the loss of many already acquired abilities, and by ichthyosis. Other symptoms include those associated with mucopolysaccharidosis, i.e., facial dysmorphy, dwarfism, and hepatosplenomegaly. In 50–75% of all MSD-affected patients, functional or structural ocular damage is likely. MSD seldom affects the anterior segment of the eye. The main pathology these patients present is a highly conspicuous tapetoretinal degeneration, similar to severe Retinitis pigmentosa, that leads to blindness at an early age. An initially five-year-old boy with MSD, genetically verified at his first examination in our opthalmology department (SUMF1 mutations c.776A>T, p.Asn259Ile; c.797A>T, p.Pro266Leu; c.836A>T, p.Ala279Val), and a 4, 5 year regular follow-up are described. The patient had some visual potential (“tunnel view”), which deteriorated dramatically after his fifth birthday. We observed no evidence of worsening retinal involvement in this patient in spite of his progressively worsening clinical symptoms, extending to total blindness/no light perception. OCT revealed that the outer retinal layers containing photoreceptors were diseased; the ellipsoid zone was only partially discernible and the outer nuclear layer appeared to be thinned out. The inner nuclear layer, ganglion cell layer, and retinal nerve fibre layer were indistinguishable. These anomalies are indicative of a severe pathology within the retina’s inner layers. Characteristic anomalies in the fundus should stimulate clinicians to suspect a case of MSD in their differential diagnosis, and thus to order thorough genetic and paediatric diagnostics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2924 KiB  
Case Report
Activity-Based Restorative Therapy Promotes Progression from Asymmetry to Symmetry in Posture and Gait in a Child with Chronic, Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury
by Laura Leon Machado, Kathryn Lucas and Andrea L. Behrman
Children 2023, 10(3), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030594 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1811
Abstract
Incomplete spinal cord injuries (ISCI) in pediatrics and adults can lead to asymmetric motor impairments exhibiting as asymmetries of posture and gait. Recently, rehabilitation guidelines for adults with neurologic injuries have focused on gaining a functional gait pattern as measured by speed and [...] Read more.
Incomplete spinal cord injuries (ISCI) in pediatrics and adults can lead to asymmetric motor impairments exhibiting as asymmetries of posture and gait. Recently, rehabilitation guidelines for adults with neurologic injuries have focused on gaining a functional gait pattern as measured by speed and distance, even if asymmetry deficits persist. Activity-based restorative therapies (ABRT) take advantage of activity-dependent neuroplasticity to change an individual’s neuromuscular capacity. This is a report of an ambulatory child with chronic ISCI presenting with significant postural and gait asymmetries who enrolled in an ABRT program. Across 79 ABRT sessions, the child gained symmetry during sitting, standing, and walking. Even though this child was a functional ambulator at enrollment, targeting symmetry of movements via improved neuromuscular capacity further enhanced her achievement of kinematically appropriate function for participation in daily activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Treatment of Spinal Cord Dysfunction in Children)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 210 KiB  
Article
ADNP Syndrome: A Qualitative Assessment of Symptoms, Therapies, and Challenges
by Jarrett Fastman and Alexander Kolevzon
Children 2023, 10(3), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030593 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2829
Abstract
ADNP syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability, sensory reactivity symptoms, facial dysmorphisms, and a wide variety of other physical and behavioral health manifestations. Research on ADNP syndrome has been limited, and there are currently no validated [...] Read more.
ADNP syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability, sensory reactivity symptoms, facial dysmorphisms, and a wide variety of other physical and behavioral health manifestations. Research on ADNP syndrome has been limited, and there are currently no validated tools for assessing clinical outcomes in ADNP syndrome specifically. The goal of this qualitative study was to ascertain the symptoms of ADNP syndrome based on caregiver interviews, with the primary aim of identifying areas for clinical improvement that may inform the development of outcome measures specific to ADNP syndrome. Data collection consisted of loosely structured interviews with 10 caregivers of children with ADNP syndrome, representing 6 males and 4 females of ages 4 to 17 (M = 10.1; SD = 4.2). Interviews were conducted via phone between November 2020 and April 2021. The analysis of coded interview data identified three overarching themes: symptoms, therapies, and challenges. Each theme encompasses several distinct codes, which were individually addressed. Our results could ultimately be useful in educating clinicians about ADNP syndrome, selecting or designing refined outcome measures for clinical trials, and informing efforts to increase support for caregivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Mental Health)
7 pages, 646 KiB  
Brief Report
Impact of Extubation Time on Feeding Outcomes after Neonatal Cardiac Surgery: A Single-Center Study
by Jeffrey W. Kepple, Meghan Kendall and Laura A. Ortmann
Children 2023, 10(3), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030592 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1479
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the impact of timing of extubation on feeding outcomes in neonates after surgery for congenital heart disease. This was a single-center retrospective study between December 2014 and June 2020. Patients were divided into three categories: extubated in the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the impact of timing of extubation on feeding outcomes in neonates after surgery for congenital heart disease. This was a single-center retrospective study between December 2014 and June 2020. Patients were divided into three categories: extubated in the OR (immediate), extubated in the intensive care unit (ICU) between 0 and 3 days post-procedure (early), and extubated >3 days post-procedure (delayed). Comparing the immediate and early groups, we found no difference in time to first enteral feed (1.3 days (1.0–3.4) vs. 2.3 days (1.1–3.3), p = 0.27). There was no difference in time to first oral feed (2.0 days (1.1–4.5) vs. 3.1 days (1.8–4.4), p = 0.34) and time to goal feed (6.0 days (3.2–8.3) vs. 6.9 days (5.0–9.0), p = 0.15)). There was no difference in all oral feeds at one year: 88% vs. 98%, p = 0.16. The delayed extubation group performed significantly worse on all measures. Immediate and early extubation displayed no differences in feeding outcomes and length of stay in this study, while delayed extubation performed worse on all measures. Thus, we believe that clinicians should emphasize extubation within 3 days post-surgery to improve feeding outcomes while minimizing time hospitalized. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 2516 KiB  
Article
Citation Network Analysis on the Influence of Vision on Academic Performance
by Sandrina Esteves, Clara Martinez-Perez, Cristina Alvarez-Peregrina and Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Tena
Children 2023, 10(3), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030591 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 3694
Abstract
Background: Proper vision is absolutely critical to children’s academic performance, as vision problems can drastically affect learning ability. Currently, the existing literature in this field is somewhat inconsistent and carries several controversies about the influence of vision on academic performance. In this study, [...] Read more.
Background: Proper vision is absolutely critical to children’s academic performance, as vision problems can drastically affect learning ability. Currently, the existing literature in this field is somewhat inconsistent and carries several controversies about the influence of vision on academic performance. In this study, citation networks were utilized in order to analyze the relationship between publications and authors, the most-cited publication, and the different research areas. Additionally, the most commonly utilized publication sources along with the most common research areas were also pinpointed. Methods: The aforementioned search was executed in the Web of Science database, with a time range beginning in 1941 and ending in 2022. In order to scrutinize the publications, VOSviewer, CiteSpace software, and the Citation Network Explorer were utilized for analysis about the most-cited publication and the different research areas. Results: Overall, 1342 papers were found in all fields along with 2187 citation networks. Moreover, 2020 was the year with the most publications, including 127 publications and 4 citation networks. Bull et al., published in 2008, was the most-cited work, reaching a citation index of 975. The clustering function managed to identity four groups with the most engaging research topics from researchers: motor visual skills, visual memory, the influence of vision on the different learning styles, and abnormal development of the visual system. Conclusions: In the end, the topic with the greatest interest was the influence of visual motor skills on academic performance. Ideally, this paper will assist fellow researchers in quickly noting which topics are of greatest interest and how research in this area has evolved. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1408 KiB  
Article
Age and Gender Differences in Anthropometric Characteristics and Motor Performance of 3 through 6 Young Kids Aged (Pilot Study)
by Almir Atiković, Ekrem Čolakhodžić, Edin Užičanin, Emilija Petković, Amra Nožinović Mujanović, Edin Mujanović, Jasmin Zahirović, Naida Mešković and Ana Lilić
Children 2023, 10(3), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030590 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
Background: It is crucial to evaluate children’s motor coordination and strength to identify possible motor deficits on the right or left side of the body. However, whether a distinction exists in children aged 3–6 must be clarified. The goal of the current research [...] Read more.
Background: It is crucial to evaluate children’s motor coordination and strength to identify possible motor deficits on the right or left side of the body. However, whether a distinction exists in children aged 3–6 must be clarified. The goal of the current research was to investigate the differences in motor skills between preschool boys and girls, dominant and non-dominant hands or legs, in children of preschool age. (2) Methods: The present study was conducted on a sample of children (boys, n = 52; girls, n = 52; age range, 3–6 years). Three motor tests evaluated on both sides of the body served as the sample of factors used to measure athletic performance. Leg tapping (15 s), hand tapping (15 s), and a maximal hand grip strength (HGS) test kg. (3) Results: The study’s findings show no statistically significant variations in preschool boys’ and girls’ motor skills. Preschool girls had better results in the right leg tapping than preschool boys t (98) = 2.08; p ≤ 0.04. We found a significant difference between genders aged 3–4, 4–5, and 5–6 years. No correlation was found between the girls’ three variables and age. A small but significant positive correlation was found between dominant hand tapping and age r2 (52) = 0.21; p ≤ 0.01, dominant leg tapping and age r2 (52) = 0.20; p ≤ 0.01 and dominant HGS and age r2 (52) = 0.17; p ≤ 0.01. No noticeable differences were identified when comparing the dominant side with the non-dominant side in each group. The results show that most children prefer to use their right hand and right leg as their dominant sides. (4) Conclusion: The authors of this study focus on the functional (frequency of movements) and dynamic (differences in muscle strength between body sides) elements of asymmetry. Future studies should examine the influence of morphology on performance with the dominant or non-dominant body side. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Pediatric Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 6821 KiB  
Review
Caudal Regression Syndrome—A Narrative Review: An Orthopedic Point of View
by Barbara Jasiewicz and Wojciech Kacki
Children 2023, 10(3), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030589 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4260
Abstract
Abnormalities in cellular differentiation during embryo-fetal period may lead to various malformations of the spine. Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) is a group of defects with premature growth/development termination of the vertebral column. CRS can be divided into three types: sirenomelia, complete absence of [...] Read more.
Abnormalities in cellular differentiation during embryo-fetal period may lead to various malformations of the spine. Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) is a group of defects with premature growth/development termination of the vertebral column. CRS can be divided into three types: sirenomelia, complete absence of the sacrum and partial absence of the sacrum. Genitourinary and gastrointestinal anomalies are common, with neurogenic bladder and bowel incontinence. Treatment of patients with CRS is complex and multidisciplinary and should be comprehensive. The most common orthopedic problems are: spinal deformity (kyphosis and scoliosis), spinopelvic instability and lower limbs deformities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopedics and Trauma in Children: 2nd Edition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2250 KiB  
Review
Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes in the Pediatric Age
by Roberto Paparella, Michela Menghi, Ginevra Micangeli, Lucia Leonardi, Giovanni Profeta, Francesca Tarani, Carla Petrella, Giampiero Ferraguti, Marco Fiore and Luigi Tarani
Children 2023, 10(3), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030588 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2142
Abstract
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APSs) encompass a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterized by autoimmune activity against two or more endocrine or non-endocrine organs. Three types of APSs are reported, including both monogenic and multifactorial, heterogeneous disorders. The aim of this manuscript is to [...] Read more.
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APSs) encompass a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterized by autoimmune activity against two or more endocrine or non-endocrine organs. Three types of APSs are reported, including both monogenic and multifactorial, heterogeneous disorders. The aim of this manuscript is to present the main clinical and epidemiological characteristics of APS-1, APS-2, and IPEX syndrome in the pediatric age, describing the mechanisms of autoimmunity and the currently available treatments for these rare conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Endocrinology & Diabetes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2273 KiB  
Article
Sibling Relationship Dynamics in Families with a Child Diagnosed with a Chronic Mental Disorder versus a Somatic Condition
by Florina Rad, Emanuela Lucia Andrei, Alecsandra Irimie-Ana, Ilinca Olteanu, Magdalena Budișteanu, Ilinca Mihailescu, Elma-Maria Mînecan, Mihnea Costin Manea, Anca Coliță and Alexandra Buică
Children 2023, 10(3), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030587 - 19 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1752
Abstract
Background: Recent research still focuses on the psychological impact on siblings and the problematic relationships in families with children with chronic illnesses. Our study evaluates the dynamics in sibling relationships in families with a child diagnosed with a chronic disease. Methods: We comparatively [...] Read more.
Background: Recent research still focuses on the psychological impact on siblings and the problematic relationships in families with children with chronic illnesses. Our study evaluates the dynamics in sibling relationships in families with a child diagnosed with a chronic disease. Methods: We comparatively evaluated the degree of empathy, involvement, friendship, and rivalry in sibling relationships in two groups of families who have a child with a chronic pediatric disorder versus a chronic mental disorder. Results: The levels of involvement/friendship, empathy/care/concern, and education/learning were significantly higher in the pediatric group. Where there were siblings under the age of 10, rivalry scores tended to be higher in both groups. Conclusions: Coping strategies, emphatic interactions, and implications in common activities are difficult to identify in the relationship between siblings when one of them has a chronic mental disorder. All of these negative aspects entail poor quality sibling relationships and draw alarm signals regarding the need for monitoring and intervention familial programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 657 KiB  
Article
Medication Intake as a Factor for Non-Initiation and Cessation of Breastfeeding: A Prospective Cohort Study in Greece during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Maria Tigka, Dimitra Metallinou, Christina Nanou, Zoi Iliodromiti, Alexandros Gryparis and Katerina Lykeridou
Children 2023, 10(3), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030586 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1479
Abstract
Pharmacological treatment may become a barrier for a mother’s breastfeeding goals. We aimed to investigate maternal medication intake as a factor for non-initiation and cessation of breastfeeding and the effect of professional counseling on maternal decision-making. Throughout 2020, 847 women were recruited from [...] Read more.
Pharmacological treatment may become a barrier for a mother’s breastfeeding goals. We aimed to investigate maternal medication intake as a factor for non-initiation and cessation of breastfeeding and the effect of professional counseling on maternal decision-making. Throughout 2020, 847 women were recruited from five healthcare institutions. Information was gathered prospectively with an organized questionnaire through interview during hospitalization and through telephone at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum. Results revealed that from the 57 cases of breastfeeding cessation due to medication intake, only 10.5% received evidence-based counseling from a physician. Unfortunately, 68.4% (n = 39/57) of the participants ceased breastfeeding due to erroneous professional advice. The compatibility of medicines with breastfeeding was examined according to the Lactmed and Hale classification systems, which showed discrepancy in 8 out of 114 medicines used, while 17.5% and 13.2% of the medicines, respectively, were not classified. Educational level, employment at six months postpartum, mode of delivery, previous breastfeeding experience, medication intake for chronic diseases, physician’s recommendation and smoking before pregnancy were factors significantly correlated with breastfeeding discontinuation due to medication intake. The COVID-19 restrictions protected women from ceasing breastfeeding due to medication intake. Maternal and lactation consultancy should be strictly related to evidence-based approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Neonatology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 828 KiB  
Review
Natural History of Hazelnut Allergy and Current Approach to Its Diagnosis and Treatment
by Arianna Giannetti, Alessandro Ruggi, Giampaolo Ricci, Giuliana Giannì and Carlo Caffarelli
Children 2023, 10(3), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030585 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3541
Abstract
Hazelnut allergy is the most prevalent type of nut allergy in Europe, with symptoms that can range from mild, such as hives and itching, to severe, such as anaphylaxis, particularly in patients who are sensitized to highly stable allergens, such as storage proteins. [...] Read more.
Hazelnut allergy is the most prevalent type of nut allergy in Europe, with symptoms that can range from mild, such as hives and itching, to severe, such as anaphylaxis, particularly in patients who are sensitized to highly stable allergens, such as storage proteins. Compared to other types of food allergies, allergies to tree nuts, including hazelnuts, tend to persist throughout life. Although symptoms can appear in early childhood, they often continue into adulthood, with a minority of cases improving during adolescence. Currently, there is no curative treatment available for hazelnut allergy, and patients must adhere to a restrictive diet and carry autoinjective epinephrine. However, oral allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a promising treatment option. Patients can be categorized based on their risk for severe reactions using various clinical, in vivo, and in vitro tests, including component-resolved diagnosis and oral food challenge. This review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the natural history of hazelnut allergy and new approaches for its diagnosis and management. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1020 KiB  
Article
Methylation Dynamics on 5′-UTR of DAT1 Gene as a Bio-Marker to Recognize Therapy Success in ADHD Children
by Valentina Carpentieri, Gabriella Lambacher, Miriam Troianiello, Mariangela Pucci, Diana Di Pietro, Giovanni Laviola, Claudio D’Addario, Esterina Pascale and Walter Adriani
Children 2023, 10(3), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030584 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, afflicts 5% of children worldwide. Each ADHD patient presents with individual cognitive and motivational peculiarities. Furthermore, choice of appropriate therapy is still up to clinicians, who express somewhat qualitative advice on [...] Read more.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, afflicts 5% of children worldwide. Each ADHD patient presents with individual cognitive and motivational peculiarities. Furthermore, choice of appropriate therapy is still up to clinicians, who express somewhat qualitative advice on whether a child is being successfully cured or not: it would be more appropriate to use an objective biomarker to indicate whether a treatment led to benefits or not. The aim of our work is to search for such clinical biomarkers. We recruited 60 ADHD kids; psychopathological scales were administered at recruitment and after six weeks of therapy. Out of such a cohort of ADHD children, we rigorously extracted two specific subgroups; regardless of the initial severity of their disease, we compared those who obtained the largest improvement (ΔCGAS > 5) vs. those who were still characterized by a severe condition (CGAS < 40). After such a therapy, methylation levels of DNA extracted from buccal swabs were measured in the 5′-UTR of the DAT1 gene. CpGs 3 and 5 displayed, in relation to the other CpGs, a particular symmetrical pattern; for “improving” ADHD children, they were methylated together with CpG 2 and CpG 6; instead, for “severe” ADHD children, they accompanied a methylated CpG 1. These specific patterns of methylation could be used as objective molecular biomarkers of successful cures, establishing if a certain therapy is akin to a given patient (personalized medicine). Present data support the use of post-therapy molecular data obtained with non-invasive techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Early Childhood Adversity and Child Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 310 KiB  
Review
Pediatric Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: An Evidence-Based Review
by Jerome R. Lechien
Children 2023, 10(3), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030583 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2865
Abstract
Purpose: Pediatric laryngopharyngeal reflux (P-LPR) is associated with the development of common otolaryngological symptoms and findings. In the present study, the findings about epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic outcomes of pediatric population were reviewed. Methods: A PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus literature [...] Read more.
Purpose: Pediatric laryngopharyngeal reflux (P-LPR) is associated with the development of common otolaryngological symptoms and findings. In the present study, the findings about epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic outcomes of pediatric population were reviewed. Methods: A PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus literature search was conducted about evidence-based findings in epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic outcomes of P-LPR. Findings: The prevalence of LPR remains unknown in infant and child populations. The clinical presentation depends on age. Infants with LPR symptoms commonly have both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and laryngopharyngeal reflux and related digestive, respiratory and ear, nose and throat symptoms. The GERD prevalence appears to decrease over the growth, and the clinical picture is increasingly associated with LPR symptoms and findings without GERD. The prevalence of LPR and proximal acid and nonacid esophageal reflux events may be high in some prevalent otolaryngological conditions (chronic otitis media, laryngolomalacia and apnea). However, the lack of use of hypopharyngeal–esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance pH monitoring (HEMII-pH) limits the establishment of etiological associations. Proton pump inhibitors are less effective in P-LPR patients compared to GERD populations, which may be related to the high prevalence of weakly or nonacid reflux events. Conclusions: Many gray areas persist in P-LPR and should be not resolved without the establishment of diagnostic criteria (guidelines) based on HEMII-pH. The unavailability of HEMII-pH and the poor acid-suppressive therapeutic response are all issues requiring future investigations. Future controlled studies using HEMII-pH and enzyme measurements in ear, nose or throat fluids may clarify the epidemiology of P-LPR according to age and its association with many otolaryngological conditions. Full article
13 pages, 1495 KiB  
Systematic Review
Therapeutic Strategies of Primary Molar Infraocclusion: A Systematic Review
by Assunta Patano, Angelo Michele Inchingolo, Claudia Laudadio, Daniela Azzollini, Grazia Marinelli, Sabino Ceci, Giulia Latini, Biagio Rapone, Alessio Danilo Inchingolo, Antonio Mancini, Francesco Inchingolo, Daniela Di Venere, Gianluca Martino Tartaglia, Gianna Dipalma and Giuseppina Malcangi
Children 2023, 10(3), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030582 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3741
Abstract
Background: Infraocclusion of deciduous molars is a clinical disturbance that occurs during primary and mixed dentition and has some orthodontic implications. Infraoccluded teeth are believed to be potential sites of malocclusion, with a risk of tipping neighbouring teeth and losing space. This systematic [...] Read more.
Background: Infraocclusion of deciduous molars is a clinical disturbance that occurs during primary and mixed dentition and has some orthodontic implications. Infraoccluded teeth are believed to be potential sites of malocclusion, with a risk of tipping neighbouring teeth and losing space. This systematic review aims to analyse the management of primary molars infraocclusion and to provide updated guidelines. Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from 1 January 2017 to 28 November 2022. The inclusion criteria were: studies only on human subjects, open access studies, case reports, randomised trials, retrospective, observational studies, and English language. Results: A total of 372 publications were identified from the databases and a final number of nine studies were included in the review for qualitative analysis. Conclusion: Management of patients suffering from infraocclusion depends on the severity, age at diagnosis, and presence of succeeded premolars. Early diagnosis of infraoccluded primary elements is fundamental and cannot be postponed. Preservation of the primary molars may be a valid option with long-term stability if there is no or moderate primary molar infraocclusion, root resorption of less than half of the root, and no decay or restoration. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

8 pages, 714 KiB  
Case Report
Treatment of Fracture-Related Infections with Bone Abscess Formation after K-Wire Fixation of Pediatric Distal Radius Fractures in Adolescents—A Report of Two Clinical Cases
by Markus Scharf, Nike Walter, Markus Rupp and Volker Alt
Children 2023, 10(3), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030581 - 18 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2044
Abstract
Closed reduction and K-wire fixation of displaced distal radius fractures in children and adolescents is an established and successful surgical procedure. Fracture-related infections after K-wire fixation are rare but can have significant consequences for the patient. There is a lack of literature on [...] Read more.
Closed reduction and K-wire fixation of displaced distal radius fractures in children and adolescents is an established and successful surgical procedure. Fracture-related infections after K-wire fixation are rare but can have significant consequences for the patient. There is a lack of literature on the treatment of K-wire-associated fracture-related infections in children and adolescents. Herein, we report two cases of fracture-related infection after initial closed reduction and Kirschner wire fixation in two adolescents. One 13-year-old boy and one 11-year-old girl were seen for fracture-related infections 4 and 8 weeks after closed reduction and percutaneous K-wire fixation of a distal radius, respectively. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a healed fracture with osteolytic changes in the metaphyseal radius with periosteal reaction and abscess formation of the surrounding soft tissue structures. A two-staged procedure was performed with adequate debridement of the bone and dead space management with an antibiotic-loaded polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) spacer at stage 1. After infection control, the spacer was removed and the defect was filled with autologous bone in one case and with a calcium sulphate–hydroxyapatite biomaterial in the other case. In each of the two patients, the infection was controlled and a stable consolidation of the distal radius in good alignment was achieved. In one case, the epiphyseal plate was impaired by the infection and premature closure of the epiphyseal plate was noted resulting in a post-infection ulna plus variant. In conclusion, a fracture-related infection after Kirschner wire fixation of pediatric distal radius fractures is a rare complication but can occur. A two-stage procedure with infection control and subsequent bone defect reconstruction was successful in the presented two cases. Premature closure of the epiphyseal growth plate of the distal radius is a potential complication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Orthopedics & Sports Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Primary Students’ Attitudes towards Peers with Disabilities in Physical Education in Saudi Arabia
by Majed M. Alhumaid
Children 2023, 10(3), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030580 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1998
Abstract
The attitudes of students without disabilities toward their peers with disabilities are considered an important determinant of successful inclusion in physical education settings. Nonetheless, there is limited research on this topic in non-Western societies, especially in Arab contexts. Thus, to address this paucity [...] Read more.
The attitudes of students without disabilities toward their peers with disabilities are considered an important determinant of successful inclusion in physical education settings. Nonetheless, there is limited research on this topic in non-Western societies, especially in Arab contexts. Thus, to address this paucity in the literature, this study aimed to assess the general attitudes of Saudi students without disabilities towards their peers with disabilities and examine the associations between selected student-related variables (e.g., gender, age, type of school, school location, having a family member or a friend or a classmate with a disability, and having experience of playing with a person with a disability) and attitudes of students without disabilities. A total of 972 students aged 9–12 years old (Mage = 10.6; SD = 1.1; girls = 49.7%) completed the Arabic version of the Scale of Attitudes toward Students with Disabilities in Physical Education—Primary Education (SASDPE-PE). Data analysis indicated that, in general, participants reported positive attitudes toward their peers with disabilities in physical education classes. Despite boys being more likely to hold positive attitudes than girls, no significant difference between them existed. The results showed that 10-year-old participants reported more significantly positive attitudes than those in the other age groups. Participants attending public schools reported more significant positive attitudes toward their peers with disabilities in physical education classes compared to those attending private schools. Having a friend with a disability was linked to students without disabilities having positive attitudes towards their peers with disabilities. In contrast, having a family member or a classmate with disabilities and having played with a person with a disability were not related to such positive attitudes. The current study’s findings have significant implications for inclusive educational practices. Full article
17 pages, 999 KiB  
Review
Oxygen for the Newborn: Friend or Foe?
by Serafina Perrone, Sara Manti, Chiara Petrolini, Valentina Giovanna Dell’Orto, Giovanni Boscarino, Chiara Ceccotti, Mattia Bertini, Giuseppe Buonocore, Susanna Maria Roberta Esposito and Eloisa Gitto
Children 2023, 10(3), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030579 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1758
Abstract
Oxygen supplementation is widely used in neonatal care, however, it can also cause toxic effects if not used properly. Therefore, it appears crucial to find a balance in oxygen administration to avoid damage as a consequence of its insufficient or excessive use. Oxygen [...] Read more.
Oxygen supplementation is widely used in neonatal care, however, it can also cause toxic effects if not used properly. Therefore, it appears crucial to find a balance in oxygen administration to avoid damage as a consequence of its insufficient or excessive use. Oxygen toxicity is mainly due to the production of oxygen radicals, molecules normally produced in humans and involved in a myriad of physiological reactions. In the neonatal period, an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidant defenses, the so-called oxidative stress, might occur, causing severe pathological consequences. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms of the production of oxygen radicals and their physiological functions in determining a set of diseases grouped together as “free radical diseases in the neonate”. In addition, we describe the evolution of the oxygenation target recommendations during neonatal resuscitation and post-stabilization phases with the aim to define the best oxygen administration according to the newest evidence. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 324 KiB  
Article
Has Anything Changed in the Frequency of Emergency Department Visits and the Profile of the Adolescent Seeking Emergency Mental Care during the COVID-19 Pandemic?
by Valentina Ferro, Roberto Averna, Manuel Murciano, Umberto Raucci, Sebastian Cristaldi, Anna Maria Caterina Musolino, Maria Pontillo, Nicoletta Della Vecchia, Milena Labonia, Mara Pisani, Maria Laura Pucciarini, Raffaella Nacca, Antonino Reale, Stefano Vicari, Alberto Villani and Massimiliano Raponi
Children 2023, 10(3), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030578 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1879
Abstract
We described changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in the frequency of Emergency Department (ED) visits for mental health disorders (MHDs) in adolescents on a wider temporal range—that is, not just “the waves” of the pandemic—and characterized the profile of the adolescent seeking [...] Read more.
We described changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in the frequency of Emergency Department (ED) visits for mental health disorders (MHDs) in adolescents on a wider temporal range—that is, not just “the waves” of the pandemic—and characterized the profile of the adolescent seeking emergency psychiatric care. We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study by analyzing ED visits for MHDs from 10 March 2019 to 10 March 2021. A total of 1407 ED visits for MHDs were registered: 702 in the pre-COVID-19 and 707 in the COVID-19 period. The cumulative incidence of ED visits for MHDs was 1.22% in the pre-COVID-19 period and 1.77% in the COVID-19 period, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). The principal characteristics of the adolescent with MHDs during the pandemic period: the odds of comorbidities decreased by 26% (p = 0.02), and the odds of transfer from other hospitals decreased by 71% (p < 0.001), while the odds of the ED presentation as first psychiatric episode were twice greater (p < 0.001). The risk of hospitalization increased by 54% (p = 0.001). Regarding psychopathology, the likelihood of attempted suicide increased by 74% during the pandemic (p = 0.02). The rate of mood and eating disorders grew significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic period (p = 0.005 and p = 0.031, respectively). Monitoring ED visits for MHDs and understanding changes in the profile of adolescents presenting to ED helps to reinforce the role of ED in identifying special clinical needs for these vulnerable patients in case of a future public health crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of COVID-19 on Youth Mental Health)
9 pages, 16474 KiB  
Case Report
Frasier Syndrome: A 15-Year-Old Phenotypically Female Adolescent Presenting with Delayed Puberty and Nephropathy
by Qing Shao, Xinglei Xie, Jia Geng, Xiaoling Yang, Wei Li and Yuwei Zhang
Children 2023, 10(3), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030577 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2724
Abstract
Frasier syndrome (FS) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by gonadal dysgenesis and progressive nephropathy, resulting from mutations in the intron 9 splice donor site of the Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) gene. It is associated with male gonadal dysgenesis (female external genitalia with [...] Read more.
Frasier syndrome (FS) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by gonadal dysgenesis and progressive nephropathy, resulting from mutations in the intron 9 splice donor site of the Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) gene. It is associated with male gonadal dysgenesis (female external genitalia with a 46 XY karyotype), and a high risk of gonadoblastoma during adolescence. Patients with FS present early in childhood with proteinuria that progressively worsens with a high likelihood of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Herein, we report a 15-year-old female (karyotype 46, XY) patient characterized by delayed puberty and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, in whom whole genome sequencing showed a mutation in intron 9 of the WT1 gene, c.1447 + 4 C>T. This is the first case of FS with delayed puberty as the first complaint with no previous renal symptoms. We consider delayed puberty as an important manifestation of FS and summarize the diagnostic process of delayed puberty in the female phenotype. For clinicians, delayed puberty is a common disorder in pediatrics but requires vigilance for some rare causes. Etiological screening and chromosome karyotype analysis are important for the early diagnosis of FS in patients with delayed puberty. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 1186 KiB  
Review
Efficacy of Artificial Intelligence in the Categorisation of Paediatric Pneumonia on Chest Radiographs: A Systematic Review
by Erica Louise Field, Winnie Tam, Niamh Moore and Mark McEntee
Children 2023, 10(3), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030576 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
This study aimed to systematically review the literature to synthesise and summarise the evidence surrounding the efficacy of artificial intelligence (AI) in classifying paediatric pneumonia on chest radiographs (CXRs). Following the initial search of studies that matched the pre-set criteria, their data were [...] Read more.
This study aimed to systematically review the literature to synthesise and summarise the evidence surrounding the efficacy of artificial intelligence (AI) in classifying paediatric pneumonia on chest radiographs (CXRs). Following the initial search of studies that matched the pre-set criteria, their data were extracted using a data extraction tool, and the included studies were assessed via critical appraisal tools and risk of bias. Results were accumulated, and outcome measures analysed included sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the curve (AUC). Five studies met the inclusion criteria. The highest sensitivity was by an ensemble AI algorithm (96.3%). DenseNet201 obtained the highest level of specificity and accuracy (94%, 95%). The most outstanding AUC value was achieved by the VGG16 algorithm (96.2%). Some of the AI models achieved close to 100% diagnostic accuracy. To assess the efficacy of AI in a clinical setting, these AI models should be compared to that of radiologists. The included and evaluated AI algorithms showed promising results. These algorithms can potentially ease and speed up diagnosis once the studies are replicated and their performances are assessed in clinical settings, potentially saving millions of lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Pediatric Radiology and Nuclear Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop