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Article

Prevalence, New Incidence, Course, and Risk Factors of PTSD, Depression, Anxiety, and Panic Disorder during the Covid-19 Pandemic in 11 Countries

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Department of Cognitive Science and Psychology, New Bulgarian University, 1618 Sofia, Bulgaria
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Centre for Mental Health and Society, Bangor University, Bangor LL57 2DG, UK
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Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, Karnataka 570001, India
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Department of Statistics and Econometrics, University of National and World Economy, 1700 Sofia, Bulgaria
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Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College Kraków, 31-008 Kraków, Poland
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Paramedic Department, Medical College in Prague, 121 08 Prague, Czech Republic
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Department of Criminology, University of Gävle, 80176 Gävle, Sweden
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Faculty of Medicine, University of Latvia, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
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Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College, Mysore 570001, India
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Clinical Department of Medicine, GE Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy Science and Technology, 540142 Târgu Mureș, Romania
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Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku, 20500 Turku, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Fabrizia Giannotta and Yunhwan Kim
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060664
Received: 6 April 2021 / Revised: 15 May 2021 / Accepted: 26 May 2021 / Published: 3 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health in Times of Pandemic: Protective and Risk Factors)
We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and panic disorder (PD) among citizens in 11 countries during the Covid-19 pandemic. We explored risks and protective factors most associated with the development of these mental health disorders and their course at 68 days follow up. We acquired 9543 unique responses via an online survey that was disseminated in UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, India, Latvia, Poland, Romania, and Sweden. The prevalence and new incidence during the pandemic for at least one disorder was 48.6% and 17.6%, with the new incidence of PTSD, anxiety, depression, and panic disorder being 11.4%, 8.4%, 9.3%, and 3%, respectively. Higher resilience was associated with lower mental health burden for all disorders. Ten to thirteen associated factors explained 79% of the variance in PTSD, 80% in anxiety, 78% in depression, and 89% in PD. To reduce the mental health burden, governments should refrain from implementing many highly restrictive and lasting containment measures. Public health campaigns should focus their effort on alleviating stress and fear, promoting resilience, building public trust in government and medical care, and persuading the population of the measures’ effectiveness. Psychosocial services and resources should be allocated to facilitate individual and community-level recovery from the pandemic. View Full-Text
Keywords: mental health; risk factors; Covid-19; pandemic; resilience; PTSD; anxiety; depression; panic disorder; general population; multinational study mental health; risk factors; Covid-19; pandemic; resilience; PTSD; anxiety; depression; panic disorder; general population; multinational study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Georgieva, I.; Lepping, P.; Bozev, V.; Lickiewicz, J.; Pekara, J.; Wikman, S.; Loseviča, M.; Raveesh, B.N.; Mihai, A.; Lantta, T. Prevalence, New Incidence, Course, and Risk Factors of PTSD, Depression, Anxiety, and Panic Disorder during the Covid-19 Pandemic in 11 Countries. Healthcare 2021, 9, 664. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060664

AMA Style

Georgieva I, Lepping P, Bozev V, Lickiewicz J, Pekara J, Wikman S, Loseviča M, Raveesh BN, Mihai A, Lantta T. Prevalence, New Incidence, Course, and Risk Factors of PTSD, Depression, Anxiety, and Panic Disorder during the Covid-19 Pandemic in 11 Countries. Healthcare. 2021; 9(6):664. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060664

Chicago/Turabian Style

Georgieva, Irina, Peter Lepping, Vasil Bozev, Jakub Lickiewicz, Jaroslav Pekara, Sofia Wikman, Marina Loseviča, Bevinahalli Nanjegowda Raveesh, Adriana Mihai, and Tella Lantta. 2021. "Prevalence, New Incidence, Course, and Risk Factors of PTSD, Depression, Anxiety, and Panic Disorder during the Covid-19 Pandemic in 11 Countries" Healthcare 9, no. 6: 664. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060664

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