Traditional gas pipeline leak detection methods require task offload decisions in the cloud, which has low real time performance. The emergence of edge computing provides a solution by enabling offload decisions directly at the edge server, improving real-time performance; however, energy is the
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Traditional gas pipeline leak detection methods require task offload decisions in the cloud, which has low real time performance. The emergence of edge computing provides a solution by enabling offload decisions directly at the edge server, improving real-time performance; however, energy is the new bottleneck. Therefore, focusing on the gas transmission pipeline leakage detection scenario in real time, a novel detection algorithm that combines the benefits of both the heuristic algorithm and the advantage actor critic (AAC) algorithm is proposed in this paper. It aims at optimization with the goal of real-time guarantee of pipeline mapping analysis tasks and maximizing the survival time of portable gas leak detectors. Since the computing power of portable detection devices is limited, as they are powered by batteries, the main problem to be solved in this study is how to take into account the node energy overhead while guaranteeing the system performance requirements. By introducing the idea of edge computing and taking the mapping relationship between resource occupation and energy consumption as the starting point, the optimization model is established, with the goal to optimize the total system cost (TSC). This is composed of the node’s transmission energy consumption, local computing energy consumption, and residual electricity weight. In order to minimize TSC, the algorithm uses the AAC network to make task scheduling decisions and judge whether tasks need to be offloaded, and uses heuristic strategies and the Cauchy–Buniakowsky–Schwarz inequality to determine the allocation of communication resources. The experiments show that the proposed algorithm in this paper can meet the real-time requirements of the detector, and achieve lower energy consumption. The proposed algorithm saves approximately 56% of the system energy compared to the Deep Q Network (DQN) algorithm. Compared with the artificial gorilla troops Optimizer (GTO), the black widow optimization algorithm (BWOA), the exploration-enhanced grey wolf optimizer (EEGWO), the African vultures optimization algorithm (AVOA), and the driving training-based optimization (DTBO), it saves 21%, 38%, 30%, 31%, and 44% of energy consumption, respectively. Compared to the fully local computing and fully offloading algorithms, it saves 50% and 30%, respectively. Meanwhile, the task completion rate of this algorithm reaches 96.3%, which is the best real-time performance among these algorithms.