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Pharmacy, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2016) – 15 articles

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Open AccessArticle
General Practitioners and Chronic Non-Malignant Pain Management in Older Patients: A Qualitative Study
Pharmacy 2016, 4(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy4010015 - 10 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2189
Abstract
Chronic non-malignant pain (CNMP) is commonly managed by General Practitioners (GPs) in primary care. Analgesics are the mainstay of CNMP management in this setting. Selection of medications by GPs may be influenced by micro factors which are relevant to the practice setting, meso [...] Read more.
Chronic non-malignant pain (CNMP) is commonly managed by General Practitioners (GPs) in primary care. Analgesics are the mainstay of CNMP management in this setting. Selection of medications by GPs may be influenced by micro factors which are relevant to the practice setting, meso factors which relate to the local or regional environment or macro factors such as those arising from national or international influences. The aim of this study is to explore influences on GP practises in relation to pain management for older adults with CNMP. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 GPs. Transcripts were organised using the Framework Method of Data Management while an applied thematic analysis was used to identify the themes emerging from the data. Clinical considerations such as the efficacy of analgesics, adverse effects and co-morbidities strongly influence prescribing decisions. The GPs interviewed identified the lack of guidance on this subject in Ireland and described the impact of organisational and structural barriers of the Irish healthcare system on the management of CNMP. Changes in practice behaviours coupled with health system reforms are required to improve the quality and consistency of pharmacotherapeutic management of CNMP in primary care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Pharmacy)
Open AccessArticle
The Prevalence and Predictors of Low-Cost Generic Program Use in a Nationally Representative Uninsured Population
Pharmacy 2016, 4(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy4010014 - 04 Mar 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
The uninsured population has much to gain from affordable sources of prescription medications. No prior studies have assessed the prevalence and predictors of low-cost generic drug programs (LCGP) use in the uninsured population in the United States. A cross-sectional study was conducted using [...] Read more.
The uninsured population has much to gain from affordable sources of prescription medications. No prior studies have assessed the prevalence and predictors of low-cost generic drug programs (LCGP) use in the uninsured population in the United States. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) during 2007–2012 including individuals aged 18 and older who were uninsured for the entire 2-year period they were in MEPS. The proportions of LCGP fills and users was tracked each year and logistic regression was used to assess significant factors associated with LCGP use. A total of 8.3 million uninsured individuals were represented by the sample and 39.9% of these used an LCGP. Differences between users and non-users included higher age, gender, year of participation, and number of medications filled. The proportion of fills and users via LCGPs increased over the 2007–2012 study period. Healthcare providers, especially pharmacists, should make uninsured patients aware of this source of affordable medications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on How Industrial Pharmacists Rank Competences for Pharmacy Practice: A Case for Industrial Pharmacy Specialization
Pharmacy 2016, 4(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy4010013 - 06 Feb 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
This paper looks at the way in which industrial pharmacists rank the fundamental competences for pharmacy practice. European industrial pharmacists (n = 135) ranked 68 competences for practice, arranged into 13 clusters of two types (personal and patient care). Results show that, [...] Read more.
This paper looks at the way in which industrial pharmacists rank the fundamental competences for pharmacy practice. European industrial pharmacists (n = 135) ranked 68 competences for practice, arranged into 13 clusters of two types (personal and patient care). Results show that, compared to community pharmacists (n = 258), industrial pharmacists rank competences centering on research, development and production of drugs higher, and those centering on patient care lower. Competences centering on values, communication skills, etc. were ranked similarly by the two groups of pharmacists. These results are discussed in the light of the existence or not of an “industrial pharmacy” specialization. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary
Social Pharmacy Research in Copenhagen—Maintaining a Broad Approach
Pharmacy 2016, 4(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy4010011 - 02 Feb 2016
Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Social Pharmacy (SP) is a multidisciplinary field to promote the adequate use of medicine. The field of SP is increasingly important due to a numbers of new trends all posing challenges to society. The SP group at the University of Copenhagen has for [...] Read more.
Social Pharmacy (SP) is a multidisciplinary field to promote the adequate use of medicine. The field of SP is increasingly important due to a numbers of new trends all posing challenges to society. The SP group at the University of Copenhagen has for several years used a broad approach to SP teaching and research, often illustrated by the four levels: individual, group, organizational, and societal. In this paper the relevance of maintaining a broad approach to SP research is argued for and examples of the importance of such type of research is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Pharmacy)
Open AccessArticle
What is a Pharmacist: Opinions of Pharmacy Department Academics and Community Pharmacists on Competences Required for Pharmacy Practice
Pharmacy 2016, 4(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy4010012 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2096
Abstract
This paper looks at the opinions of 241 European academics (who provide pharmacy education), and of 258 European community pharmacists (who apply it), on competences for pharmacy practice. A proposal for competences was generated by a panel of experts using Delphi methodology. Once [...] Read more.
This paper looks at the opinions of 241 European academics (who provide pharmacy education), and of 258 European community pharmacists (who apply it), on competences for pharmacy practice. A proposal for competences was generated by a panel of experts using Delphi methodology. Once finalized, the proposal was then submitted to a large, European-wide community of academics and practicing pharmacists in an additional Delphi round. Academics and community pharmacy practitioners recognized the importance of the notion of patient care competences, underlining the nature of the pharmacist as a specialist of medicines. The survey revealed certain discrepancies. Academics placed substantial emphasis on research, pharmaceutical technology, regulatory aspects of quality, etc., but these were ranked much lower by community pharmacists who concentrated more on patient care competences. In a sub-analysis of the data, we evaluated how perceptions may have changed since the 1980s and the introduction of the notions of competence and pharmaceutical care. This was done by splitting both groups into respondents < 40 and > 40 years old. Results for the subgroups were essentially statistically the same but with some different qualitative tendencies. The results are discussed in the light of the different conceptions of the professional identity of the pharmacist. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Testing of Candidate Icons to Identify Acetaminophen-Containing Medicines
Pharmacy 2016, 4(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy4010010 - 27 Jan 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
Adding icons on labels of acetaminophen-containing medicines could help users identify the active ingredient and avoid concomitant use of multiple medicines containing acetaminophen. We evaluated five icons for communication effectiveness. Adults (n = 300) were randomized to view a prescription container label [...] Read more.
Adding icons on labels of acetaminophen-containing medicines could help users identify the active ingredient and avoid concomitant use of multiple medicines containing acetaminophen. We evaluated five icons for communication effectiveness. Adults (n = 300) were randomized to view a prescription container label or over-the-counter labels with either one or two icons. Participants saw two icon candidates, and reported their interpretation; experts judged whether these reflected critical confusions that might cause harm. Participants rated how effectively each icon communicated key messages. Icons based on abbreviations of “acetaminophen” (“Ac”, “Ace”, “Acm”) were rated less confusing and more effective in communicating the active ingredient than icons based on “APAP” or an abstract symbol. Icons did not result in critical confusion when seen on a readable medicine label. Icon implementation on prescription labels was more effective at communicating the warning against concomitant use than implementation on over-the-counter (OTC) labels. Adding an icon to a second location on OTC labels did not consistently enhance this communication, but reduced rated effectiveness of acetaminophen ingredient communication among participants with limited health literacy. The abbreviation-based icons seem most suitable for labeling acetaminophen-containing medications to enable users to identify acetaminophen-containing products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of the Use of a Standardized Guidance Tool on the Development of a Teaching Philosophy in a Pharmacy Residency Teaching and Learning Curriculum Program
Pharmacy 2016, 4(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy4010009 - 26 Jan 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1656
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a standardized reflection tool on the development of a teaching philosophy statement in a pharmacy residency teaching and learning curriculum program (RTLCP). Pharmacy residents participating in the RTLCP over a two-year period [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a standardized reflection tool on the development of a teaching philosophy statement in a pharmacy residency teaching and learning curriculum program (RTLCP). Pharmacy residents participating in the RTLCP over a two-year period were surveyed using a pre/post method to assess perceptions of teaching philosophy development before and after using the tool. Responses were assessed using a 5-point Likert scale to indicate level of agreement with each statement. For analysis, responses were divided into high (strongly agree/agree) and low (neutral/disagree/strongly disagree) agreement. The level of agreement increased significantly for all items surveyed (p < 0.05), with the exception of one area pertaining to the ability to describe characteristics of outstanding teachers, which was noted to be strong before and after using the tool (p = 0.5027). Overall results were positive, with 81% of participants responding that the reflection tool was helpful in developing a teaching philosophy, and 96% responding that the resulting teaching philosophy statement fully reflected their views on teaching and learning. The standardized reflection tool developed at Shenandoah University assisted pharmacy residents enrolled in a teaching and learning curriculum program to draft a comprehensive teaching philosophy statement, and was well received by participants. Full article
Open AccessArticle
How Do European Pharmacy Students Rank Competences for Practice?
Pharmacy 2016, 4(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy4010008 - 26 Jan 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
European students (n = 370), academics (n = 241) and community pharmacists (n = 258) ranked 13 clusters of 68 personal and patient care competences for pharmacy practice. The results show that ranking profiles for all three groups as a [...] Read more.
European students (n = 370), academics (n = 241) and community pharmacists (n = 258) ranked 13 clusters of 68 personal and patient care competences for pharmacy practice. The results show that ranking profiles for all three groups as a rule were similar. This was especially true of the comparison between students and community pharmacists concerning patient care competences suggesting that students have a good idea of their future profession. A comparison of first and fifth (final) year students shows more awareness of patient care competences in the final year students. Differences do exist, however, between students and community pharmacists. Students—like academics—ranked competences concerned with industrial pharmacy and the quality aspects of preparing drugs, as well as scientific fundamentals of pharmacy practice, well above the rankings of community pharmacists. There were no substantial differences amongst rankings of students from different countries although some countries have more “medicinal” courses than others. This is to our knowledge the first paper to look at how, within a healthcare sectoral profession such as pharmacy, the views on the relative importance of different competences for practice of those educating the future professionals and their students, are compared to the views of working professionals. Full article
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Open AccessProject Report
Advanced Level Practice Education: UK Critical Care Pharmacists’ Opinions in 2015
Pharmacy 2016, 4(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy4010006 - 22 Jan 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2342
Abstract
National UK standards for critical care highlight the need for clinical pharmacists to practice at an advanced level and above. The aim of this research paper was to describe the views of UK critical care pharmacists on the current provision of Advanced Level [...] Read more.
National UK standards for critical care highlight the need for clinical pharmacists to practice at an advanced level and above. The aim of this research paper was to describe the views of UK critical care pharmacists on the current provision of Advanced Level Practice (ALP) education and accreditation. It sought to identify whether there is a need for a national or regional training programme. A questionnaire was delivered electronically targeting UK critical care pharmacists. Whilst the response rate was low at 40% (166/411); the views expressed were representative of UK practitioners with the majority of responders meeting the national specifications for clinical pharmacist staffing in critical care areas. The responses highlighted work-based learning as the main resource for developing ALP and a lack of suitable training packages. The vast majority of pharmacists identified that a national or regional training programme was required for ALP. The results also identified the main barriers to undertaking ALP accreditation were lack of time, uncertainty regarding the process and its professional benefits and a lack of education and training opportunities. In conclusion, the responses clearly indicated that, for the necessary progression of critical care pharmacists to ALP, a national or regional training programme is required. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Pharmacy in 2015
Pharmacy 2016, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy4010007 - 21 Jan 2016
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
The editors of Pharmacy would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...] Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper
Establishment of Pediatric Medication Therapy Management: A Proposed Model
Pharmacy 2016, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy4010005 - 19 Jan 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1935
Abstract
Ongoing healthcare reform calls for increased accessibility, enhanced delivery, and improved quality of healthcare. Children and adolescents are experiencing a rise in the prevalence in chronic diseases leading to an increased utilization of medications. The increased use of chronic medications can lead to [...] Read more.
Ongoing healthcare reform calls for increased accessibility, enhanced delivery, and improved quality of healthcare. Children and adolescents are experiencing a rise in the prevalence in chronic diseases leading to an increased utilization of medications. The increased use of chronic medications can lead to more medication errors or adverse drug events, particularly in children and adolescents using multiple chronic medications. These ongoing changes expand opportunities for a pharmacist to become further integrated in the inter-professional healthcare delivery for pediatric patients, particularly in an ambulatory or community setting. To date, a systemic process for the provision of medication therapy management (MTM) services in pediatric patients has not been elucidated. The purpose of this paper is to describe a proposed model for delivering pediatric MTM. Furthermore, based on the available literature related to pediatric patients at risk for medication errors, adverse drug reactions, and subsequently-increased utilization of emergency departments and hospitalizations, a set of criteria is proposed for further research investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Paediatrics)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Quality of Competency Assessment in Pharmacy: A Framework for Workplace Learning
Pharmacy 2016, 4(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy4010004 - 19 Jan 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Demonstration of achieved competencies is critical in the pharmacy workplace. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of the competency assessment program for pharmacy residents at an academic medical center. The competency assessment program (CAP) survey is a validated, 48-item [...] Read more.
Demonstration of achieved competencies is critical in the pharmacy workplace. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of the competency assessment program for pharmacy residents at an academic medical center. The competency assessment program (CAP) survey is a validated, 48-item instrument that evaluates the quality of an assessment program based on 12 criteria, each measured by four questions on a scale of 0 to 100. The CAP was completed by residents (n = 23) and preceptors (n = 28) from the pharmacy residency program between 2010 and 2013. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s alpha, and non-parametric tests. Educational Consequences was the only quality criteria falling below the standard for “good quality.” Participants that completed residency training elsewhere rated the Comparability (0.04) and Meaningfulness (0.01) of the assessment program higher than those that completed residency at the academic medical center. There were no significant differences between resident and preceptor scores. Overall, the quality of the assessment program was rated highly by residents and preceptors. The process described here provides a useful framework for understanding the quality of workplace learning assessments in pharmacy practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Learning in Pharmacy)
Open AccessArticle
The Raison D’être for the Community Pharmacy and the Community Pharmacist in Sweden: A Qualitative Interview Study
Pharmacy 2016, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy4010003 - 25 Dec 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2383
Abstract
Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products) and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization). This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products) and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization). This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks. Political organization representatives generally had a more business-oriented view, where competition in the market was believed to be the main driving force for development. A third dimension in which competition was not stressed also emerged; that community pharmacies should primarily distribute medicines. This dimension was most prevalent among the political and patient organization representatives. One conclusion to be drawn is that no stakeholder seemed to have a clear vision or was willing to take the lead for the development of the community pharmacy sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Pharmacy)
Open AccessConcept Paper
Positioning a Paediatric Compounded Non-Sterile Product Electronic Repository (pCNPeRx) within the Health Information Technology Infrastructure
Pharmacy 2016, 4(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy4010002 - 24 Dec 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
Numerous gaps in the current medication use system impede complete transmission of electronically identifiable and standardized extemporaneous formulations as well as a uniform approach to medication therapy management (MTM) for paediatric patients. The Pharmacy Health Information Technology Collaborative (Pharmacy HIT) identified six components [...] Read more.
Numerous gaps in the current medication use system impede complete transmission of electronically identifiable and standardized extemporaneous formulations as well as a uniform approach to medication therapy management (MTM) for paediatric patients. The Pharmacy Health Information Technology Collaborative (Pharmacy HIT) identified six components that may have direct importance for pharmacy related to medication use in children. This paper will discuss key positions within the information technology infrastructure (HIT) where an electronic repository for the medication management of paediatric patients’ compounded non-sterile products (pCNP) and care provision could be housed optimally to facilitate and maintain transmission of e-prescriptions (eRx) from initiation to fulfillment. Further, the paper will propose key placement requirements to provide for maximal interoperability of electronic medication management systems to minimize disruptions across the continuum of care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Paediatrics)
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Open AccessCommentary
Social Pharmacy and Clinical Pharmacy—Joining Forces
Pharmacy 2016, 4(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy4010001 - 22 Dec 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3429
Abstract
This commentary seeks to define the areas of social pharmacy and clinical pharmacy to uncover what they have in common and what still sets them apart. Common threats and challenges of the two areas are reviewed in order to understand the forces in [...] Read more.
This commentary seeks to define the areas of social pharmacy and clinical pharmacy to uncover what they have in common and what still sets them apart. Common threats and challenges of the two areas are reviewed in order to understand the forces in play. Forces that still keep clinical and social pharmacy apart are university structures, research traditions, and the management of pharmacy services. There are key (but shrinking) differences between clinical and social pharmacy which entail the levels of study within pharmaceutical sciences, the location in which the research is carried out, the choice of research designs and methods, and the theoretical foundations. Common strengths and opportunities are important to know in order to join forces. Finding common ground can be developed in two areas: participating together in multi-disciplinary research, and uniting in a dialogue with internal and external key players in putting forth what is needed for the profession of pharmacy. At the end the question is posed, “What’s in a name?” and we argue that it is important to emphasize what unifies the families of clinical pharmacy and social pharmacy for the benefit of both fields, pharmacy in general, and society at large. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Pharmacy)
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