Next Issue
Volume 7, June
Previous Issue
Volume 7, April

Table of Contents

Aerospace, Volume 7, Issue 5 (May 2020) – 17 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Compared to their chemical counterpart, electric propulsion devices are well suited for nano- and [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
System Operation of Regional UTM in Taiwan
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050065 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 693
Abstract
The hierarchical unmanned aerial systems (UAS) traffic management (UTM) is proposed for UAS operation in Taiwan. The proposed UTM is constructed using the similar concept of ATM from the transport category aviation system. Based on the airspace being divided by 400 feet of [...] Read more.
The hierarchical unmanned aerial systems (UAS) traffic management (UTM) is proposed for UAS operation in Taiwan. The proposed UTM is constructed using the similar concept of ATM from the transport category aviation system. Based on the airspace being divided by 400 feet of altitude, the RUTM (regional UTM) is managed by the local government and the NUTM (national UTM) by the Civil Aeronautical Administration (CAA). Under construction of the UTM system infrastructure, this trial tests examine the effectiveness of UAV surveillance under 400 feet using automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B)-like on-board units (OBU). The ground transceiver station (GTS) is designed with the adoptable systems. In these implementation tests, five long-range wide area network (LoRa) gateways and one automatic packet reporting system (APRS) I-Gate are deployed to cover the Tainan Metropolitan area. The data rates are set in different systems from 8 to 12 s to prevent from data conflict or congestion. The signal coverage, time delay, data distribution, and data variance in communication are recorded and analyzed for RUTM operation. Data streaming and Internet manipulation are verified with cloud system stability and availability. Simple operational procedures are defined with priority for detect and avoid (DAA) for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Mobile communication and Zello broadcasts are introduced and applied to establish controller-to-pilot communication (CPC) for DAA. The UAV flight tests are generally beyond visual line-of-sight (BVLOS) near suburban areas with flight distances to 8 km. On the GTS deployment, six test locations examine communication coverage and effectiveness using ADS-B like OBUs. In system verification, the proposed ADS-B like OBU works well in the UTM infrastructure. The system feasibility is proven with support of receiving data analysis and transceiver efficiency. The trial test supports RUTM in Taiwan for UAV operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aircraft Traffic Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Industry Internet of Things (IIoT) as a Methodology for Autonomous Diagnostics in Aerospace Structural Health Monitoring
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050064 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 763
Abstract
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), defined as the process that involves sensing, computing, and decision making to assess the integrity of infrastructure, has been plagued by data management challenges. The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), a subset of Internet of Things (IoT), provides a [...] Read more.
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), defined as the process that involves sensing, computing, and decision making to assess the integrity of infrastructure, has been plagued by data management challenges. The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), a subset of Internet of Things (IoT), provides a way to decisively address SHM’s big data problem and provide a framework for autonomous processing. The key focus of IIoT is operational efficiency and cost optimization. The purpose, therefore, of the IIoT approach in this investigation is to develop a framework that connects nondestructive evaluation sensor data with real-time processing algorithms on an IoT hardware/software system to provide diagnostic capabilities for efficient data processing related to SHM. Specifically, the proposed IIoT approach is comprised of three components: the Cloud, the Fog, and the Edge. The Cloud is used to store historical data as well as to perform demanding computations such as off-line machine learning. The Fog is the hardware that performs real-time diagnostics using information received both from sensing and the Cloud. The Edge is the bottom level hardware that records data at the sensor level. In this investigation, an application of this approach to evaluate the state of health of an aerospace grade composite material at laboratory conditions is presented. The key link that limits human intervention in data processing is the implemented database management approach which is the particular focus of this manuscript. Specifically, a NoSQL database is implemented to provide live data transfer from the Edge to both the Fog and Cloud. Through this database, the algorithms used are capable to execute filtering by classification at the Fog level, as live data is recorded. The processed data is automatically sent to the Cloud for further operations such as visualization. The system integration with three layers provides an opportunity to create a paradigm for intelligent real-time data quality management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IWSHM 2019)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Data-Driven Approach to Identify Flight Test Data Suitable to Design Angle of Attack Synthetic Sensor for Flight Control Systems
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050063 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 805
Abstract
Digital avionic solutions enable advanced flight control systems to be available also on smaller aircraft. One of the safety-critical segments is the air data system. Innovative architectures allow the use of synthetic sensors that can introduce significant technological and safety advances. The application [...] Read more.
Digital avionic solutions enable advanced flight control systems to be available also on smaller aircraft. One of the safety-critical segments is the air data system. Innovative architectures allow the use of synthetic sensors that can introduce significant technological and safety advances. The application to aerodynamic angles seems the most promising towards certified applications. In this area, the best procedures concerning the design of synthetic sensors are still an open question within the field. An example is given by the MIDAS project funded in the frame of Clean Sky 2. This paper proposes two data-driven methods that allow to improve performance over the entire flight envelope with particular attention to steady state flight conditions. The training set obtained is considerably undersized with consequent reduction of computational costs. These methods are validated with a real case and they will be used as part of the MIDAS life cycle. The first method, called Data-Driven Identification and Generation of Quasi-Steady States (DIGS), is based on the (i) identification of the lift curve of the aircraft; (ii) augmentation of the training set with artificial flight data points. DIGS’s main aim is to reduce the issue of unbalanced training set. The second method, called Similar Flight Test Data Pruning (SFDP), deals with data reduction based on the isolation of quasi-unique points. Results give an evidence of the validity of the methods for the MIDAS project that can be easily adopted for generic synthetic sensor design for flight control system applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control and Optimization Problems in Aerospace Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Design of a Piezoelectric De-Icing System for Small Rotorcraft Part 1/3: Development of a Flat Plate Numerical Model with Experimental Validation
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050062 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 666
Abstract
The objective of this research project is divided in four parts: (1) to design a piezoelectric actuator-based de-icing system integrated to a flat plate experimental setup and develop a numerical model of the system with experimental validation, (2) use the experimental setup to [...] Read more.
The objective of this research project is divided in four parts: (1) to design a piezoelectric actuator-based de-icing system integrated to a flat plate experimental setup and develop a numerical model of the system with experimental validation, (2) use the experimental setup to investigate actuator activation with frequency sweeps and transient vibration analysis, (3) add ice layer to the numerical model and predict numerically stresses for different ice breaking with experimental validation, and (4) bring the concept to a blade structure for wind tunnel testing. This paper presents the first objective of this study. First, preliminary numerical analysis was performed to gain basic guidelines for the integration of piezoelectric actuators in a simple flat plate experimental setup for vibration-based de-icing investigation. The results of these simulations allowed to optimize the positioning of the actuators on the structure and the optimal phasing of the actuators for mode activation. A numerical model of the final setup was elaborated with the piezoelectric actuators optimally positioned on the plate and meshed with piezoelectric elements. A frequency analysis was performed to predict resonant frequencies and mode shapes, and multiple direct steady-state dynamic analyses were performed to predict displacements of the flat plate when excited with the actuators. In those steady-state dynamic analysis, electrical boundary conditions were applied to the actuators to excite the vibration of the plate. The setup was fabricated faithful to the numerical model at the laboratory with piezoelectric actuator patches bonded to a steel flat plate and large solid blocks used to mimic perfect clamped boundary condition. The experimental setup was brought at the National Research Council Canada (NRC) for testing with a laser vibrometer to validate the numerical results. The experimental results validated the model when the plate is optimally excited with an average of error of 20% and a maximal error obtained of 43%. However, when the plate was not efficiently excited for a mode, the prediction of the numerical data was less accurate. This was not a concern since the numerical model was developed to design and predict optimal excitation of structures for de-icing purpose. This study allowed to develop a numerical model of a simple flat plate and understand optimal phasing of the actuators. The experimental setup designed is used in the next phase of the project to study transient vibration and frequency sweeps. The numerical model is used in the third phase of the project by adding ice layers for investigation of vibration-based de-icing, with the final objective of developing and integrating a piezoelectric actuator de-icing system to a rotorcraft blade structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deicing and Anti-Icing of Aircraft)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Parametric Study of Guidance of a 160-mm Projectile Steered with Lateral Thrusters
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050061 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 686
Abstract
The development of projectile guidance requires consideration of a large number of possible flight scenarios with various system parameters. In this paper, the Monte-Carlo parametric study for a 160 mm artillery rocket equipped with a set of 34 small, solid propellant lateral thrusters [...] Read more.
The development of projectile guidance requires consideration of a large number of possible flight scenarios with various system parameters. In this paper, the Monte-Carlo parametric study for a 160 mm artillery rocket equipped with a set of 34 small, solid propellant lateral thrusters located before the center of mass was evaluated to reduce projectile dispersion and collateral damage. The novelty of this paper lies in the functionality of modifying the shape of the trajectory in the terminal phase using lateral thrusters only. A six degree of freedom mathematical model implemented in MATLAB/Simulink was used to investigate the influence of numerous parameters on the resulting accuracy at several launch elevation angles. Augmented impact point prediction guidance was applied in the descending portion of the flight trajectory to achieve the trajectory shaping functionality. The optimum combination of thruster magnitude and algorithm parameters was obtained. The real data from the LN200 inertial measurement unit were used to investigate the influence of noise on the resulting accuracy. It was shown that with the proposed guidance method, the dispersion could be reduced by more than 250 times and the projectile impact angle might be increased when compared to an unguided projectile. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Unsteady Lift Prediction with a Higher-Order Potential Flow Method
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050060 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 822
Abstract
An unsteady formulation of the Kutta–Joukowski theorem has been used with a higher-order potential flow method for the prediction of three-dimensional unsteady lift. This study describes the implementation and verification of the approach in detail sufficient for reproduction by future developers. Verification was [...] Read more.
An unsteady formulation of the Kutta–Joukowski theorem has been used with a higher-order potential flow method for the prediction of three-dimensional unsteady lift. This study describes the implementation and verification of the approach in detail sufficient for reproduction by future developers. Verification was conducted using the classical responses to a two-dimensional airfoil entering a sharp-edged gust and a sinusoidal gust with errors of less than 1% for both. The method was then compared with the three-dimensional unsteady lift response of a wing as modeled in two unsteady vortex-lattice methods. Results showed agreement in peak lift coefficient prediction to within 1% and 7%, respectively, and mean agreement within 0.25% for the full response. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Cabin Layout Optimization for Vibration Hazard Reduction in Helicopter Emergency Medical Service
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050059 - 15 May 2020
Viewed by 836
Abstract
Helicopter Emergency and Medical Service (HEMS) vehicles require a specially configured cabin that supports the quick transport of a rescue team to the site of an emergency and return of patients back to a full capacity hospital, while sustaining the patients’ health using [...] Read more.
Helicopter Emergency and Medical Service (HEMS) vehicles require a specially configured cabin that supports the quick transport of a rescue team to the site of an emergency and return of patients back to a full capacity hospital, while sustaining the patients’ health using specifically designed, but otherwise state-of-the-art life-support equipment. The effectiveness and safety of the service may be challenged by the vibratory level, which could be improved by optimally positioning the affected subjects within the cabin. However, the bare dynamical response of the airframe can lead to erroneous evaluation of vibration performance, since pilots, crew, patients, and medical equipment dynamically interact with the helicopter through their interfaces with the structure. Therefore, layout optimization of a HEMS vehicle for low vibration requires the capability to efficiently analyze a large set of candidate coupled helicopter-interface-subject configurations, reaching a suitable trade-off between model detail and computational cost. This work presents an effective vibration rating of medical helicopters to support vibration hazard reduction by minimization of cabin interior accelerations. The tool is able to model high-fidelity rotorcraft aeroservoelasticity, easily connect formulations representing the dynamics of humans, equipment, and their interfaces, and calculate the vibration performance of the resulting coupled models. The approach is applied to a medium-weight helicopter to find its lowest vibration HEMS configuration. It is demonstrated that the optimal positioning of HEMS subjects can significantly reduce vibration hazard and improve operation safety, nearly as effectively as the application of vibration attenuation solutions with a fixed cabin layout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rotorcraft)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Far-Field Plume Characterization of a 100-W Class Hall Thruster
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050058 - 14 May 2020
Viewed by 827
Abstract
The 100 W-class ISCT100-v2 Hall Thruster (HT) has been characterized in terms of far-field plume properties. By means of a Faraday Cup and a Retarding Potential Analyzer, both the ion current density and the ion energy distribution function have been measured over a [...] Read more.
The 100 W-class ISCT100-v2 Hall Thruster (HT) has been characterized in terms of far-field plume properties. By means of a Faraday Cup and a Retarding Potential Analyzer, both the ion current density and the ion energy distribution function have been measured over a 180 circular arc for different operating points. Measurements are compared to far-field plume characterizations performed with higher power Hall thrusters. The ion current density profiles remain unchanged whatever the HT input power, although an asymptotic limit is observed in the core of the plume at high discharge voltages and anode mass flow rates. In like manner, the ion energy distribution functions reveal that most of the beam energy is concentrated in the core of the plume [ 40 ; 40 ] . Moreover, the fraction of low energy ion populations increases at large angles, owing to charge exchange and elastic collisions. Distinct plume regions are identified; they remain similar to the one described for high-power HTs. An efficiency analysis is also performed in terms of current utilization, mass utilization, and voltage utilization. The anode efficiency appears to be essentially affected by a low voltage utilization, the latter originating from the large surface-to-volume ratio inherent to low-power HTs. Experimental results also show that the background pressure clearly affects the plume structure and content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Propulsion)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Design and Test of a Student Hybrid Rocket Engine with an External Carbon Fiber Composite Structure
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050057 - 13 May 2020
Viewed by 804
Abstract
The development of hybrid rockets offers excellent opportunities for the practical education of students at universities due to the high safety and relatively low complexity of the rocket propulsion system. During the German educational program Studentische Experimental-Raketen (STERN), students of the Technische Universität [...] Read more.
The development of hybrid rockets offers excellent opportunities for the practical education of students at universities due to the high safety and relatively low complexity of the rocket propulsion system. During the German educational program Studentische Experimental-Raketen (STERN), students of the Technische Universität Braunschweig obtain the possibility to design and launch a sounding rocket with a hybrid engine. The design of the engine HYDRA 4X (HYbridDemonstrations-RaketenAntrieb) is presented, and the results of the first engine tests are discussed. The results for measured regression rates are compared to the results from the literature. Furthermore, the impact of the lightweight casing material carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) on the hybrid engine mass and flight apogee altitude is examined for rockets with different total impulse classes (10 to 50 kNs). It is shown that the benefit of a lightweight casing material on engine mass decreases with an increasing total impulse. However, a higher gain on apogee altitude, especially for bigger rockets with a comparable high total impulse, is shown. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Modeling Approach for the Effect of Battery Aging on the Performance of a Hybrid Electric Rotorcraft for Urban Air-Mobility
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050056 - 13 May 2020
Viewed by 829
Abstract
The interest in electric and hybrid electric power systems for aircraft and rotorcraft has been increasing significantly in recent years. However, advanced simulation tools still need to be developed to exploit the potentiality and address the complexity of these systems. The goal of [...] Read more.
The interest in electric and hybrid electric power systems for aircraft and rotorcraft has been increasing significantly in recent years. However, advanced simulation tools still need to be developed to exploit the potentiality and address the complexity of these systems. The goal of this investigation is to propose a modeling approach for the degradation of the battery performance during its aging, and to use such model to quantify the fuel economy and operability of a hybrid electric helicopter both in normal AirTaxi operation and in the case of engine failure. The proposed method is based on experimental data for lithium batteries retrieved in the literature. The battery model is included in a comprehensive simulation tool where the turboshaft engine and the electric machine are simulated with a simple but thorough approach that takes into account the part-load behavior of both energy converters. The present investigation also proposes and compares different strategies for the use of the battery during the AirTaxi mission showing that it is possible to reduce fuel consumption up to 11% when the battery is at the beginning of its life. When the battery comes close to its end of life, it is necessary to use an energy management strategy which ensures a sustainment of its state of charge at the expenses of a lower fuel saving. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Design and Structural Analysis of a Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) Actuator for CubeSats
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050055 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 832
Abstract
Following a global trend towards miniaturization, the population of nano- and micro-satellite continues to increase. CubeSats are standardized small size satellites based on 10 × 10 × 10 cm cube modules (1U) and are becoming sophisticated platforms despite their very small size. This [...] Read more.
Following a global trend towards miniaturization, the population of nano- and micro-satellite continues to increase. CubeSats are standardized small size satellites based on 10 × 10 × 10 cm cube modules (1U) and are becoming sophisticated platforms despite their very small size. This paper details the design and the structural analysis of a Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) actuator for agile CubeSats with a physical size up to 12U, which require high torque actuators. CMGs have inherited torque amplification capabilities and the recent advances in motor miniaturization make them ideal candidates for small satellite missions with slew rate requirements. The system’s requirements are derived based on conceptual agility requirements for an agile (highly maneuverable) CubeSat which needs to achieve a 90° maneuver in 90 s. With specific cost, mass and volume requirements, the proposed CMG design is based on some of the smallest available off-the-shelf electric motors and uses a light aluminum casing design. The proposed design uses stepper motors for the gimbal mechanism as a low cost, compact and low power solution, contributing to an overall low mass of the full CMG cluster. Static and dynamic analyses were performed to assess the mechanical integrity of the system for launch loads. Apart from a necessary custom control electronic board, the complete mechanical assembly has been designed including electrical hardware. Analyses demonstrate that the overall stress levels acting on the system are manageable by the CMG design. Bolted joints are critical and should be studied independently as the chosen model created singularities around these areas. Each individual CMG of the designed pyramidal cluster is shown to weigh about 35 g. Using the proposed CMG design with a customized avionics board, the complete CMG system is shown to weigh 250 g and occupies slightly more than ½U volume for a CubeSat, indicating the feasibility of CMGs for agile CubeSats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Small Satellite Technologies and Mission Concepts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Design of a Piezoelectric De-Icing System for Small Rotorcraft Part 3/3: Numerical Model and Experimental Validation of Vibration-Based De-Icing of a Flat Plate Structure
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050054 - 02 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
The objective of this research project is divided in four parts: (1) to design a piezoelectric actuator-based de-icing system integrated to a flat plate experimental setup and develop a numerical model of the system with experimental validation, (2) use the experimental setup to [...] Read more.
The objective of this research project is divided in four parts: (1) to design a piezoelectric actuator-based de-icing system integrated to a flat plate experimental setup and develop a numerical model of the system with experimental validation, (2) use the experimental setup to investigate actuator activation with frequency sweeps and transient vibration analysis, (3) add an ice layer to the numerical model and predict numerically stresses at ice breaking with experimental validation, and (4) bring the concept to a blade structure for wind tunnel testing. This paper presents the third part of the investigation in which an ice layer is added to the numerical model. Five accelerometers are installed on the flat plate to measure acceleration. Validation of the vibration amplitude predicted by the model is performed experimentally and the stresses calculated by the numerical model at cracking and delamination of the ice layer are determined. A stress limit criteria is then defined from those values for both normal stress at cracking and shear stress at delamination. As a proof of concept, the numerical model is then used to find resonant modes susceptible to generating cracking or delamination of the ice layer within the voltage limit of the piezoelectric actuators. The model also predicts a voltage range within which the ice breaking occurs. The experimental setup is used to validate positively the prediction of the numerical model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deicing and Anti-Icing of Aircraft)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
On the Application of Actively and Passively Excited Guided Elastic Waves for the Monitoring of Fiber-Reinforced Plastics
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050053 - 30 Apr 2020
Viewed by 874
Abstract
Nowadays, fiber-reinforced plastics are found in numerous industrial applications, such as aerospace, automotive engineering, railway, and naval engineering. These materials have high tensile and flexural strengths and nevertheless a low density at the same time. The use of fiber-reinforced plastics is particularly relevant [...] Read more.
Nowadays, fiber-reinforced plastics are found in numerous industrial applications, such as aerospace, automotive engineering, railway, and naval engineering. These materials have high tensile and flexural strengths and nevertheless a low density at the same time. The use of fiber-reinforced plastics is particularly relevant in areas where large masses have to be moved and accelerated. However, testing and monitoring these structures is still a challenge caused by the different damage behavior compared to metal structures. Non-visible structural changes, such as delaminations and fiber-fractures, may cause local degradation and finally the failure of the components. In this work, active and passive ultrasonic methods based on guided elastic waves are investigated for their applicability to carbon fiber-reinforced structures. Therefore, tensile tests with cyclically increasing load are carried out on specimens with different fiber orientations until complete failure. The acoustic emissions in the specimen during the load are recorded. As a second technique, actively excited guided waves are transmitted and received during the rest periods between the measuring ramps. Different parameters are extracted from the measured data, which allow the monitoring of the specimen’s degradation. A comparison of the results of the active and passive method follows. Finally, a combination of both methods is carried out addressing issues like its informative value and its sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IWSHM 2019)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Non-Intrusive Visualization of Optically Inaccessible Flow Fields Utilizing Positron Emission Tomography
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050052 - 29 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1046
Abstract
A technology gap persists in the visualization of optically inaccessible flow fields such as those in integrated systems. Advances in positron emission tomography (PET) technology are enabling its use in the engineering field to address this technology gap. This paper discusses a numerical [...] Read more.
A technology gap persists in the visualization of optically inaccessible flow fields such as those in integrated systems. Advances in positron emission tomography (PET) technology are enabling its use in the engineering field to address this technology gap. This paper discusses a numerical study performed to characterize a modern PET system’s ability to reconstruct a three-dimensional mapping of the optically inaccessible flow field downstream of an orifice. A method was devised to simulate a ring detector response to a flourine-18 radioisotope/water solution injected into the flow through a standard thickness pipe with orifice. A commercial computational fluid dynamics code and the GEANT4 Applications for the Tomographic Emission Monte Carlo simulation physics package were used to carry out the simulations. Results indicate that geometrical features, such as the pipe internal diameter, can be resolved to within a few millimeters with specific activity levels of 155 Bq/Voxel (91.2 Bq/mm3), and acquisition times as low as 15 s. Results also suggest that flow features, such as the radial extent of the shear layer between the primary and secondary recirculating flow can be resolved to within 5 mm with the same activity level, but with acquisition times of 45 s. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Conceptual Design, Flying, and Handling Qualities Assessment of a Blended Wing Body (BWB) Aircraft by Using an Engineering Flight Simulator
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050051 - 28 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1211
Abstract
The Blended Wing Body (BWB) configuration is considered to have the potential of providing significant advantages when compared to conventional aircraft designs. At the same time, numerous studies have reported that technical challenges exist in many areas of its design, including stability and [...] Read more.
The Blended Wing Body (BWB) configuration is considered to have the potential of providing significant advantages when compared to conventional aircraft designs. At the same time, numerous studies have reported that technical challenges exist in many areas of its design, including stability and control. This study aims to create a novel BWB design to test its flying and handling qualities using an engineering flight simulator and as such, to identify potential design solutions which will enhance its controllability and manoeuvrability characteristics. This aircraft is aimed toward the commercial sector with a range of 3000 nautical miles, carrying 200 passengers. The BWB design was flight tested at an engineering flight simulator to first determine its static stability through a standard commercial mission profile, and then to determine its dynamic stability characteristics through standard dynamic modes. Its flying qualities suggested its stability with a static margin of 8.652% of the mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) and consistent response from the pilot input. In addition, the aircraft achieved a maximum lift-to-drag ratio of 28.1; a maximum range of 4,581 nautical miles; zero-lift drag of 0.005; while meeting all the requirements of the dynamic modes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flight Simulation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessConcept Paper
A Collaborative Approach for an Integrated Modeling of Urban Air Transportation Systems
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050050 - 28 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1032
Abstract
The current push in automation, communication, and electrical energy storage technologies has the potential to lift urban mobility into the sky. As several urban air mobility (UAM) concepts are conceivable, all relevant physical effects as well as mutual interrelations of the UAM system [...] Read more.
The current push in automation, communication, and electrical energy storage technologies has the potential to lift urban mobility into the sky. As several urban air mobility (UAM) concepts are conceivable, all relevant physical effects as well as mutual interrelations of the UAM system have to be addressed and evaluated at a sufficient level of fidelity before implementation. Therefore, a collaborative system of systems modeling approach for UAM is presented. To quickly identify physical effects and cross-disciplinary influences of UAM, a pool of low-fidelity physical analysis components is developed and integrated into the Remote Component Environment (RCE) workflow engine. This includes, i. a., the disciplines of demand forecast, trajectory, vertiport, and cost modeling as well as air traffic flow and capacity management. The definition and clarification of technical interfaces require intensive cooperation between specialists with different areas of expertise. To reduce this communication effort, the Common Parametric Aircraft Configuration Schema (CPACS) is adapted and used as central data exchange format. The UAM system module is initially applied for a 24-hour simulation of three generic networks in Hamburg City. After understanding the basic system-level behavior, higher level analysis components and feedback loops must be integrated in the UAM system module for evaluation and optimization of explicit operating concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Air Transportation—Operations and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Design of a Piezoelectric De-Icing System for Small Rotorcraft Part 2/3: Investigation of Transient Vibration during Frequency Sweeps and Optimal Piezoelectric Actuator Excitation
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050049 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
The objective of this research project is divided in four parts: (1) to design a piezoelectric actuator based de-icing system integrated to a flat plate experimental setup, develop a numerical model of the system and validate experimentally; (2) use the experimental setup to [...] Read more.
The objective of this research project is divided in four parts: (1) to design a piezoelectric actuator based de-icing system integrated to a flat plate experimental setup, develop a numerical model of the system and validate experimentally; (2) use the experimental setup to investigate actuator activation with frequency sweeps and transient vibration analysis; (3) add an ice layer to the numerical model, predict numerically stresses at ice breaking and validate experimentally; and (4) implement the concept to a blade structure for wind tunnel testing. This paper presents the second objective of this study, in which the experimental setup designed in the first phase of the project is used to study transient vibration occurring during frequency sweeps. Acceleration during different frequency sweeps was measured with an accelerometer on the flat plate setup. The results obtained showed that the vibration pattern was the same for the different sweep rate (in Hz/s) tested for a same sweep range. However, the amplitude of each resonant mode increased with a sweep rate decrease. Investigation of frequency sweeps performed around different resonant modes showed that as the frequency sweep rate tends towards zero, the amplitude of the mode tends toward the steady-state excitation amplitude value. Since no other transient effects were observed, this signifies that steady-state activation is the optimal excitation for a resonant mode. To validate this hypothesis, the flat plate was installed in a cold room where ice layers were accumulated. Frequency sweeps at high voltage were performed and a camera was used to record multiple pictures per second to determine the frequencies where breaking of the ice occur. Consequently, the resonant frequencies were determined from the transfer functions measured with the accelerometer versus the signal of excitation. Additional tests were performed in steady-state activation at those frequencies and the same breaking of the ice layer was obtained, resulting in the first ice breaking obtained in steady-state activation conditions as part of this research project. These results confirmed the conclusions obtained following the transient vibration investigation, but also demonstrated the drawbacks of steady-state activation, namely identifying resonant modes susceptible of creating ice breaking and locating with precision the frequencies of the modes, which change as the ice accumulates on the structure. Results also show that frequency sweeps, if designed properly, can be used as substitute to steady-state activation for the same results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deicing and Anti-Icing of Aircraft)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop