Special Issue "Deicing and Anti-Icing of Aircraft"

A special issue of Aerospace (ISSN 2226-4310).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Hirotaka Sakaue
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA
Interests: pressure- and temperature-sensitive paint technique; advanced flow diagnostics by luminescent imaging; micro-fiber coating as chemical flow control; ice-phobic coating for anti- and de-icing; unsteady aerodynamics; wind tunnel testing (low-speed, transonic-speed, high-speed, and high Reynolds-number flows); two phase flows; heat transfer in hypersonic flow; fluid-thermal-structure interactions; environmental and energy engineering; biomedical and biological applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aircraft icing is still a critical issue in aircraft operations. In recent years, multidisciplinary approaches have been attempted to tackle to this problem. One of the outcomes is the development of icephobic coating; nevertheless, there are many challenges that need to be overcome to fix aircraft icing from a fundamental to application basis. This Special Issue aims to provide an overview of recent advances in deicing and anti-icing of aircraft. Authors are invited to submit full research articles and review manuscripts addressing (but not limited to) the following topics:

  • Novel experimental methods to simulation droplet icing, ice accretion and practical applications
  • Novel numerical methods in droplet icing, ice accretion, and practical applications
  • Icephobic coating
  • Hybrid system for deicing and anti-icing of aircrafts

Prof. Dr. Hirotaka Sakaue
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • deicing
  • anti-icing
  • ice accretion
  • ice adhesion
  • ice cohesion

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Characteristic Phenomena and Temperature on Super-Cooled Large Droplet Icing on NACA0012 Airfoil and Axial Fan Blade
Aerospace 2020, 7(7), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7070092 - 03 Jul 2020
Abstract
Icing simulations involving super-cooled large droplets (SLDs) on a NACA0012 airfoil and a commercial axial fan were performed considering the characteristic behavior of SLD icing (i.e., splash-bounce, deformation, and breakup). The simulations were performed considering weak coupling between flow field and droplet motion. [...] Read more.
Icing simulations involving super-cooled large droplets (SLDs) on a NACA0012 airfoil and a commercial axial fan were performed considering the characteristic behavior of SLD icing (i.e., splash-bounce, deformation, and breakup). The simulations were performed considering weak coupling between flow field and droplet motion. The flow field was computed using the Eulerian method, wherein the droplet motion was simulated via the Lagrangian method. To represent the ice shape, an extended Messinger model was used for thermodynamic computation. The ice shape and collection efficiency of the NACA0012 airfoil derived using the icing simulation exhibited a reasonable agreement with the existing experimental data. The icing simulation results for the axial fan, in terms of distribution of ice on the blade and its influence on the flow field, indicated that flow separation occurred, and the mass flow rate of the flow passage decreased. Moreover, the splash and bounce phenomena considerably influenced the icing process; however, the effect of the deformation and breakup phenomena was negligibly small. In terms of the effect of the SLDs on the icing phenomena, it was noted that, with the decrease in the SLD temperature (from −5 °C to −15 °C), the number of adhering SLDs increased, whereas the number of splashing and bouncing SLDs decreased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deicing and Anti-Icing of Aircraft)
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting Rotor Heat Transfer Using the Viscous Blade Element Momentum Theory and Unsteady Vortex Lattice Method
Aerospace 2020, 7(7), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7070090 - 03 Jul 2020
Abstract
Calculating the unsteady convective heat transfer on helicopter blades is the first step in the prediction of ice accretion and the design of ice-protection systems. Simulations using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) successfully model the complex aerodynamics of rotors as well as the heat [...] Read more.
Calculating the unsteady convective heat transfer on helicopter blades is the first step in the prediction of ice accretion and the design of ice-protection systems. Simulations using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) successfully model the complex aerodynamics of rotors as well as the heat transfer on blade surfaces, but for a conceptual design, faster calculation methods may be favorable. In the recent literature, classical methods such as the blade element momentum theory (BEMT) and the unsteady vortex lattice method (UVLM) were used to produce higher fidelity aerodynamic results by coupling them to viscous CFD databases. The novelty of this research originates from the introduction of an added layer of the coupling technique to predict rotor blade heat transfer using the BEMT and UVLM. The new approach implements the viscous coupling of the two methods from one hand and introduces a link to a new airfoil CFD-determined heat transfer correlation. This way, the convective heat transfer on ice-clean rotor blades is estimated while benefiting from the viscous extension of the BEMT and UVLM. The CFD heat transfer prediction is verified using existing correlations for a flat plate test case. Thrust predictions by the implemented UVLM and BEMT agree within 2% and 80% compared to experimental data. Tip vortex locations by the UVLM are predicted within 90% but fail in extreme ground effect. The end results present as an estimate of the heat transfer for a typical lightweight helicopter tail rotor for four test cases in hover, ground effect, axial, and forward flight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deicing and Anti-Icing of Aircraft)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Design of a Piezoelectric De-Icing System for Small Rotorcraft Part 1/3: Development of a Flat Plate Numerical Model with Experimental Validation
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050062 - 22 May 2020
Abstract
The objective of this research project is divided in four parts: (1) to design a piezoelectric actuator-based de-icing system integrated to a flat plate experimental setup and develop a numerical model of the system with experimental validation, (2) use the experimental setup to [...] Read more.
The objective of this research project is divided in four parts: (1) to design a piezoelectric actuator-based de-icing system integrated to a flat plate experimental setup and develop a numerical model of the system with experimental validation, (2) use the experimental setup to investigate actuator activation with frequency sweeps and transient vibration analysis, (3) add ice layer to the numerical model and predict numerically stresses for different ice breaking with experimental validation, and (4) bring the concept to a blade structure for wind tunnel testing. This paper presents the first objective of this study. First, preliminary numerical analysis was performed to gain basic guidelines for the integration of piezoelectric actuators in a simple flat plate experimental setup for vibration-based de-icing investigation. The results of these simulations allowed to optimize the positioning of the actuators on the structure and the optimal phasing of the actuators for mode activation. A numerical model of the final setup was elaborated with the piezoelectric actuators optimally positioned on the plate and meshed with piezoelectric elements. A frequency analysis was performed to predict resonant frequencies and mode shapes, and multiple direct steady-state dynamic analyses were performed to predict displacements of the flat plate when excited with the actuators. In those steady-state dynamic analysis, electrical boundary conditions were applied to the actuators to excite the vibration of the plate. The setup was fabricated faithful to the numerical model at the laboratory with piezoelectric actuator patches bonded to a steel flat plate and large solid blocks used to mimic perfect clamped boundary condition. The experimental setup was brought at the National Research Council Canada (NRC) for testing with a laser vibrometer to validate the numerical results. The experimental results validated the model when the plate is optimally excited with an average of error of 20% and a maximal error obtained of 43%. However, when the plate was not efficiently excited for a mode, the prediction of the numerical data was less accurate. This was not a concern since the numerical model was developed to design and predict optimal excitation of structures for de-icing purpose. This study allowed to develop a numerical model of a simple flat plate and understand optimal phasing of the actuators. The experimental setup designed is used in the next phase of the project to study transient vibration and frequency sweeps. The numerical model is used in the third phase of the project by adding ice layers for investigation of vibration-based de-icing, with the final objective of developing and integrating a piezoelectric actuator de-icing system to a rotorcraft blade structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deicing and Anti-Icing of Aircraft)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Design of a Piezoelectric De-Icing System for Small Rotorcraft Part 3/3: Numerical Model and Experimental Validation of Vibration-Based De-Icing of a Flat Plate Structure
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050054 - 02 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The objective of this research project is divided in four parts: (1) to design a piezoelectric actuator-based de-icing system integrated to a flat plate experimental setup and develop a numerical model of the system with experimental validation, (2) use the experimental setup to [...] Read more.
The objective of this research project is divided in four parts: (1) to design a piezoelectric actuator-based de-icing system integrated to a flat plate experimental setup and develop a numerical model of the system with experimental validation, (2) use the experimental setup to investigate actuator activation with frequency sweeps and transient vibration analysis, (3) add an ice layer to the numerical model and predict numerically stresses at ice breaking with experimental validation, and (4) bring the concept to a blade structure for wind tunnel testing. This paper presents the third part of the investigation in which an ice layer is added to the numerical model. Five accelerometers are installed on the flat plate to measure acceleration. Validation of the vibration amplitude predicted by the model is performed experimentally and the stresses calculated by the numerical model at cracking and delamination of the ice layer are determined. A stress limit criteria is then defined from those values for both normal stress at cracking and shear stress at delamination. As a proof of concept, the numerical model is then used to find resonant modes susceptible to generating cracking or delamination of the ice layer within the voltage limit of the piezoelectric actuators. The model also predicts a voltage range within which the ice breaking occurs. The experimental setup is used to validate positively the prediction of the numerical model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deicing and Anti-Icing of Aircraft)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Design of a Piezoelectric De-Icing System for Small Rotorcraft Part 2/3: Investigation of Transient Vibration during Frequency Sweeps and Optimal Piezoelectric Actuator Excitation
Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7050049 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The objective of this research project is divided in four parts: (1) to design a piezoelectric actuator based de-icing system integrated to a flat plate experimental setup, develop a numerical model of the system and validate experimentally; (2) use the experimental setup to [...] Read more.
The objective of this research project is divided in four parts: (1) to design a piezoelectric actuator based de-icing system integrated to a flat plate experimental setup, develop a numerical model of the system and validate experimentally; (2) use the experimental setup to investigate actuator activation with frequency sweeps and transient vibration analysis; (3) add an ice layer to the numerical model, predict numerically stresses at ice breaking and validate experimentally; and (4) implement the concept to a blade structure for wind tunnel testing. This paper presents the second objective of this study, in which the experimental setup designed in the first phase of the project is used to study transient vibration occurring during frequency sweeps. Acceleration during different frequency sweeps was measured with an accelerometer on the flat plate setup. The results obtained showed that the vibration pattern was the same for the different sweep rate (in Hz/s) tested for a same sweep range. However, the amplitude of each resonant mode increased with a sweep rate decrease. Investigation of frequency sweeps performed around different resonant modes showed that as the frequency sweep rate tends towards zero, the amplitude of the mode tends toward the steady-state excitation amplitude value. Since no other transient effects were observed, this signifies that steady-state activation is the optimal excitation for a resonant mode. To validate this hypothesis, the flat plate was installed in a cold room where ice layers were accumulated. Frequency sweeps at high voltage were performed and a camera was used to record multiple pictures per second to determine the frequencies where breaking of the ice occur. Consequently, the resonant frequencies were determined from the transfer functions measured with the accelerometer versus the signal of excitation. Additional tests were performed in steady-state activation at those frequencies and the same breaking of the ice layer was obtained, resulting in the first ice breaking obtained in steady-state activation conditions as part of this research project. These results confirmed the conclusions obtained following the transient vibration investigation, but also demonstrated the drawbacks of steady-state activation, namely identifying resonant modes susceptible of creating ice breaking and locating with precision the frequencies of the modes, which change as the ice accumulates on the structure. Results also show that frequency sweeps, if designed properly, can be used as substitute to steady-state activation for the same results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deicing and Anti-Icing of Aircraft)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental and Numerical Icing Penalties of an S826 Airfoil at Low Reynolds Numbers
Aerospace 2020, 7(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7040046 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Most icing research focuses on the high Reynolds number regime and manned aviation. Information on icing at low Reynolds numbers, as it is encountered by wind turbines and unmanned aerial vehicles, is less available, and few experimental datasets exist that can be used [...] Read more.
Most icing research focuses on the high Reynolds number regime and manned aviation. Information on icing at low Reynolds numbers, as it is encountered by wind turbines and unmanned aerial vehicles, is less available, and few experimental datasets exist that can be used for validation of numerical tools. This study investigated the aerodynamic performance degradation on an S826 airfoil with 3D-printed ice shapes at Reynolds numbers Re = 2 × 105, 4 × 105, and 6 × 105. Three ice geometries were obtained from icing wind tunnel experiments, and an additional three geometries were generated with LEWICE. Experimental measurements of lift, drag, and pressure on the clean and iced airfoils have been conducted in the low-speed wind tunnel at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. The results showed that the icing performance penalty correlated to the complexity of the ice geometry. The experimental data were compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with the RANS solver FENSAP. Simulations were performed with two turbulence models (Spalart Allmaras and Menter’s k-ω SST). The simulation data showed good fidelity for the clean and streamlined icing cases but had limitations for complex ice shapes and stall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deicing and Anti-Icing of Aircraft)
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Open AccessArticle
Computer-Assisted Aircraft Anti-Icing Fluids Endurance Time Determination
Aerospace 2020, 7(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7040039 - 08 Apr 2020
Abstract
Deicing and anti-icing the aircraft using proper chemical fluids, prior takeoff, are mandatory. A thin layer of ice or snow can compromise the safety, causing lift loss and drag increase. Commercialized deicing and anti-icing fluids all pass a qualification process which is described [...] Read more.
Deicing and anti-icing the aircraft using proper chemical fluids, prior takeoff, are mandatory. A thin layer of ice or snow can compromise the safety, causing lift loss and drag increase. Commercialized deicing and anti-icing fluids all pass a qualification process which is described in Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE) documents. Most of them are endurance time tests under freezing and frozen contaminants, under simulated and natural conditions. They all have in common that the endurance times have to be determined by visual inspection. When a certain proportion of the test plate is covered with contaminants, the endurance time test is called. In the goal of minimizing human error resulting from visual inspection and helping in the interpretation of fluid failure, help-decision computer-assisted algorithms have been developed and tested under different conditions. The algorithms are based on common image processing techniques. The algorithms have been tested under three different icing conditions, water spray endurance test, indoor snow test and light freezing rain tests, and were compared to the times determined by three experimented technicians. A total of 14 tests have been compared. From them, 11 gave a result lower than 5% of the results given by the technicians. In conclusion, the computer-assisted algorithms developed are efficient enough to support the technicians in their failure call. However, further works need to be performed to improve the analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deicing and Anti-Icing of Aircraft)
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Open AccessArticle
Fast Evaluation of Aircraft Icing Severity Using Machine Learning Based on XGBoost
Aerospace 2020, 7(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7040036 - 31 Mar 2020
Abstract
Aircraft icing represents a serious hazard in aviation which has caused a number of fatal accidents over the years. In addition, it can lead to substantial increase in drag and weight, thus reducing the aerodynamics performance of the airplane. The process of ice [...] Read more.
Aircraft icing represents a serious hazard in aviation which has caused a number of fatal accidents over the years. In addition, it can lead to substantial increase in drag and weight, thus reducing the aerodynamics performance of the airplane. The process of ice accretion on a solid surface is a complex interaction of aerodynamic and environmental variables. The complex relationship makes machine learning-based methods an attractive alternative to traditional numerical simulation-based approaches. In this study, we introduce a purely data-driven approach to find the complex pattern between different flight conditions and aircraft icing severity prediction. The supervised learning algorithm Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) is applied to establish the prediction framework which makes prediction based on any set of observations. The input flight conditions for the proposed prediction framework are liquid water content, droplet diameter and exposure time. The proposed approach is demonstrated in three cases: maximum ice thickness prediction, icing area prediction and icing severity level evaluation. Performance comparison studies and error analysis are also conducted to verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method has reasonable capability in evaluating aircraft icing severity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deicing and Anti-Icing of Aircraft)
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Open AccessArticle
Pinned Droplet Size on a Superhydrophobic Surface in Shear Flow
Aerospace 2020, 7(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7030034 - 21 Mar 2020
Abstract
The recent development of a superhydrophobic surface enhances the droplet shedding under a shear flow. The present study gives insights into the effects of shear flow on a pinned droplet over a superhydrophobic surface. To experimentally simulate the change in the size of [...] Read more.
The recent development of a superhydrophobic surface enhances the droplet shedding under a shear flow. The present study gives insights into the effects of shear flow on a pinned droplet over a superhydrophobic surface. To experimentally simulate the change in the size of a sessile droplet on an aerodynamic surface, the volume of the pinned droplet is expanded by water supplied through a pore. Under a continuous airflow that provides a shear flow over the superhydrophobic surface, the size of a pinned water droplet shed from the surface is experimentally characterized. The air velocity ranges from 8 to 61 m/s, and the size of pinned droplets shed at a given air velocity is measured using an instantaneous snapshot captured with a high-speed camera. It is found that the size of the shedding pinned droplet decreases as air velocity increases. At higher air velocities, shedding pinned droplets are fully immersed in the boundary layer. The present findings give a correlation between critical air velocity and the size of pinned droplets shed from the pore over the superhydrophobic surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deicing and Anti-Icing of Aircraft)
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