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Volume 8, September

J. Sens. Actuator Netw., Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 8 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Underwater acoustic communications face many challenges due to a hostile environment. This paper presents a study of an underwater environmental data collection service, performed by an autonomous vehicle equipped with both a commercial modem and a very low-cost acoustic modem prototype. The vehicle mules the data from a dense network of low-cost submerged acoustic sensors, deployed in a river scenario, to a surface sink. To this purpose, a polling-based MAC protocol has been employed and adaptive mechanisms have been implemented to adapt the protocol parameters to the network density. View this paper
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Review
IoT-Enabled Gas Sensors: Technologies, Applications, and Opportunities
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan8040057 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4693
Abstract
Ambient gas detection and measurement had become essential in diverse fields and applications, from preventing accidents, avoiding equipment malfunction, to air pollution warnings and granting the correct gas mixture to patients in hospitals. Gas leakage can reach large proportions, affecting entire neighborhoods or [...] Read more.
Ambient gas detection and measurement had become essential in diverse fields and applications, from preventing accidents, avoiding equipment malfunction, to air pollution warnings and granting the correct gas mixture to patients in hospitals. Gas leakage can reach large proportions, affecting entire neighborhoods or even cities, causing enormous environmental impacts. This paper elaborates on a deep review of the state of the art on gas-sensing technologies, analyzing the opportunities and main characteristics of the transducers, as well as towards their integration through the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. This should ease the information collecting and sharing processes, granting better experiences to users, and avoiding major losses and expenses. The most promising wireless-based solutions for ambient gas monitoring are analyzed and discussed, open research topics are identified, and lessons learned are shared to conclude the study. Full article
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Article
Introducing and Comparing Recent Clustering Methods for Massive Data Management in the Internet of Things
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan8040056 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2973
Abstract
The use of wireless sensor networks, which are the key ingredient in the growing Internet of Things (IoT), has surged over the past few years with a widening range of applications in the industry, healthcare, agriculture, with a special attention to monitoring and [...] Read more.
The use of wireless sensor networks, which are the key ingredient in the growing Internet of Things (IoT), has surged over the past few years with a widening range of applications in the industry, healthcare, agriculture, with a special attention to monitoring and tracking, often tied with security issues. In some applications, sensors can be deployed in remote, large unpopulated areas, whereas in others, they serve to monitor confined busy spaces. In either case, clustering the sensor network’s nodes into several clusters is of fundamental benefit for obvious scalability reasons, and also for helping to devise maintenance or usage schedules that might greatly improve the network’s lifetime. In the present paper, we survey and compare popular and advanced clustering schemes and provide a detailed analysis of their performance as a function of scale, type of collected data or their heterogeneity, and noise level. The testing is performed on real sensor data provided by the UCI Machine Learning Repository, using various external validation metrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Massive Sensory Data Management in WSN, IoT and CPS)
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Article
Data Gathering from a Multimodal Dense Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Deployed in Shallow Fresh Water Scenarios
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan8040055 - 30 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3483
Abstract
The Robotic Vessels as-a-Service (RoboVaaS) project intends to exploit the most advanced communication and marine vehicle technologies to revolutionize shipping and near-shore operations, offering on-demand and cost-effective robotic-aided services. In particular, the RoboVaaS vision includes a ship hull inspection service, a quay walls [...] Read more.
The Robotic Vessels as-a-Service (RoboVaaS) project intends to exploit the most advanced communication and marine vehicle technologies to revolutionize shipping and near-shore operations, offering on-demand and cost-effective robotic-aided services. In particular, the RoboVaaS vision includes a ship hull inspection service, a quay walls inspection service, an antigrounding service, and an environmental and bathymetry data collection service. In this paper, we present a study of the underwater environmental data collection service, performed by a low-cost autonomous vehicle equipped with both a commercial modem and a very low-cost acoustic modem prototype, the smartPORT Acoustic Underwater Modem (AHOI). The vehicle mules the data from a network of low cost submerged acoustic sensor nodes to a surface sink. To this end, an underwater acoustic network composed by both static and moving nodes has been implemented and simulated with the DESERT Underwater Framework, where the performance of the AHOI modem has been mapped in the form of lookup tables. The performance of the AHOI modem has been measured near the Port of Hamburg, where the RoboVaaS concept will be demonstrated with a real field evaluation. The transmission with the commercial modem, instead, has been simulated with the Bellhop ray tracer thanks to the World Ocean Simulation System (WOSS), by considering both the bathymetry and the sound speed profile of the Port of Hamburg. The set up of the polling-based MAC protocol parameters, such as the maximum backoff time of the sensor nodes, appears to be crucial for the network performance, in particular for the low-cost low-rate modems. In this work, to tune the maximum backoff time during the data collection mission, an adaptive mechanism has been implemented. Specifically, the maximum backoff time is updated based on the network density. This adaptive mechanism results in an 8% improvement of the network throughput. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Networking)
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Article
Evaluation of Suitability of Current Industrial Standards in Designing Control Applications for Internet of Things Healthcare Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan8040054 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2928
Abstract
Internet of Things (IoT) holds great promises for industrial, commercial, and consumer applications. While wireless techniques have matured with time and have gained the users’ confidence in relaying data containing qualitative as well as quantitative information, cynicism still exists on trusting them for [...] Read more.
Internet of Things (IoT) holds great promises for industrial, commercial, and consumer applications. While wireless techniques have matured with time and have gained the users’ confidence in relaying data containing qualitative as well as quantitative information, cynicism still exists on trusting them for applications involving control. The wireless protocols and techniques used for industrial control have proved their robustness. In this work we have attempted to test some aspects of feasibility on the use of wireless control involving such protocols for IoT healthcare sensor networks (IoT-HSNs). We conceptualized and simulated a 24-channel IoT-HSN model that includes biosensors as well as bioactuators. Currently, no protocol supporting control in such networks has been standardized. We tried to fit in the widely used WirelessHART (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) industrial protocol for sensing as well as control in the model to test if it would work for a healthcare sensor network. We probed the performance of the model with respect to network parameters such as channels, bandwidth, Quality of Service (QoS) requirements, payload, transmission delays, and allowable errors. For the parameters considered, the results obtained from the model were encouraging, suggesting that WirelessHART fits the IoT-HSN control requirements according to this initial probe. The findings could provide useful insights for researchers working in the field of control in IoT-HSNs and for designers and manufacturers of IoT-HSN equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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Article
Hybrid Zoning Algorithm to Optimize Overhead in Smart Mobile Communication
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan8040053 - 24 Oct 2019
Viewed by 3191
Abstract
With the increase of mobile terminals, routing protocols in wireless communications must provide better quality of service to meet bandwidth and reliability requirements. In networks without infrastructure, such as ad hoc and sensor networks, where a device performs as both a terminal and [...] Read more.
With the increase of mobile terminals, routing protocols in wireless communications must provide better quality of service to meet bandwidth and reliability requirements. In networks without infrastructure, such as ad hoc and sensor networks, where a device performs as both a terminal and a router to forward data of other nodes, maintaining the network topology consumes considerable resources in terms of energy and bandwidth. These parameters need to be considered when designing routing protocols for wireless networks. To reduce the cost of the protocol overhead, some algorithms act on the forwarders, while others act on the transmission of messages. Finally, the hybrid ones are a combination of both. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm with two zoning strategies to enhance the performance of mobile network. The first strategy helps to select dispersive forwarders in order to reduce the collision in radio channel. The second strategy aims to reduce the transmission of redundant messages. Both strategies are based on the location information of nodes. We implemented our algorithm in the optimized link state routing protocol, the most used protocol in mobile ad hoc networks. We showed by simulations that our solution reduces drastically the cost of the overhead with no hindrance to the network topology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Ad Hoc Networks)
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Article
A Low-Cost Monitoring System and Operating Database for Quality Control in Small Food Processing Industry
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan8040052 - 20 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3728
Abstract
The use of completely automated systems for collecting sensor data with the aim of monitoring and controlling the quality of small-scale food processes is not widespread. Small and micro-enterprises usually do not carry out their own precompetitive research or prototype development as regards [...] Read more.
The use of completely automated systems for collecting sensor data with the aim of monitoring and controlling the quality of small-scale food processes is not widespread. Small and micro-enterprises usually do not carry out their own precompetitive research or prototype development as regards to automation technologies. This study proposes a web-based, low-cost monitoring and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system whose kernel is available for free, as a possible solution that could be adopted by these food producers. It is mainly based on open SW/HW so as its configuration is adaptable to the application and type of plant. It presents a modular architecture and its main functionalities encompass the acquisition, management, aggregation and visualization of process data, providing an operating database. It also provides food tracking and process quality control: The time series are browsable due to QR-Code generation and different early warning detection strategies are implemented. A tool for solving migration problems based on Fick’s equation is offered as a packaging decision support system. Full article
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Article
Scalable Edge Computing Deployment for Reliable Service Provisioning in Vehicular Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan8040051 - 02 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3441
Abstract
The global connected cars market is growing rapidly. Novel services will be offered to vehicles, many of them requiring low-latency and high-reliability networking solutions. The Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) paradigm, thanks to the centralization and virtualization of baseband functions, offers numerous advantages [...] Read more.
The global connected cars market is growing rapidly. Novel services will be offered to vehicles, many of them requiring low-latency and high-reliability networking solutions. The Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) paradigm, thanks to the centralization and virtualization of baseband functions, offers numerous advantages in terms of costs and mobile radio performance. C-RAN can be deployed in conjunction with a Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) infrastructure, bringing services close to vehicles supporting time-critical applications. However, a massive deployment of computational resources at the edge may be costly, especially when reliability requirements demand deployment of redundant resources. In this context, cost optimization based on integer linear programming may result in being too complex when the number of involved nodes is more than a few tens. This paper proposes a scalable approach for C-RAN and MEC computational resource deployment with protection against single-edge node failure. A two-step hybrid model is proposed to alleviate the computational complexity of the integer programming model when edge computing resources are located in physical nodes. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid strategy in finding optimal or near-optimal solutions with different network sizes and with affordable computational effort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Vehicular Networks)
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Article
Interference Alignment for Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: A Survey
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan8040050 - 27 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3665
Abstract
Interference alignment (IA) is an innovative wireless transmission strategy that has shown to be a promising technique for achieving optimal capacity scaling of a multiuser interference channel at asymptotically high-signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Transmitters exploit the availability of multiple signaling dimensions in order to [...] Read more.
Interference alignment (IA) is an innovative wireless transmission strategy that has shown to be a promising technique for achieving optimal capacity scaling of a multiuser interference channel at asymptotically high-signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Transmitters exploit the availability of multiple signaling dimensions in order to align their mutual interference at the receivers. Most of the research has focused on developing algorithms for determining alignment solutions as well as proving interference alignment’s theoretical ability to achieve the maximum degrees of freedom in a wireless network. Cognitive radio, on the other hand, is a technique used to improve the utilization of the radio spectrum by opportunistically sensing and accessing unused licensed frequency spectrum, without causing harmful interference to the licensed users. With the increased deployment of wireless services, the possibility of detecting unused frequency spectrum becomes diminished. Thus, the concept of introducing interference alignment in cognitive radio has become a very attractive proposition. This paper provides a survey of the implementation of IA in cognitive radio under the main research paradigms, along with a summary and analysis of results under each system model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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