Next Issue
Volume 9, November
Previous Issue
Volume 9, September

Table of Contents

Plants, Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2020) – 155 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Rubber dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin; TK) has received attention for its natural rubber [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Development of Interspecific Hybrids between a Cultivated Eggplant Resistant to Bacterial Wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) and Eggplant Wild Relatives for the Development of Rootstocks
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101405 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 275
Abstract
Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacerum is one of the most economically and destructive eggplant diseases in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The objectives of this study were to develop interspecific hybrids, as potential rootstocks, between the eggplant (Solanum [...] Read more.
Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacerum is one of the most economically and destructive eggplant diseases in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The objectives of this study were to develop interspecific hybrids, as potential rootstocks, between the eggplant (Solanum melongena) bacterial wilt resistant line EG203 and four wild accessions (S. incanum UPV1, S. insanum UPV2, S.anguivi UPV3, and S. sisymbriifolium UPV4), and to evaluate interspecific hybrids along with parents for resistance to bacterial wilt strains Pss97 and Pss2016. EG203 was crossed successfully with wild accessions UPV2 and UPV3 and produced viable seeds that germinated when wild accessions were used as a maternal parent in the crosses. In addition, viable interspecific hybrids between EG203 and UPV1 were obtained in both directions of the hybridization, although embryo rescue had to be used. Hybridity was confirmed in the four developed interspecific hybrid combinations with three SSR markers. EG203 was resistant to both strains Pss97 and Pss2016, while UPV1 and UPV3 were, respectively, resistant and moderately resistant to Pss2016. The four interspecific hybrids with UPV2, UPV3, and UPV1 were susceptible to both bacterial wilt strains, indicating that the resistance of EG203, UPV1, and UPV3 behaves as recessive in interspecific crosses. However, given the vigor of interspecific hybrids between eggplant and the three cultivated wild species, these hybrids may be of interest as rootstocks. However, the development of interspecific hybrid rootstocks resistant to bacterial wilt will probably require the identification of new sources of dominant resistance to this pathogen in the eggplant wild relatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Breeding)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Ailanthus altissima Forests Determine a Shift in Herbaceous Layer Richness: A Paired Comparison with Hardwood Native Forests in Sub-Mediterranean Europe
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101404 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 250
Abstract
Ailanthus altissima is an invasive alien species (IAS) present throughout Europe and included in the list of alien species of Union concern. In sub-Mediterranean areas of central Italy, there is a lack of knowledge about this invasive species and its interactions with the [...] Read more.
Ailanthus altissima is an invasive alien species (IAS) present throughout Europe and included in the list of alien species of Union concern. In sub-Mediterranean areas of central Italy, there is a lack of knowledge about this invasive species and its interactions with the native forest ecosystems. We aim to find what are the main differences in vegetation structure and floristic diversity between A. altissima forests and native forests through the assessment of the principal ecological parameters that differ between the forest types. We performed 38 phytosociological relevés and sampling of ecological parameters in A. altissima forest communities and neighboring native forests. We analyzed how species richness, diversity, life forms, life strategies, structural characteristics, and ecological parameters changed in A. altissima forests compared with native ones. We found that in A. altissima forests, there is a shift in herbaceous layer richness, with a higher presence of annual ruderal herbs and the absence of herbaceous species linked to the forest environment. The ecological parameters that diverge from the native forests were total nitrogen, total carbon, and C/N ratio. A. altissima forest communities could threaten the biodiversity of the native forest ecosystems in the sub-Mediterranean landscape, favoring ruderal species and inhibiting the presence of typical forest species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Ecology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Flower Essential Oil of Dalea mutisii Kunth (Fabaceae) from Ecuador: Chemical, Enantioselective, and Olfactometric Analyses
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1403; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101403 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 181
Abstract
An essential oil was distilled with 0.25% yield from fresh flowers of Dalea mutisii Kunth, a native species mainly growing in the Andean region of Ecuador. A total of 50 compounds were identified, and most of them were quantified. The chemical composition was [...] Read more.
An essential oil was distilled with 0.25% yield from fresh flowers of Dalea mutisii Kunth, a native species mainly growing in the Andean region of Ecuador. A total of 50 compounds were identified, and most of them were quantified. The chemical composition was characterized by the prevalence of monoterpene hydrocarbons (>90%). Major components were α-pinene (42.9%), β-pinene (15.1%), β-phellandrene (12.6%), myrcene (6.7%), and (Z)-β-ocimene (5.4%). The essential oil was then submitted to enantioselective analysis, with a 2,3-diethyl-6-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-β-cyclodextrin-based capillary column. An enantiomeric excess was measured for (1R,5R)-(+)-α-pinene (91.6%), (1R,5R)-(+)-β-pinene (15.2%), (R)-(−)-α-phellandrene (4.8%), and (R)-(−)-β-phellandrene (88.8%), whereas (R)-(+)-limonene was enantiomerically pure. A gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC–O) analysis was additionally carried out on this pleasantly fragrant essential oil, following an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) approach. Main odorants were α-pinene, β-pinene, α-phellandrene, and (Z)-β-ocimene, with dilution factors (FD) of 8, 4, 2, and 2, respectively. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Seed Dormancy: Molecular Control of Its Induction and Alleviation
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101402 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 224
Abstract
A set of seed dormancy traits is included in this Special Issue. Thus, DELAY OF GERMINATION1 (DOG1) is reviewed in depth. Binding of DOG1 to Protein Phosphatase 2C ABSCISIC ACID (PP2C ABA) Hypersensitive Germination (AHG1) and heme are independent processes, but both are [...] Read more.
A set of seed dormancy traits is included in this Special Issue. Thus, DELAY OF GERMINATION1 (DOG1) is reviewed in depth. Binding of DOG1 to Protein Phosphatase 2C ABSCISIC ACID (PP2C ABA) Hypersensitive Germination (AHG1) and heme are independent processes, but both are essential for DOG1’s function in vivo. AHG1 and DOG1 constitute a regulatory system for dormancy and germination. DOG1 affects the ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5) expression level. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis is linked with seed after-ripening (AR) process and the oxidation of a portion of seed long-lived (SLL) mRNAs seems to be related to dormancy release. The association of SLL mRNAs to monosomes is required for their transcriptional upregulation at the beginning of germination. Global DNA methylation levels remain stable during dormancy, decreasing when germination occurs. The remarkable intervention of auxin in the life of the seed is increasingly evident year after year. Here, its synergistic cooperation with ABA to promote the dormancy process is extensively reviewed. ABI3 participation in this process is critical. New data on the effect of alternating temperatures (ATs) on dormancy release are contained in this Special Issue. On the one hand, the transcriptome patterns stimulated at ATs comprised ethylene and ROS signaling and metabolism together with ABA degradation. On the other hand, a higher physical dormancy release was observed in Medicago truncatula under 35/15 °C than under 25/15 °C, and genome-wide association analysis identified 136 candidate genes related to secondary metabolite synthesis, hormone regulation, and modification of the cell wall. Finally, it is suggested that changes in endogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) may prevent chestnut germination, and a possible relation with H2O2 production is considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seed Dormancy: Molecular Control of Its Induction and Alleviation)
Open AccessArticle
Conditioning Machine Learning Models to Adjust Lowbush Blueberry Crop Management to the Local Agroecosystem
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101401 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 213
Abstract
Agroecosystem conditions limit the productivity of lowbush blueberry. Our objectives were to investigate the effects on berry yield of agroecosystem and crop management variables, then to develop a recommendation system to adjust nutrient and soil management of lowbush blueberry to given local meteorological [...] Read more.
Agroecosystem conditions limit the productivity of lowbush blueberry. Our objectives were to investigate the effects on berry yield of agroecosystem and crop management variables, then to develop a recommendation system to adjust nutrient and soil management of lowbush blueberry to given local meteorological conditions. We collected 1504 observations from N-P-K fertilizer trials conducted in Quebec, Canada. The data set, that comprised soil, tissue, and meteorological data, was processed by Bayesian mixed models, machine learning, compositional data analysis, and Markov chains. Our investigative statistical models showed that meteorological indices had the greatest impact on yield. High mean temperature at flower bud opening and after fruit maturation, and total precipitation at flowering stage showed positive effects. Low mean temperature and low total precipitation before bud opening, at flowering, and by fruit maturity, as well as number of freezing days (<−5 °C) before flower bud opening, showed negative effects. Soil and tissue tests, and N-P-K fertilization showed smaller effects. Gaussian processes predicted yields from historical weather data, soil test, fertilizer dosage, and tissue test with a root-mean-square-error of 1447 kg ha−1. An in-house Markov chain algorithm optimized yields modelled by Gaussian processes from tissue test, soil test, and fertilizer dosage as conditioned to specified historical meteorological features, potentially increasing yield by a median factor of 1.5. Machine learning, compositional data analysis, and Markov chains allowed customizing nutrient management of lowbush blueberry at local scale. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Agro-Morphological Characterization of Sicilian Chili Pepper Accessions for Ornamental Purposes
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1400; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101400 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 202
Abstract
The species belonging to the genus Capsicum have been widely used as decorative vegetables, however only a few genotypes are available for this purpose. The goal of the present work was the agro-morphological characterization of several chili pepper accessions cultivated into different pot [...] Read more.
The species belonging to the genus Capsicum have been widely used as decorative vegetables, however only a few genotypes are available for this purpose. The goal of the present work was the agro-morphological characterization of several chili pepper accessions cultivated into different pot sizes (10, 14, 18 or 20 cm diameters). The agro-morphological characterization of 19 accessions was performed following IPGR (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute) descriptors: plant height (PH), plant canopy width (PCW), PH/PCW ratio, plant growth habit, plant visual quality, first flower emission, fruiting start, end of harvest, fruit number, fruit length, fruit width, fruit color at mature stage and fruit shape. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for all observed traits showed statistical significant differences among the genotypes tested. Results of the heat map complementarily secured the frequency of multiplicity highlighted from the ANOVA analysis. Furthermore, the present study pointed out that A33, A27, G1 and A1 chili pepper accessions achieved optimal performances in terms of plant visual quality, which is a crucial trait for ornamental purposes. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of the Lignification Process of Two Bamboo Shoots Stored at Room Temperature
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101399 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 187
Abstract
Two types of bamboo shoots, high bamboo (Phyllostachys prominens) shoots (HBSes) and moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) shoots (MBSes), underwent a fast post-harvest lignification process under room temperature storage. To explore the mechanism of lignification in two types of bamboo [...] Read more.
Two types of bamboo shoots, high bamboo (Phyllostachys prominens) shoots (HBSes) and moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) shoots (MBSes), underwent a fast post-harvest lignification process under room temperature storage. To explore the mechanism of lignification in two types of bamboo shoots after post-harvest during room temperature storage, the measurement of cell wall polymers (lignin and cellulose) and enzyme activities of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and peroxidase (POD), and relative expression of related transcription networks factors (TFs) were performed. The results suggested that the lignification process in HBSes is faster than that in MBSes because of incremental increase in lignin and cellulose contents within 6 days and the shorter shelf-life. Additionally, compared with the expression pattern of lignification-related TFs and correlation analysis of lignin and cellulose contents, MYB20, MYB43, MYB85 could function positively in the lignification process of two types of bamboo shoots. A negative regulator, KNAT7, could negatively regulate the lignin biosynthesis in two types of bamboo shoots. In addition, MYB63 could function positively in HBSes, and NST1 could function negatively in MBSes. Notably, MYB42 may function differently in the two types of bamboo shoots, that is, a positive regulator in HBSes, but a negative regulator in MBSes. Transcription networks provide a comprehensive analysis to explore the mechanism of lignification in two types of bamboo shoots after post-harvest during room temperature storage. These results suggest that the lignification of bamboo shoots was mainly due to the increased activity of POD, higher expression levels of MYB20, MYB43, MYB63, and MYB85 genes, and lower expression levels of KNAT7 and NST1 genes, and the lignification process of HBSes and MBSes had significant differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolites and Regulation under Environmental Stress)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Establishment of a Cell Suspension Culture of Ageratina pichinchensis (Kunth) for the Improved Production of Anti-Inflammatory Compounds
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1398; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101398 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 184
Abstract
Ageratina pichinchensis (Kunth) is a plant used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat multiple ailments. However, there have not been biotechnological studies on producing compounds in in vitro cultures. The aim of this study was to establish a cell suspension culture of A. [...] Read more.
Ageratina pichinchensis (Kunth) is a plant used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat multiple ailments. However, there have not been biotechnological studies on producing compounds in in vitro cultures. The aim of this study was to establish a cell suspension culture of A. pichinchensis, quantify the anti-inflammatory constituents 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (2) and 3-epilupeol (3), evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of its extracts, and perform a phytochemical analysis. Cell suspension cultures were established in a MS culture medium of 30-g L−1 sucrose, 1.0-mg L−1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid, and 0.1-mg L−1 6-furfurylaminopurine. The ethyl acetate extract of the cell culture analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) revealed that the maximum production of anti-inflammatory compounds 2 and 3 occurs on days eight and 16, respectively, improving the time and previously reported yields in callus cultures. The anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts exhibited a significant inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production. Furthermore, a phytochemical study of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and methanol (MeOH) extracts from day 20 led to the identification of 17 known compounds. The structures of the compounds were assigned by an analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and the remainder by GC–MS. This is the first report of the production of (-)-Artemesinol, (-)-Artemesinol glucoside, encecalin, and 3,5-diprenyl-acetophenone by a cell suspension culture of A. pichinchensis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnological Approaches for the Production of Bioactives)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Responses of Phenolic Compounds and Immobilization of Copper in Imperata cylindrica, a Plant with Potential Use for Bioremediation of Cu Contaminated Environments
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1397; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101397 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 276
Abstract
This work examined the capability of Imperata cylindrica to respond, tolerate and accumulate Cu when growing at high Cu concentration (300 mg kg−1 of substrate) at different times of exposure (2, 14 and 21 days). The Cu accumulation in plants was examined [...] Read more.
This work examined the capability of Imperata cylindrica to respond, tolerate and accumulate Cu when growing at high Cu concentration (300 mg kg−1 of substrate) at different times of exposure (2, 14 and 21 days). The Cu accumulation in plants was examined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and Cu localized by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy. Additionally, the phenolic compound identifications and concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Our results showed that root biomass decreased significantly at high Cu levels, with a greater decrease at 21 days (39.8% less biomass in comparison to control). The root showed 328 mg Cu kg−1 dry weight at 21 days of exposure to Cu, being the tissue that accumulates most of the Cu. Lipid peroxidation was a clear indicator of Cu stress, principally in shoots. The exposure to Cu significantly increased the synthesis of phenolic compounds in shoots of plants exposed 21 days to Cu, where 5-caffeoylquinic acid reached the highest concentrations. Our results support that I. cylindrica is a Cu accumulator plant in root organs with a medium level of accumulation (between 200–600 mg Cu kg−1 biomass), which can tolerate the exposure to high Cu levels by means of increasing the synthesis of phenolic compound in shoots, suggesting a potential use as phytoremediation tool in Cu polluted environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Stress in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Agro-Morphological, Microanatomical and Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of the Medicinal Plant Chelidonium majus L.
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101396 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 253
Abstract
Chelidonium majus L. is a medicinal plant well-known as a valuable source of isoquinoline alkaloids, which has a variety of pharmacological properties including anti-viral and anti-bacterial effects. However, considerable intraspecific bio-morphological variability in C. majus complicates raw material identification and verification. For the [...] Read more.
Chelidonium majus L. is a medicinal plant well-known as a valuable source of isoquinoline alkaloids, which has a variety of pharmacological properties including anti-viral and anti-bacterial effects. However, considerable intraspecific bio-morphological variability in C. majus complicates raw material identification and verification. For the first time, we have brought into cultivation five populations of C. majus subsp. majus originated from different regions, and performed their agro-morphological, microanatomical and molecular cytogenetic characterization. All examined populations produced high seed (18.6–19.9 kg/ha) and raw material (0.84–1.08 t/ha) yields; total alkaloid contents were within 0.30–0.38%. Nevertheless, significant differences in plant morphology and yield-contributing traits were observed. The performed microanatomical analysis of leaves and flowers in double- and normal-flowered plants revealed micro-diagnostic features (including tissue topography, types of stomata, laticifers, structure of leaf mesophyll, hairs, sepals and petals) important for identification of C. majus raw materials. The analysis of chromosome morphology, DAPI-banding patterns, FISH mapping of 45S and 5S rDNA and also chromosome behavior in meiosis allowed us to identify for the first time all chromosomes in karyotypes and confirm relative genotype stability of the studied plants. Our findings indicate that the examined C. majus populations can be used in further breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytogenetics and Plant Evolution)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Investigating Plant Micro-Remains Embedded in Dental Calculus of the Phoenician Inhabitants of Motya (Sicily, Italy)
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1395; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101395 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Plant records reveal remarkable evidence about past environments and human cultures. Exploiting dental calculus analysis and using a combined approach of microscopy and gas chromatography mass spectrometry, our research outlines dietary ecology and phytomedicinal practices of the ancient community of Motya (Sicily, eight [...] Read more.
Plant records reveal remarkable evidence about past environments and human cultures. Exploiting dental calculus analysis and using a combined approach of microscopy and gas chromatography mass spectrometry, our research outlines dietary ecology and phytomedicinal practices of the ancient community of Motya (Sicily, eight to sixth century BC), one of the most important Phoenician settlements in the Mediterranean basin. Micro-remains suggest use or consumption of Triticeae cereals, and animal-derived sources (e.g., milk and aquatic birds). Markers of grape (or wine), herbs, and rhizomes, endemic of Mediterranean latitudes and the East, provide insight into the subsistence of this colony, in terms of foodstuffs and phytotherapeutic products. The application of resins and wood of Gymnosperms for social and cultural purposes is hypothesized through the identification of Pinaceae secondary metabolites and pollen grains. The information hidden in dental calculus discloses the strong human-plant interaction in Motya’s Phoenician community, in terms of cultural traditions and land use. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Polyphenols Content in Capsicum chinense Fruits at Different Harvest Times and Their Correlation with the Antioxidant Activity
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101394 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 225
Abstract
The aim of this work was to investigate the changes of the content of polyphenols in fruits of Capsicum chinense Jacq. at different harvest times and their correlation with the antioxidant activity. Habanero pepper plants grown in black soil (Mayan name: Box lu’um [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to investigate the changes of the content of polyphenols in fruits of Capsicum chinense Jacq. at different harvest times and their correlation with the antioxidant activity. Habanero pepper plants grown in black soil (Mayan name: Box lu’um) and harvested at 160, 209, 223, 237 and 252 post-transplant days (PTD) were analyzed. The results indicated that subsequent harvesting cycles decreased the content of total polyphenols, catechin, chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid, while the content of gallic and protocatechuic acid increased. The antioxidant activity determined by DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and ABTS (2,2′-azino-di-3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid) assay decreased through the harvest days. Linear correlation analysis between total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in peppers resulted in a correlation of r2DPPH = 0.8999 and r2ABTS = 0.8922. Additionally, a good correlation of the antioxidant activity was found with catechin (r2DPPH = 0.8661 and r2ABTS = 0.8989), chlorogenic acid (r2DPPH = 0.8794 and r2ABTS = 0.8934) and ellagic acid (r2DPPH = 0.8979 and r2ABTS = 0.9474), indicating that these polyphenols highly contributed to the antioxidant activity in Habanero peppers. This work contributes to understanding the changes that take place during the development of Capsicum chinense, indicating that fruit harvested at earlier PTD showed the highest concentrations of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity, obtaining the best results at 160 PTD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemistry)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
In Silico Analyses of Autophagy-Related Genes in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) under Different Abiotic Stresses and in Various Tissues
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101393 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 239
Abstract
The autophagy-related genes (ATGs) play important roles in plant growth and response to environmental stresses. Brassica napus (B. napus) is among the most important oilseed crops, but ATGs are largely unknown in this species. Therefore, a genome-wide analysis of the B. [...] Read more.
The autophagy-related genes (ATGs) play important roles in plant growth and response to environmental stresses. Brassica napus (B. napus) is among the most important oilseed crops, but ATGs are largely unknown in this species. Therefore, a genome-wide analysis of the B. napus ATG gene family (BnATGs) was performed. One hundred and twenty-seven ATGs were determined due to the B. napus genome, which belongs to 20 main groups. Segmental duplication occurred more than the tandem duplication in BnATGs. Ka/Ks for the most duplicated pair genes were less than one, which indicated that the negative selection occurred to maintain their function during the evolution of B. napus plants. Based on the results, BnATGs are involved in various developmental processes and respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. One hundred and seven miRNA molecules are involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of 41 BnATGs. In general, 127 simple sequence repeat marker (SSR) loci were also detected in BnATGs. Based on the RNA-seq data, the highest expression in root and silique was related to BnVTI12e, while in shoot and seed, it was BnATG8p. The expression patterns of the most BnATGs were significantly up-regulated or down-regulated responding to dehydration, salinity, abscisic acid, and cold. This research provides information that can detect candidate genes for genetic manipulation in B. napus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Abiotic Stresses on Plant Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Phenotypic Variability and Genetic Diversity of Phragmites australis in Quebec and Kashmir Reveal Contrasting Population Structure
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1392; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101392 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 231
Abstract
The origin of differences in traits influencing competitive success between invasive and native wild populations of alien species is subject of debate. Herbarium-based information sources from 2005 onwards about nativity and distributional range of Phragmites australis were used to survey putative native populations [...] Read more.
The origin of differences in traits influencing competitive success between invasive and native wild populations of alien species is subject of debate. Herbarium-based information sources from 2005 onwards about nativity and distributional range of Phragmites australis were used to survey putative native populations of the species in Quebec, and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) PCR-RFLP analyses identified only one native population, whereas the same analyses revealed that the Kashmir populations are invasive. We compared the native population of P. australis in Quebec (QN), ten populations invasive to Quebec (QE), and five populations invasive in Kashmir, India (KE) using morphometric traits. Using nine cpDNA microsatellite loci, we also compared nine KE populations, ten QE populations, and the QN population. Phenotypic variation was observed among and within populations. Only dry mass of flowers varied across regions. Characterization of morphotypes defined three distinct haplotypes. A bimodal distribution of stem diameter (SD), internode length (IL), leaf length (LL), and leaf width (LW) suggests that a major gene may control growth traits or occurrence of co-selection. High genetic differentiation was observed between populations (RST = 0.353) and haplotypes (RST = 0.133 to 0.418), indicating limited gene flow and probable local adaptation. Principal coordinates analysis and the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree clearly distinguished the three haplotypes. Among-populations phenotypic difference (PST) was lower than overall RST for plant height, SD, and fresh and dry mass of flowers and seeds, whereas PST estimates for LL and LW exceeded among-populations RST, suggesting divergent selection, while local adaptation might have occurred in IL, LL, and flower masses. Genetic drift probably influenced among-populations IL differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competition among Native and Invasive Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessCommunication
Seed Rain, Soil Seed Bank, and Seedling Emergence Indicate Limited Potential for Self-Recovery in a Highly Disturbed, Tropical, Mixed Deciduous Forest
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101391 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 213
Abstract
Human activity negatively affects the sustainability of forest ecosystems globally. Disturbed forests may or may not recover by themselves in a certain period of time. However, it is still unclear as to what parameters can be used to reasonably predict the potential for [...] Read more.
Human activity negatively affects the sustainability of forest ecosystems globally. Disturbed forests may or may not recover by themselves in a certain period of time. However, it is still unclear as to what parameters can be used to reasonably predict the potential for self-recovery of human-disturbed forests. Here, we combined seed rain, soil seed bank, and seed emergence experiments to evaluate the potential for self-recovery of a highly disturbed, tropical, mixed deciduous forest in northeastern Thailand. Our results show a limited potential for self-recovery of this forest due to low seedling input and storage and an extremely high mortality rate during the drought period. There were 15 tree species of seedlings present during the regeneration period in comparison with a total number of 56 tree species in current standing vegetation. During the dry season, only four tree seedling species survived, and the highest mortality rate reached 83.87%. We also found that the correspondence between the combined number of species and composition of plant communities obtained from seed rain, soil seed bank, and seedling emergence experiments and the standing vegetation was poor. We clearly show the temporal dynamics of the seed rain and seedling communities, which are driven by different plant reproductive phenology and dispersal mechanisms, and drought coupled with mortality. We conclude that this highly disturbed forest needs a management plan and could not recover by itself in a short period of time. We recommend the use of external seed and seedling supplies and the maintenance of soil water content (i.e., shading) during periods of drought in order to help increase seedling abundances and species richness, and to reduce the mortality rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Ecology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Prediction of Dhurrin Metabolism by Transcriptome and Metabolome Analyses in Sorghum
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101390 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)) Moench is an important food for humans and feed for livestock. Sorghum contains dhurrin which can be degraded into toxic hydrogen cyanide. Here, we report the expression patterns of 14 candidate genes related to dhurrin ((S)-4-Hydroxymandelnitrile-β-D-glucopyranoside) [...] Read more.
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)) Moench is an important food for humans and feed for livestock. Sorghum contains dhurrin which can be degraded into toxic hydrogen cyanide. Here, we report the expression patterns of 14 candidate genes related to dhurrin ((S)-4-Hydroxymandelnitrile-β-D-glucopyranoside) metabolism and the effects of the gene expression on specific metabolite content in selected sorghum accessions. Dhurrin-related metabolism is vigorous in the early stages of development of sorghum. The dhurrin contents of most accessions tested were in the range of approximately 6–22 μg mg−1 fresh leaf tissue throughout growth. The p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHB) contents were high at seedling stages, but almost nonexistent at adult stages. The contents of p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (pHPAAc) were relatively low throughout growth compared to those of dhurrin or pHB. Generally, the expression of the candidate genes was higher at seedling stage than at other stages and decreased gradually as plants grew. In addition, we identified significant SNPs, and six of them were potentially associated with non-synonymous changes in CAS1. Our results may provide the basis for choosing breeding materials to regulate cyanide contents in sorghum varieties to prevent HCN toxicity of livestock or to promote drought tolerance or pathogen resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mode of Action of Plant Natural Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Phosphorus Nutrient Management through Synchronization of Application Methods and Rates in Wheat and Maize Crops
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1389; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101389 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 238
Abstract
Management of inorganic fertilizer is very important to obtain maximum crop yield and improved nutrient use efficiency in cereal crops. Fixation of phosphatic fertilizers in alkaline soils due to calcareousness is one of the major hurdles. It induces phosphorus nutritional stress that can [...] Read more.
Management of inorganic fertilizer is very important to obtain maximum crop yield and improved nutrient use efficiency in cereal crops. Fixation of phosphatic fertilizers in alkaline soils due to calcareousness is one of the major hurdles. It induces phosphorus nutritional stress that can decrease the yield of maize and wheat. Selection of a suitable application method and proper stage of crop for phosphorus (P) fertilizer has prime importance in better uptake of P and crop production. Among different application methods, soil and foliar application are widely adopted. In wheat and maize, knee height + tasseling and stem elongation + booting are critical stages towards P deficiency. That is why field trials were conducted to evaluate the supplemental effect of foliar P on maize and wheat yields. For that, 144 mM KH2PO4 was applied as foliar at knee height + tasseling and stem elongation + boot stages in maize and wheat, respectively. Soil application of 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg P ha−1 was done through broadcast and band methods. Results showed that foliar spray of 144 mM KH2PO4 at knee height + tasseling and stem elongation + boot stages in wheat and maize significantly enhanced grains yield and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) where P was applied as banding or broadcast at the time of sowing. A significant decreasing trend in response to increasing soil P levels validated the efficacious role and suitability of foliar P. In conclusion, the use of P as foliar at knee height + tasseling and stem elongation + boot stages is an efficacious way to manage P fertilizer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Nutrition and Plant Responses to Environmental Changes)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Overexpression of CDSP32 (GhTRX134) Cotton Gene Enhances Drought, Salt, and Oxidative Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1388; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101388 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 263
Abstract
Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the main natural fiber crop worldwide and is an essential source of seed oil and biofuel products. Many abiotic stresses, such as drought and salinity, constrain cotton production. Thioredoxins (TRXs) are a group of small ubiquitous [...] Read more.
Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the main natural fiber crop worldwide and is an essential source of seed oil and biofuel products. Many abiotic stresses, such as drought and salinity, constrain cotton production. Thioredoxins (TRXs) are a group of small ubiquitous proteins that are widely distributed among organisms. TRXs play a crucial role in regulating diverse functions during plant growth and development. In the present study, a novel GhTRX134 gene was characterized and overexpressed in Arabidopsis and silenced in cotton under drought stress. Furthermore, the proline content and enzyme activity levels were measured in transgenic plants and wild-type (Wt) plants under drought and salt stress. The results revealed that the overexpression of GhTRX134 enhanced abiotic stress tolerance. When GhTRX134 was silenced, cotton plants become more sensitive to drought. Taken together, these findings confirmed that the overexpression of GhTRX134 improved drought and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis plants. Therefore, the GhTRX134 gene can be transformed into cotton plants to obtain transgenic lines for more functional details. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Weather Conditions and Maturity Group Impacts on the Infestation of First Generation European Corn Borers in Maize Hybrids in Croatia
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101387 - 18 Oct 2020
Viewed by 276
Abstract
Overwintering success and weather conditions are the key factors determining the abundance and intensity of the attack of the first generation of European corn borers (ECB). The tolerance of maize to the 1st generation of ECB infestation is often considered to be connected [...] Read more.
Overwintering success and weather conditions are the key factors determining the abundance and intensity of the attack of the first generation of European corn borers (ECB). The tolerance of maize to the 1st generation of ECB infestation is often considered to be connected with the maize maturity time. The aims of this research were (I) to examine the reactions of different maize FAO maturity groups in term of the damage caused by ECB larvae, (II) to analyze the influence of four climatic regions of Croatia regarding the damage caused by ECB larvae, and (III) to correlate observed damage between FAO maturity groups and weather conditions. First ECB generation damage has been studied in the two-year field trial with 32 different hybrids divided into four FAO maturity groups (eight per group) located at four locations with different climatic conditions. The results showed a lack of correlation between the FAO maturity group and the percent of damage. The percent of damage was positively correlated with the average air temperature in June (r = 0.59 for 2017 and r = 0.74 in 2018, p = 0.0001) within the range from 20 to 24.5 °C and was negatively correlated with the relative air humidity (r = −0.58 in 2017 and r = −0.77 in 2018, p = 0.0001) within the range of 50% to 80%. Our results provide a better understanding of the different factors that influence ECB damage. The obtained data could be used to predict the damage from the first generation of ECB under the weather conditions of different regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant–Insect Interactions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Cadmium-Tolerant Rhizobacteria on Growth Attributes and Chlorophyll Contents of Bitter Gourd under Cadmium Toxicity
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101386 - 17 Oct 2020
Viewed by 338
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the heavy metals that negatively affects the growth of plants. High solubilization in water leads Cd to enter into plants quite easily, thus decreasing seed germination, photosynthesis, and transpiration. It also shows an antagonistic effect with many of [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the heavy metals that negatively affects the growth of plants. High solubilization in water leads Cd to enter into plants quite easily, thus decreasing seed germination, photosynthesis, and transpiration. It also shows an antagonistic effect with many of the plants’ nutrients like Mn, Ca, K, Mg and Fe. Nowadays, inoculation of plants with ACC deaminase (ACCD) rhizobacteria to mitigate Cd’s adverse effects has drawn the attention of environmental microbiologists. The rhizobacteria secrete organic compounds that can immobilize Cd in soil. Therefore, this study was accomplished to investigate the effect of ACCD plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the bitter gourd under Cd stress. There were six treatments consisting of two ACCD PGPR (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Agrobacterium fabrum) strains and inorganic fertilizers at two levels of Cd, i.e., 2 (Cd2) and 5 mg kg−1 soil (Cd5). The results showed A. fabrum with the recommended NPK fertilizer (RNPKF) significantly increased the vine length (48 and 55%), fresh weight (24 and 22%), and contents of chlorophyll a (79 and 50%), chlorophyll b (30 and 33%) and total chlorophyll (61 and 36%), over control at the two Cd levels i.e., Cd2 and Cd5, respectively. In conclusion, the recommended NPK fertilizer + A. fabrum combination is a very effective treatment with which to immobilize Cd in soil for the improvement of bitter gourd growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Stress in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
How Do Novel M-Rootstock (Vitis Spp.) Genotypes Cope with Drought?
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101385 - 17 Oct 2020
Viewed by 303
Abstract
Most of the vineyards around the world are in areas characterized by seasonal drought, where water deficits and high temperatures represent severe constraints on the regular grapevine growth cycle. Although grapevines are well adapted to arid and semi-arid environments, water stress can cause [...] Read more.
Most of the vineyards around the world are in areas characterized by seasonal drought, where water deficits and high temperatures represent severe constraints on the regular grapevine growth cycle. Although grapevines are well adapted to arid and semi-arid environments, water stress can cause physiological changes, from mild to irreversible. Screening of available Vitis spp. genetic diversity for new rootstock breeding programs has been proposed as a way for which new viticulture challenges may be faced. In 2014, novel genotypes (M-rootstocks) were released from the University of Milan. In this work, the behavior of M1, M3 and M4 in response to decreasing water availabilities (80%, 50% and 20% soil water content, SWC) was investigated at the physiological and gene expression levels, evaluating gas exchange, stem water potential and transcript abundances of key genes related to ABA (abscisic acid) biosynthesis (VvZEP, VvNCED1 and VvNCED2) and signaling (VvPP2C4, VvSnRK2.6 and VvABF2), and comparing them to those of cuttings of nine commercial rootstocks widely used in viticulture. M-rootstocks showed a change at physiological levels in severe water-stressed conditions (20% soil water content, SWC), reducing the stomatal conductance and stem water potential, but maintaining high photosynthetic activity. Water use efficiency was high in water-limiting conditions. The transcriptional changes were observed at 50% SWC, with an increment of transcripts of VvNCED1 and VvNCED2 genes. M-rootstocks showed similar behavior to 1103P and 110R rootstocks, two highly tolerant commercial genotypes. These rootstocks adopted a tolerant strategy to face water-stressed conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Functional Analysis of StPHT1;7, a Solanum tuberosum L. Phosphate Transporter Gene, in Growth and Drought Tolerance
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101384 - 17 Oct 2020
Viewed by 326
Abstract
PHT1 (phosphate transporter 1) family genes play important roles in regulating plant growth and responding to stress. However, there has been little research on the role of the PHT1 family in potatoes. In this study, using molecular and bioinformatic approaches, 8 PHT1 family [...] Read more.
PHT1 (phosphate transporter 1) family genes play important roles in regulating plant growth and responding to stress. However, there has been little research on the role of the PHT1 family in potatoes. In this study, using molecular and bioinformatic approaches, 8 PHT1 family genes were identified from the potato genome. StPHT1;7 was highly expressed in the whole potato plants. The overexpression and silence vectors of StPHT1;7 were constructed and transformed into the potato cultivar Desiree. Consequently, StPHT1;7 overexpression (with a relative expression 2–7-fold that in the control) and silence lines (with a relative expression of 0.3%–1% that in the control) were obtained. Their growth vigor was ranked in the order overexpression line > wild type > silence line. In the absence of phosphorus, the root length of the overexpression line was approximately 2.6 times that of the wild type, while the root length of the silence line was approximately 0.6 times that of the wild type. Furthermore, their tolerance to drought stress was ranked as wild type > overexpression line > silence line. These results suggest that StPHT1;7 affects growth and stress tolerance in potato plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Genomics and Breeding)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Cytoplasmic Receptor-like Kinase Contributes to Salinity Tolerance
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101383 - 17 Oct 2020
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) are receptor kinases that lack extracellular ligand-binding domains and have emerged as a major class of signaling proteins that regulate plant cellular activities in response to biotic/abiotic stresses and endogenous extracellular signaling molecules. We have identified a rice RLCK [...] Read more.
Receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) are receptor kinases that lack extracellular ligand-binding domains and have emerged as a major class of signaling proteins that regulate plant cellular activities in response to biotic/abiotic stresses and endogenous extracellular signaling molecules. We have identified a rice RLCK (OsRLCK311) that was significantly higher in transgenic pSARK-IPT rice (Oryza sativa) that exhibited enhanced growth under saline conditions. Overexpression of OsRLCK311 full-length protein (RLCK311FL) and the C-terminus of OsRLCK311 (ΔN) in Arabidopsis confirmed its role in salinity tolerance, both in seedlings and mature plants. Protein interaction assays indicated that OsRLCK311 and ΔN interacted in-vivo with the plasma membrane AQP AtPIP2;1. The RLCK311-PIP2;1 binding led to alterations in the stomata response to ABA, which was characterized by more open stomata of transgenic plants. Moreover, OsRLCK311-ΔN effect in mediating enhanced plant growth under saline conditions was also observed in the perennial grass Brachypodium sylvaticum, confirming its role in both dicots and monocots species. Lastly, OsRLCK311 interacted with the rice OsPIP2;1. We suggest that the rice OsRLCK311 play a role in regulating the plant growth response under saline conditions via the regulation of the stomata response to stress. This role seems to be independent of the RLCK311 kinase activity, since the overexpression of the RLCK311 C-terminus (ΔN), which lacks the kinase full domain, has a similar phenotype to RLCK311FL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Aquaporins)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Differential Interpretation of Mountain Temperatures by Endospermic Seeds of Three Endemic Species Impacts the Timing of In Situ Germination
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101382 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 311
Abstract
Predicting seed germination in the field is a critical part of anticipating the impact of climate change on the timing of wild species regeneration. We combined thermal time and soil heat sum models of seed germination for three endemic Mediterranean mountain species with [...] Read more.
Predicting seed germination in the field is a critical part of anticipating the impact of climate change on the timing of wild species regeneration. We combined thermal time and soil heat sum models of seed germination for three endemic Mediterranean mountain species with endospermic seeds and morphophysiological dormancy: Aquilegia barbaricina, Paeonia corsica, and Ribes sandalioticum. Seeds were buried in the soil within the respective collection sites, both underneath and outside the tree canopy, and their growth was assessed regularly and related to soil temperatures and estimates of the thermal characteristics of the seeds. The thermal thresholds for embryo growth and seed germination of A. barbaricina assessed in previous studies under controlled conditions were used to calculate soil heat sum accumulation of this species in the field. Thermal thresholds of seed germination for P. corsica and R. sandalioticum were not previously known and were estimated for the first time in this field study, based on findings of previous works carried out under controlled conditions. Critical embryo length and maximum germination for A. barbaricina were reached in April, and in December for R. sandalioticum. Seeds of P. corsica stay dormant in the ground until the following summer, and the critical embryo length and highest germination were detected from September to December. Soil heat sum models predicted earlier germination by one month for all three species under two Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios, based on the assumption that the estimated thermal thresholds will remain constant through climate changes. This phenological shift may increase the risk of mortality for young seedlings. The models developed provide important means of connecting the micro-environmental niche for in situ seed germination and the macro-environmental parameters under a global warming scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seed Dormancy and Germination in Response to Climate Change)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Successional Categorization of European Hemi-boreal Forest Tree Species
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1381; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101381 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 293
Abstract
Developing forest harvesting regimes that mimic natural forest dynamics requires knowledge on typical species behaviors and how they respond to environmental conditions. Species regeneration and survival after disturbance depends on a species’ life history traits. Therefore, forest succession determines the extent to which [...] Read more.
Developing forest harvesting regimes that mimic natural forest dynamics requires knowledge on typical species behaviors and how they respond to environmental conditions. Species regeneration and survival after disturbance depends on a species’ life history traits. Therefore, forest succession determines the extent to which forest communities are able to cope with environmental change. The aim of this review was to (i) review the life history dynamics of hemi-boreal tree species in the context of ecological succession, and (ii) categorize each of these tree species into one of four successional development groups (gap colonizers, gap competitors, forest colonizers, or forest competitors). To do this we embraced the super-organism approach to plant communities using their life history dynamics and traits. Our review touches on the importance and vulnerability of these four types of successional groups, their absence and presence in the community, and how they can be used as a core component to evaluate if the development of the community is progressing towards the restoration of the climatic climax. Applying a theoretical framework to generate ideas, we suggest that forests should be managed to maintain environmental conditions that support the natural variety and sequence of tree species’ life histories by promoting genetic invariance and to help secure ecosystem resilience for the future. This could be achieved by employing harvesting methods that emulate natural disturbances and regeneration programs that contribute to maintenance of the four successional groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Environment and Ecology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessCommunication
Exogenous Nitric Oxide Delays Plant Regeneration from Protoplast and Protonema Development in Physcomitrella patens
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101380 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 237
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) has been recognized as a major player in the regulation of plant physiology and development. NO regulates cell cycle progression and cell elongation in flowering plants and green algae, although the information about NO function in non-vascular plants is scarce. [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) has been recognized as a major player in the regulation of plant physiology and development. NO regulates cell cycle progression and cell elongation in flowering plants and green algae, although the information about NO function in non-vascular plants is scarce. Here, we analyze the effect of exogenous NO on Physcomitrella patens protonema growth. We find that increasing concentrations of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) inhibit protonema relative growth rate and cell length. To further comprehend the effect of NO on moss development, we analyze the effect of SNP 5 and 10 µM on protoplast regeneration and, furthermore, protonema formation compared with untreated plants (control). Isolated protoplasts were left to regenerate for 24 h before starting the SNP treatments that lasted five days. The results show that SNP restrains the protoplast regeneration process and the formation of new protonema cells. When SNP treatments started five days after protoplast isolation, a decrease in cell number per protonema filament was observed, indicating an inhibition of cell cycle progression. Our results show that in non-vascular plants, NO negatively regulates plant regeneration, cell cycle and cell elongation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitric Oxide Signaling of Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Variability in the Qualitative and Quantitative Composition and Content of Phenolic Compounds in the Fruit of Introduced American Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton)
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1379; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101379 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 220
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in ethanol extracts of eight different cultivars of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) fruit using spectrophotometric and UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis and to evaluate the antioxidant activity in vitro [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in ethanol extracts of eight different cultivars of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) fruit using spectrophotometric and UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis and to evaluate the antioxidant activity in vitro of these extracts. The highest total amount of phenolic compounds evaluated via Folin–Ciocalteu spectrophotometry was detected in American cranberry fruit samples of the ‘Bain’ clone, and the highest total amount of flavonoids was found in samples of the ‘Drever’ and ‘Baiwfay’ cultivars. The highest total amount of the individual phenolic compounds (519.53 ± 25.12 mg/g DW) identified and quantitatively evaluated via chromatography was detected in samples of the ‘Searles’ cranberry cultivar. In the studied cranberry samples, the predominant phenolic compounds were hyperoside, quercetin, and procyanidin A2, while the amounts of other compounds were significantly lower. HCA and PCA revealed that ‘Woolman’, ‘Holliston’, ‘Pilgrim, and ‘Searles’ fruit samples had different quantitative content of phenolic compounds from other cranberry cultivars. Meanwhile, fruit of ‘Baiwfay’, ‘Drever’, ‘Bain’, and ‘Bergman’ were similar in their phytochemical profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Resources of Berry and Medicinal Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Early Low-Fluence Red Light or Darkness Modulates the Shoot Regeneration Capacity of Excised Arabidopsis Roots
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1378; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101378 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 184
Abstract
In plants, light is an important environmental signal that induces meristem development and interacts with endogenous signals, including hormones. We found that treatment with 24 h of low-fluence red light (24 h R) or 24 h of darkness (24 h D) following root [...] Read more.
In plants, light is an important environmental signal that induces meristem development and interacts with endogenous signals, including hormones. We found that treatment with 24 h of low-fluence red light (24 h R) or 24 h of darkness (24 h D) following root excision greatly increased the frequency of shoot generation, while continuous low-fluence red light in callus and shoot induction stages blocked the explants’ ability to generate shoots. Shoot generation ability was closely associated with WUS expression and distribution pattern. 1-N-naphthylphtalamic acid (NPA) disrupted the dynamic distribution of the WUS signal induced by early 24 h R treatment, and NPA plus 24 R treatment increased the average shoot number compared with early 24 h R alone. Transcriptome analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes involved in meristem development and hormone signal pathways were significantly enriched during 24 R or 24 D induced shoot regeneration, where early 24 h R or 24 h D treatment upregulated expression of WOX5, LBD16, LBD18 and PLT3 to promote callus initiation and formation of root primordia, and also activated WUS, STM, CUC1 and CUC2 expression, leading to initiation of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). This finding demonstrates that early exposure of explants to transient low-fluence red light or darkness modulates the expression of marker genes related with callus development and shoot regeneration, and dynamic distribution of WUS, leading to an increased ability to generate shoots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Embryogenesis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Self-Compatibility Not Associated with Morphological or Genetic Diversity Reduction in Oil-Rewarding Calceolaria Species
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101377 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 233
Abstract
One of the most common evolutionary transitions in angiosperms is the reproductive change from outcrossing to selfing, commonly associated with changes in floral biology and genetic diversity. Here, we aim to test whether self-compatibility leads to a reduction of floral traits and genetic [...] Read more.
One of the most common evolutionary transitions in angiosperms is the reproductive change from outcrossing to selfing, commonly associated with changes in floral biology and genetic diversity. Here, we aim to test whether self-compatibility leads to a reduction of floral traits and genetic diversity. For this, we experimentally estimate levels of self-compatibility, measure three floral traits and estimate four genetic diversity parameters using nine microsatellites in nine Calceolaria species. Our analysis indicated that four of the study species were self-incompatible. In addition, we found that self-compatible species did not show a reduction in floral traits size, but rather displayed larger corolla and elaiophore areas. Our analyses of genetic diversity identified larger allele number and observed heterozygosity in selfers than in outcrossers, but did not find larger inbreeding in the self-compatible species. Even though our results contradict our expectations, in the case of Calceolaria, their high dependence on only two genera of oil-bees puts the genus in a vulnerable reproductive position, probably facilitating the evolution of reproductive assurance mechanisms in the absence of pollinators. As a result, plants maintain their pollinator attraction traits while evolving the ability to self, possibly in a delayed way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Ecology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
High-Throughput Sequencing Application in the Diagnosis and Discovery of Plant-Infecting Viruses in Africa, A Decade Later
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101376 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 322
Abstract
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) application in the field of plant virology started in 2009 and has proven very successful for virus discovery and detection of viruses already known. Plant virology is still a developing science in most of Africa; the number of HTS-related studies [...] Read more.
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) application in the field of plant virology started in 2009 and has proven very successful for virus discovery and detection of viruses already known. Plant virology is still a developing science in most of Africa; the number of HTS-related studies published in the scientific literature has been increasing over the years as a result of successful collaborations. Studies using HTS to identify plant-infecting viruses have been conducted in 20 African countries, of which Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania share the most published papers. At least 29 host plants, including various agricultural economically important crops, ornamentals and medicinal plants, have been used in viromics analyses and have resulted in the detection of previously known viruses and novel ones from almost any host. Knowing that the effectiveness of any management program requires knowledge on the types, distribution, incidence, and genetic of the virus-causing disease, integrating HTS and efficient bioinformatics tools in plant virology research projects conducted in Africa is a matter of the utmost importance towards achieving and maintaining sustainable food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Control of Plant Viral Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop