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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 5, Issue 2 (February 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Amateur or Professional: Assessing the Expertise of Major Contributors in OpenStreetMap Based on Contributing Behaviors
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5020021 - 22 Feb 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2358
Abstract
Volunteered geographic information (VGI) projects, such as OpenStreetMap (OSM), provide an alternative way to produce geographic data. Research has proven that the resulting data in some areas are of decent quality, which guarantees their usability in various applications. Though these achievements are normally [...] Read more.
Volunteered geographic information (VGI) projects, such as OpenStreetMap (OSM), provide an alternative way to produce geographic data. Research has proven that the resulting data in some areas are of decent quality, which guarantees their usability in various applications. Though these achievements are normally attributed to the huge heterogeneous community mainly consisting of amateurs, it is in fact a small percentage of major contributors who make nearly all contributions. In this paper, we investigate the contributing behaviors of these contributors to deduce whether they are actually professionals. Various indicators are used to depict the behaviors on three themes: practice, skill and motivation, aiming to identify solid evidence for expertise. Our case studies show that most major contributors in Germany, France and the United Kingdom are hardly amateurs, but are professionals instead. These contributors have rich experiences on geographical data editing, have a decent grasp of professional software and work on the project with enthusiasm and concentration. It is less unexpected that they can create geographic data of high quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
3D Cadastral Data Model Based on Conformal Geometry Algebra
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5020020 - 19 Feb 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2709
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) cadastral data models that are based on Euclidean geometry (EG) are incapable of providing a unified representation of geometry and topological relations for 3D spatial units in a cadastral database. This lack of unification causes problems such as complex expression structure [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) cadastral data models that are based on Euclidean geometry (EG) are incapable of providing a unified representation of geometry and topological relations for 3D spatial units in a cadastral database. This lack of unification causes problems such as complex expression structure and inefficiency in the updating of 3D cadastral objects. The inability of current cadastral data models to express cadastral objects in a unified manner can be attributed to the different expressions of dimensional objects. Because the hierarchical Grassmann structure corresponds to the hierarchical structure of dimensions in conformal geometric algebra (CGA), geometric objects in different dimensions can be constructed by outer products in a unified expression form, which enables the direct extension of two-dimensional (2D) spatial representations to 3D spatial representations. The multivector structure in CGA can be employed to organize and store different dimensional objects in a multidimensional and unified manner. With the advantages of CGA in multidimensional expressions, a new 3D cadastral data model that is based on CGA is proposed in this paper. The geometries and topological relations of 3D spatial units can be represented in a unified form within the multivector structure. Detailed methods for 3D cadastral data model design based on CGA and data organization in CGA are introduced. The new cadastral data model is tested and analyzed with experimental data. The results indicate that the geometry and topological relations of 3D cadastral objects can be represented in a multidimensional manner with an intuitive topological structure and a unified dimensional expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Spatial Data Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle
The Dual Half-Edge—A Topological Primal/Dual Data Structure and Construction Operators for Modelling and Manipulating Cell Complexes
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5020019 - 19 Feb 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2272
Abstract
There is an increasing need for building models that permit interior navigation, e.g., for escape route analysis. This paper presents a non-manifold Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data structure, the dual half-edge based on the Poincaré duality that expresses both the geometric representations of individual [...] Read more.
There is an increasing need for building models that permit interior navigation, e.g., for escape route analysis. This paper presents a non-manifold Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data structure, the dual half-edge based on the Poincaré duality that expresses both the geometric representations of individual rooms and their topological relationships. Volumes and faces are expressed as vertices and edges respectively in the dual space, permitting a model just based on the storage of primal and dual vertices and edges. Attributes may be attached to all of these entities permitting, for example, shortest path queries between specified rooms, or to the exterior. Storage costs are shown to be comparable to other non-manifold models, and construction with local Euler-type operators is demonstrated with two large university buildings. This is intended to enhance current developments in 3D Geographic Information Systems for interior and exterior city modelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Spatial Data Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle
Laser Scanning and Data Integration for Three-Dimensional Digital Recording of Complex Historical Structures: The Case of Mevlana Museum
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5020018 - 18 Feb 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2033
Abstract
Terrestrial laser scanning method is widely used in three-dimensional (3-D) modeling projects. Nevertheless it usually requires measurement data from other sources for full measurement of the shapes. In this study a 3-D model of the historical Mevlana Museum (Mevlana Mausoleum) in Konya, Turkey [...] Read more.
Terrestrial laser scanning method is widely used in three-dimensional (3-D) modeling projects. Nevertheless it usually requires measurement data from other sources for full measurement of the shapes. In this study a 3-D model of the historical Mevlana Museum (Mevlana Mausoleum) in Konya, Turkey was created using state-of-the art measurement techniques. The building was measured by terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). In addition, some shapes of the indoor area were measured by a time-of-flight camera. Thus, a 3-D model of the building was created by combining datasets of all measurements. The point cloud model was created with 2.3 cm and 2.4 cm accuracy for outdoor and indoor measurements, and then it was registered to a georeferenced system. In addition a 3-D virtual model was created by mapping the texture on a mesh derived from the point cloud. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Towards Automatic and Topologically Consistent 3D Regional Geological Modeling from Boundaries and Attitudes
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5020017 - 17 Feb 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2192
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) geological models are important representations of the results of regional geological surveys. However, the process of constructing 3D geological models from two-dimensional (2D) geological elements remains difficult and is not necessarily robust. This paper proposes a method of migrating from 2D [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) geological models are important representations of the results of regional geological surveys. However, the process of constructing 3D geological models from two-dimensional (2D) geological elements remains difficult and is not necessarily robust. This paper proposes a method of migrating from 2D elements to 3D models. First, the geological interfaces were constructed using the Hermite Radial Basis Function (HRBF) to interpolate the boundaries and attitude data. Then, the subsurface geological bodies were extracted from the spatial map area using the Boolean method between the HRBF surface and the fundamental body. Finally, the top surfaces of the geological bodies were constructed by coupling the geological boundaries to digital elevation models. Based on this workflow, a prototype system was developed, and typical geological structures (e.g., folds, faults, and strata) were simulated. Geological modes were constructed through this workflow based on realistic regional geological survey data. The model construction process was rapid, and the resulting models accorded with the constraints of the original data. This method could also be used in other fields of study, including mining geology and urban geotechnical investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Spatial Data Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle
Opening up Smart Cities: Citizen-Centric Challenges and Opportunities from GIScience
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5020016 - 17 Feb 2016
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 3945
Abstract
The holy grail of smart cities is an integrated, sustainable approach to improve the efficiency of the city’s operations and the quality of life of citizens. At the heart of this vision is the citizen, who is the primary beneficiary of smart city [...] Read more.
The holy grail of smart cities is an integrated, sustainable approach to improve the efficiency of the city’s operations and the quality of life of citizens. At the heart of this vision is the citizen, who is the primary beneficiary of smart city initiatives, either directly or indirectly. Despite the recent surge of research and smart cities initiatives in practice, there are still a number of challenges to overcome in realizing this vision. This position paper points out six citizen-related challenges: the engagement of citizens, the improvement of citizens’ data literacy, the pairing of quantitative and qualitative data, the need for open standards, the development of personal services, and the development of persuasive interfaces. The article furthermore advocates the use of methods and techniques from GIScience to tackle these challenges, and presents the concept of an Open City Toolkit as a way of transferring insights and solutions from GIScience to smart cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information Fostering Innovative Solutions for Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle
Detection of Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Urban Sprawl in Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia: An Analysis of Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5020015 - 06 Feb 2016
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 3946
Abstract
While several studies examined land use and land cover changes in the central and western parts of Saudi Arabia, this study is the first to use remote sensing data to examine the decadal land cover changes in Saudi Arabia’s eastern coastal city of [...] Read more.
While several studies examined land use and land cover changes in the central and western parts of Saudi Arabia, this study is the first to use remote sensing data to examine the decadal land cover changes in Saudi Arabia’s eastern coastal city of Al-Khobar between 1990 and 2013. Specifically, it utilized ISODATA classification method to classify Landsat TM, ETM+, and OLI data collected from 1990, 2001, and 2013 and then detected changes in the land cover within the study area. It then measured urban sprawl by calculating the relative Shannon’s entropy index values for the three years. With overall classification accuracies greater than 85%, the results show that urban built-up areas increased by 117% between 1990 and 2001 and 43.51% from 2001 to 2013. Vegetation increased by 110% from 1990 to 2001 and by 52% between 2001 and 2013. The entropy index values of 0.700 (1990), 0.779 (2001), and 0.840 (2013) indicates a high rate of urban sprawl and the city dispersing near the outskirts and towards the neighboring cities of Dhahran and Dammam. Future studies should examine the current challenges faced by the city’s residents due to urban expansion and attempt to find ways to resolve them in the near future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Generic Model to Exploit Urban Regulation Knowledge
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5020014 - 06 Feb 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2663
Abstract
The Right to Build is defined by textual elements that determine what an owner can build on a parcel. Such regulations contain elements that can influence the development of territories. Expressed through legal texts, their effects on the territory are difficult to assess [...] Read more.
The Right to Build is defined by textual elements that determine what an owner can build on a parcel. Such regulations contain elements that can influence the development of territories. Expressed through legal texts, their effects on the territory are difficult to assess because of the documents’ complexity and of the diversity of urban configurations. In this paper, we present a generic and extendable model to represent such regulations. This model is based on (1) a representation of geographical concepts (attributes, features and relations) mentioned in regulations and (2) rules formalized with Object Constraints Language (OCL). We also propose an implementation that allows the handling of formalized rules in order to check if a building configuration proposal respects urban regulations. Many applications are possible in order to assist in the conception of such regulations, land acquisition strategy or territorial evolution studies, in this article, we notably describe a future application dedicated to assist building permit surveyors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Hybrid Method for Interpolating Missing Data in Heterogeneous Spatio-Temporal Datasets
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5020013 - 06 Feb 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2374
Abstract
Space-time interpolation is widely used to estimate missing or unobserved values in a dataset integrating both spatial and temporal records. Although space-time interpolation plays a key role in space-time modeling, existing methods were mainly developed for space-time processes that exhibit stationarity in space [...] Read more.
Space-time interpolation is widely used to estimate missing or unobserved values in a dataset integrating both spatial and temporal records. Although space-time interpolation plays a key role in space-time modeling, existing methods were mainly developed for space-time processes that exhibit stationarity in space and time. It is still challenging to model heterogeneity of space-time data in the interpolation model. To overcome this limitation, in this study, a novel space-time interpolation method considering both spatial and temporal heterogeneity is developed for estimating missing data in space-time datasets. The interpolation operation is first implemented in spatial and temporal dimensions. Heterogeneous covariance functions are constructed to obtain the best linear unbiased estimates in spatial and temporal dimensions. Spatial and temporal correlations are then considered to combine the interpolation results in spatial and temporal dimensions to estimate the missing data. The proposed method is tested on annual average temperature and precipitation data in China (1984–2009). Experimental results show that, for these datasets, the proposed method outperforms three state-of-the-art methods—e.g., spatio-temporal kriging, spatio-temporal inverse distance weighting, and point estimation model of biased hospitals-based area disease estimation methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Distribution of Urban Green Spaces and its Anisotropic Cooling Distance on Urban Heat Island Pattern in Baotou, China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5020012 - 06 Feb 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2412
Abstract
An essential part of urban natural systems, urban green spaces play a crucial role in mitigating the urban heat island effect (UHI). The UHI effect refers to the phenomenon where the temperature within a city is higher than that of the surrounding rural [...] Read more.
An essential part of urban natural systems, urban green spaces play a crucial role in mitigating the urban heat island effect (UHI). The UHI effect refers to the phenomenon where the temperature within a city is higher than that of the surrounding rural areas. The effects of the spatial composition and configuration of urban green spaces on urban land surface temperature (LST) have recently been documented. However, few studies have examined the effects of the directionality and distribution of green spaces on LST. In this study, we used a landscape index to describe the change in pattern of heat island intensity for the city of Baotou, China. We then used a semi-variable function and nearest neighbor algorithm to analyze the cooling effects of green spaces. We found that: (1) the cooling distance of an urban green space was not only influenced by its size, vegetation cover, and shape, but also showed anisotropy. In general, the larger the area of the urban green space and the higher the value of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI; a measure of plant photosynthetic activity), the larger the cooling distance within a certain threshold. Green spaces with more regular shapes displayed higher LST mitigation; however, the cooling distance was directional, and cooling effects depended on the semi-major axis and semi-minor axis of the green space. (2) The distribution of the urban green space within the landscape played a key role in mitigating the UHI effect. Within a certain area, the cooling effect of green spaces that are evenly distributed was greater than that which was associated with either green spaces that were large in area or where greens spaces were aggregated in the landscape. Therefore, within urban areas, where space is limited, urban planning should account for green spaces that are relatively scattered and evenly distributed to maximize cooling effects. The results of this study have key implications for sustainable urban planning and development; to mitigate urban heat island effects it is important to not only increase canopy cover or the size of urban green spaces, but also to optimize their spatial configuration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of Urban Surface Energy Fluxes Using a Sub-Pixel Remote Sensing Analysis: A Case Study in Suzhou, China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5020011 - 04 Feb 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1971
Abstract
Urban surface energy fluxes are closely associated with land-cover types (LCTs) and critical biophysical compositions. This study aims to assess the contribution of LCTs, vegetation fractional coverage (VFC) and percentage of impervious surface area (ISA%) to urban surface energy fluxes using remote sensing. [...] Read more.
Urban surface energy fluxes are closely associated with land-cover types (LCTs) and critical biophysical compositions. This study aims to assess the contribution of LCTs, vegetation fractional coverage (VFC) and percentage of impervious surface area (ISA%) to urban surface energy fluxes using remote sensing. An advanced urban surface energy flux algorithm was used to combine satellite imagery and meteorological station data to investigate the thermal environments in the city of Suzhou, China. The land cover abundances retrieved by multiple endmember spectral unmixing analysis (MESMA) were used to retrieve the per-pixel sensible heat flux (H) and latent heat flux (LE). The resultant heat fluxes were assessed using evaporation pan data collected from meteorological stations and ratios of the heat fluxes to the net radiation (Rn). Furthermore, spatial patterns of urban heat energy were investigated using an integrated analysis among land surface temperature (LST), heat fluxes, LCTs, VFC and ISA%. The high values of H and LST were found over the urbanized areas, which also had low values of LE. Conversely, the vegetated area was characterized with high LEs, as well as low LSTs and Hs. Moreover, a statistically-significant correlation (p < 0.05; R2 = 0.88) was observed between LE and VFC at the zonal level, and a statistically-significant correlation (p < 0.05; R2 = 0.90) was exhibited between H and ISA%. It is concluded that VFC, ISA% and LCTs are promising for delineating urban heat fluxes. Overall, this study indicates that remote sensing techniques can be used to quantify urban thermal environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geosensor Networks and Sensor Web)
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Open AccessArticle
A Spatio-Temporal VGI Model Considering Trust-Related Information
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5020010 - 03 Feb 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
Over the past several years, volunteered geographic information (VGI) has expanded rapidly. VGI collection has been proven to serve as a highly successful means of acquiring timely and detailed global spatial data. However, VGI includes several special properties. For example, the contributor’s reputation [...] Read more.
Over the past several years, volunteered geographic information (VGI) has expanded rapidly. VGI collection has been proven to serve as a highly successful means of acquiring timely and detailed global spatial data. However, VGI includes several special properties. For example, the contributor’s reputation affects the quality of objects edited, and a geographic object may have multiple versions. The existing spatio-temporal data model cannot describe the unique properties of VGI. Therefore, a spatio-temporal VGI model considering trust-related information is presented in this paper. In this model, central elements of the VGI environment, e.g., geographic entity, entity state, state version, contributor, reputation, geographic event, and edit event, and their interaction mechanisms are analysed. Major VGI objects and relations are determined using the object-oriented method and trust-related operations, and their relationships are analysed, and nine linkage rules among trust-related operations are found to maintain the consistency of corresponding data. A prototype system for the spatio-temporal VGI model is presented, and the effectiveness of the model is verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Borderlands Modeling and Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
A Geosimulation Approach for Data Scarce Environments: Modeling Dynamics of Forest Insect Infestation across Different Landscapes
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5020009 - 02 Feb 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
Insect infestation behaves as a complex system, characterized by non-linear spatial dynamics and emergent patterns that evolve from smaller to larger spatial scales. The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an invasive species that has infested and killed millions of ash trees across North [...] Read more.
Insect infestation behaves as a complex system, characterized by non-linear spatial dynamics and emergent patterns that evolve from smaller to larger spatial scales. The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an invasive species that has infested and killed millions of ash trees across North America. Existing EAB models use traditional statistical approaches that often cannot address the spatiotemporal complexity emerging from EAB infestation processes. Moreover, these studies of insect infestation are limited by a lack of sufficient time series data. The objective of this study is to develop a geosimulation approach to overcome the challenge of data scarcity and represent EAB infestation at a regional scale. Geographic information systems (GIS), multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), and cellular automata (CA) are used to model EAB spread across different hypothetical landscape types. Simulation results represent EAB propagation and indicate different dynamics of spread for each landscape. Urban environments are identified as being at the greatest risk to the infestation. The proposed approach offers a theoretical framework and a modeling tool to represent the propagation of EAB infestation that can be applied with real geospatial datasets and potentially used in forest management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridging the Gap between Geospatial Theory and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Integrated WiFi/PDR/Smartphone Using an Adaptive System Noise Extended Kalman Filter Algorithm for Indoor Localization
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5020008 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
Wireless signal strength is susceptible to the phenomena of interference, jumping, and instability, which often appear in the positioning results based on Wi-Fi field strength fingerprint database technology for indoor positioning. Therefore, a Wi-Fi and PDR (pedestrian dead reckoning) real-time fusion scheme is [...] Read more.
Wireless signal strength is susceptible to the phenomena of interference, jumping, and instability, which often appear in the positioning results based on Wi-Fi field strength fingerprint database technology for indoor positioning. Therefore, a Wi-Fi and PDR (pedestrian dead reckoning) real-time fusion scheme is proposed in this paper to perform fusing calculation by adaptively determining the dynamic noise of a filtering system according to pedestrian movement (straight or turning), which can effectively restrain the jumping or accumulation phenomena of wireless positioning and the PDR error accumulation problem. Wi-Fi fingerprint matching typically requires a quite high computational burden: To reduce the computational complexity of this step, the affinity propagation clustering algorithm is adopted to cluster the fingerprint database and integrate the information of the position domain and signal domain of respective points. An experiment performed in a fourth-floor corridor at the School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, shows that the traverse points of the clustered positioning system decrease by 65%–80%, which greatly improves the time efficiency. In terms of positioning accuracy, the average error is 4.09 m through the Wi-Fi positioning method. However, the positioning error can be reduced to 2.32 m after integration of the PDR algorithm with the adaptive noise extended Kalman filter (EKF). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Location-Based Services)
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