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Open AccessArticle

Cytokinin N-glucosides: Occurrence, Metabolism and Biological Activities in Plants

1
Laboratory of Hormonal Regulations in Plants, Institute of Experimental Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Rozvojová 263, 165 02 Prague 6, Czech Republic
2
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, 783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic
3
Department of Biological Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
4
Department of Molecular Biology and Radiobiology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1665/1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
5
CEITEC—Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
6
Laboratory of Growth Regulators, Institute of Experimental Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences and Faculty of Science of Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 27, 783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic
7
Department of Chemical Biology and Genetics, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 27, 783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic
8
Institute of Biophysics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno, Czech Republic
9
Isotope Laboratory, Institute of Experimental Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4, Czech Republic
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Deceased on 4th June 2018.
Biomolecules 2021, 11(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11010024
Received: 28 November 2020 / Revised: 22 December 2020 / Accepted: 24 December 2020 / Published: 28 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytohormones 2020)
Cytokinins (CKs) are a class of phytohormones affecting many aspects of plant growth and development. In the complex process of CK homeostasis in plants, N-glucosylation represents one of the essential metabolic pathways. Its products, CK N7- and N9-glucosides, have been largely overlooked in the past as irreversible and inactive CK products lacking any relevant physiological impact. In this work, we report a widespread distribution of CK N-glucosides across the plant kingdom proceeding from evolutionary older to younger plants with different proportions between N7- and N9-glucosides in the total CK pool. We show dramatic changes in their profiles as well as in expression levels of the UGT76C1 and UGT76C2 genes during Arabidopsis ontogenesis. We also demonstrate specific physiological effects of CK N-glucosides in CK bioassays including their antisenescent activities, inhibitory effects on root development, and activation of the CK signaling pathway visualized by the CK-responsive YFP reporter line, TCSv2::3XVENUS. Last but not least, we present the considerable impact of CK N7- and N9-glucosides on the expression of CK-related genes in maize and their stimulatory effects on CK oxidase/dehydrogenase activity in oats. Our findings revise the apparent irreversibility and inactivity of CK N7- and N9-glucosides and indicate their involvement in CK evolution while suggesting their unique function(s) in plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytokinin; N-glucosides; senescence; β-D-glucosidase Zm-p60.1; [2-3H]tZ9G; oat; Zea mays; Arabidopsis; trans-zeatin; cis-zeatin; cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase cytokinin; N-glucosides; senescence; β-D-glucosidase Zm-p60.1; [2-3H]tZ9G; oat; Zea mays; Arabidopsis; trans-zeatin; cis-zeatin; cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pokorná, E.; Hluska, T.; Galuszka, P.; Hallmark, H.T.; Dobrev, P.I.; Záveská Drábková, L.; Filipi, T.; Holubová, K.; Plíhal, O.; Rashotte, A.M.; Filepová, R.; Malbeck, J.; Novák, O.; Spíchal, L.; Brzobohatý, B.; Mazura, P.; Zahajská, L.; Motyka, V. Cytokinin N-glucosides: Occurrence, Metabolism and Biological Activities in Plants. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 24. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11010024

AMA Style

Pokorná E, Hluska T, Galuszka P, Hallmark HT, Dobrev PI, Záveská Drábková L, Filipi T, Holubová K, Plíhal O, Rashotte AM, Filepová R, Malbeck J, Novák O, Spíchal L, Brzobohatý B, Mazura P, Zahajská L, Motyka V. Cytokinin N-glucosides: Occurrence, Metabolism and Biological Activities in Plants. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(1):24. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11010024

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pokorná, Eva; Hluska, Tomáš; Galuszka, Petr; Hallmark, H. T.; Dobrev, Petre I.; Záveská Drábková, Lenka; Filipi, Tomáš; Holubová, Katarína; Plíhal, Ondřej; Rashotte, Aaron M.; Filepová, Roberta; Malbeck, Jiří; Novák, Ondřej; Spíchal, Lukáš; Brzobohatý, Břetislav; Mazura, Pavel; Zahajská, Lenka; Motyka, Václav. 2021. "Cytokinin N-glucosides: Occurrence, Metabolism and Biological Activities in Plants" Biomolecules 11, no. 1: 24. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11010024

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