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Atoms, Volume 11, Issue 8 (August 2023) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Superfluids in ring geometries can support quantized persistent currents, where the phase of the wavefunction winds by an integer multiple \({w}\) of \({2\pi}\) . We study the decay of these currents by numerically solving the Gross–Pitaevskii equation under the same conditions as the LENS experiment. By imprinting a phase, we excite currents of well-defined circulation, which are measured by the number of spirals appearing in the interferograms. Numerically, we observe that vortex emission is the source of the current instability, both in a clean ring, and in the presence of a localized defect. In particular, for the clean ring case reported in the cover, the imprinting profile’s imperfections introduce density excitations that for \({w \geq 5}\) favor vortex injection into the ring superfluid and limit the highest accessible circulation. View this paper
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13 pages, 10937 KiB  
Article
Density Functional Treatment of Photoionization of Sodium Clusters: Effects of Cluster Size and Exchange–Correlation Framework
by Rasheed Shaik, Hari R. Varma and Himadri S. Chakraborty
Atoms 2023, 11(8), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11080114 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 841
Abstract
The ground state and photoionization properties of Nax (x = 20, 40, and 92) clusters are investigated using a method based on density functional theory (DFT) in a spherical jellium frame. Two different exchange–correlation treatments with the Gunnarsson–Lundqvist parametrization are used: [...] Read more.
The ground state and photoionization properties of Nax (x = 20, 40, and 92) clusters are investigated using a method based on density functional theory (DFT) in a spherical jellium frame. Two different exchange–correlation treatments with the Gunnarsson–Lundqvist parametrization are used: (i) the electron self-interaction correction (SIC) scheme and (ii) the van Leeuwen–Baerends (LB94) scheme based on the gradient of the electron density. The shapes of the mean-field potentials and bound state properties, obtained in the two schemes, qualitatively agree, but differ in the details. The effect of the schemes on the photoionization dynamics, calculated in linear response time-dependent DFT is compared, in which the broader features are found to be universal. The general similarity of the results in SIC and LB94 demonstrates the reliability of DFT treatments. The study further elucidates the evolution of the ground state and ionization description as a function of the cluster size. Full article
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12 pages, 7517 KiB  
Article
Tunability of Half Cycle Cutoff Harmonics with Inhomogeneously Enhanced Laser Pulse
by Ankur Mandal
Atoms 2023, 11(8), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11080113 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 857
Abstract
For homogeneous driving, half cycle harmonics and its corresponding half cycle cutoff (HCO) show prominent spectral features, allowing one to produce an isolated attosecond pulse with suitable filtering, or vice versa the retrieval of the driving pulse itself. The temporal profile and spatial [...] Read more.
For homogeneous driving, half cycle harmonics and its corresponding half cycle cutoff (HCO) show prominent spectral features, allowing one to produce an isolated attosecond pulse with suitable filtering, or vice versa the retrieval of the driving pulse itself. The temporal profile and spatial dependence of the inhomogeneously enhanced field are two important factors that determine the high harmonic generation (HHG) near a plasmonic nanostructure. This leads us to the question of how the HHG spectra and, in particular, the corresponding half cycle harmonics modify with different types of inhomogeneously enhanced fields. To elucidate this, we have made a comparative study of the HHG in three different types of inhomogeneously enhanced laser pulses by employing the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in one dimension. Within our chosen parameter range, the HCO in cutoff and mid-plateau regimes shift towards higher order with the increase of strength of the inhomogeneity in isotropic case. In anisotropic inhomogeneity, the cutoff HCO shifts towards the higher order but the mid-plateau HCO shifts towards lower order with the increase of strength of inhomogeneity. With increasing carrier envelope phase (CEP), the enhanced HCO in the lower-order harmonic region shifts towards higher orders. This shift is nearly linear from near the above threshold to mid-plateau region and becomes saturated in the near cutoff region. The harmonic spectra is modulo-π periodic for the isotropic inhomogeneity and it is modulo-2π periodic for the anisotropic inhomogeneity. This extension of periodicity increases the tunability of the enhanced HCO harmonics with CEP in the anisotropic inhomogeneity than the CEP tuning of the HCO harmonics in the isotropic inhomogeneity or vice versa the retrieval of CEP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Strong-Field Atomic and Molecular Physics)
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21 pages, 590 KiB  
Article
Calculation of Energy and Angular Distributions of Electrons Produced in Intermediate-Energy p + H2 Collisions
by Corey T. Plowman, Kade H. Spicer and Alisher S. Kadyrov
Atoms 2023, 11(8), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11080112 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
We extend the two-centre wave-packet convergent close-coupling approach to doubly differential ionisation in proton collisions with H2 to intermediate projectile energies. The results for the doubly differential cross section at projectile energies from 48 to 200 keV are presented as a function [...] Read more.
We extend the two-centre wave-packet convergent close-coupling approach to doubly differential ionisation in proton collisions with H2 to intermediate projectile energies. The results for the doubly differential cross section at projectile energies from 48 to 200 keV are presented as a function of the energy and angle of emitted electrons. We consider a wide range of emission angles from 10 to 160, and compare our results to experimental data, where available. Excellent agreement between the presented results and the experimental data was found, especially for emission angles less than 130. For very large backward emission angles our calculations tended to slightly overestimate the experimental data when energetic electrons are ejected and the doubly differential cross section is very small. This discrepancy may be due to the large uncertainties in the experimental data in this region and the model target description. Overall, the present results show significant improvement upon currently available theoretical results and provide a consistently accurate description of this process across a wide range of incident energies. Full article
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12 pages, 4002 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Response of a Light-Modulated Magnetometer to Time-Dependent Fields
by Giuseppe Bevilacqua, Valerio Biancalana and Yordanka Dancheva
Atoms 2023, 11(8), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11080111 - 11 Aug 2023
Viewed by 978
Abstract
The dynamic response of a Bell-and-Bloom magnetometer to a parallel (to the bias field) time-dependent field is studied by means of a model that goes beyond the commonly assumed quasi-static regime. The findings unveil features that are related to the parametric nature of [...] Read more.
The dynamic response of a Bell-and-Bloom magnetometer to a parallel (to the bias field) time-dependent field is studied by means of a model that goes beyond the commonly assumed quasi-static regime. The findings unveil features that are related to the parametric nature of the considered system. It is shown that for low-amplitude time-dependent fields, different operating conditions are possible and that, besides the commonly reported low-pass filter behavior, a band-pass response emerges. Moreover, we show that a larger amplitude of the time-dependent field makes the parametric nature of the system appear more clearly in the output signal. A harmonic analysis of the latter is numerically performed to highlight and characterize these emerging features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optically Pumped Magnetometers and Their Applications)
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13 pages, 599 KiB  
Article
Bose Polaron in a One-Dimensional Lattice with Power-Law Hopping
by G. A. Domínguez-Castro
Atoms 2023, 11(8), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11080110 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Polarons, quasiparticles resulting from the interaction between an impurity and the collective excitations of a medium, play a fundamental role in physics, mainly because they represent an essential building block for understanding more complex many-body phenomena. In this manuscript, we study the spectral [...] Read more.
Polarons, quasiparticles resulting from the interaction between an impurity and the collective excitations of a medium, play a fundamental role in physics, mainly because they represent an essential building block for understanding more complex many-body phenomena. In this manuscript, we study the spectral properties of a single impurity mixed with identical bosons in a one-dimensional lattice with power-law hopping. In particular, based on the so-called T-matrix approximation, we show the existence of well-defined quasiparticle branches for several tunneling ranges and for both repulsive and attractive impurity-boson interactions. Furthermore, we demonstrate the persistence of the attractive polaron branch when the impurity-boson bound state is absorbed into the two-body continuum and that the attractive polaron becomes more robust as the range of the hopping increases. The results discussed here are relevant for the understanding of the equilibrium properties of quantum systems with power-law interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends on Quantum Fluctuations in Ultra-Cold Quantum Gases)
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12 pages, 3988 KiB  
Article
Decay of Persistent Currents in Annular Atomic Superfluids
by Klejdja Xhani, Giulia Del Pace, Francesco Scazza and Giacomo Roati
Atoms 2023, 11(8), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11080109 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 872
Abstract
We investigate the role of vortices in the decay of persistent current states of annular atomic superfluids by solving numerically the Gross–Pitaevskii equation, and we directly compare our results with the 6Li experiment at LENS data. We theoretically model the optical phase-imprinting [...] Read more.
We investigate the role of vortices in the decay of persistent current states of annular atomic superfluids by solving numerically the Gross–Pitaevskii equation, and we directly compare our results with the 6Li experiment at LENS data. We theoretically model the optical phase-imprinting technique employed to experimentally excite finite-circulation states in the Bose–Einstein condensation regime, accounting for imperfections of the optical gradient imprinting profile. By comparing simulations of this realistic protocol to an ideal imprinting, we show that the introduced density excitations arising from imperfect imprinting are mainly responsible for limiting the maximum reachable winding number wmax in the superfluid ring. We also investigate the effect of a point-like obstacle with variable potential height V0 on the decay of circulating supercurrents. For a given obstacle height, a critical circulation wc exists, such that for an initial circulation w0 larger than wc the supercurrent decays through the emission of vortices, which cross the superflow and thus induce phase slippage. Higher values of the obstacle height V0 further favor the entrance of vortices, thus leading to lower values of wc. Furthermore, the stronger vortex-defect interaction at higher V0 leads to vortices that propagate closer to the center of the ring condensate. The combination of both these effects leads to an increase in the supercurrent decay rate for increasing w0, in agreement with experimental observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends on Quantum Fluctuations in Ultra-Cold Quantum Gases)
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