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Volume 12, January

Metabolites, Volume 12, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 107 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index (APRI) has been proposed as an easy-to-use biochemical marker in obese adults affected by NAFLD/NASH, while its value is still poorly known in obese children and adolescents so far. Based on the results of our study performed in a large (Italian) pediatric obese population, parameters such as BMI SDS, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, and APRI were positive predictors of NAFLD, while female sex was a negative predictor, with most of the prediction explained by APRI. Nevertheless, due to the missing correlations with metabolic syndrome and NAFLD severity, APRI seems to be a simple biochemical marker of liver injury rather than of NAFLD/NASH and, moreover, is endowed with a limited accuracy for the prediction/diagnosis of NAFLD. View this paper
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Article
Effect of Supplementation with Olive Leaf Extract Enriched with Oleuropein on the Metabolome and Redox Status of Athletes’ Blood and Urine—A Metabolomic Approach
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020195 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Oleuropein (OE) is a secoiridoid glycoside occurring mostly in the Oleaceae family and presenting several pharmacological properties, including hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties. Based on these, several dietary supplements containing olive leaf extracts enriched with OE are commercially available in many countries. The current [...] Read more.
Oleuropein (OE) is a secoiridoid glycoside occurring mostly in the Oleaceae family and presenting several pharmacological properties, including hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties. Based on these, several dietary supplements containing olive leaf extracts enriched with OE are commercially available in many countries. The current study aimed to examine the effect of supplementation with such an extract on the serum and urine metabolome of young healthy male athletes. For this purpose, applying a randomized, balanced, double-blind study, nine young, healthy males (physical education students) received either a commercially prepared extract or placebo for one week, followed by a two-week washout period; then, they were subsequently dosed with the alternate scheme (crossover design). Urine and serum samples were analyzed using UHPLC-HRMS, followed by evaluation with several multivariate methods of data analysis. The data were interpreted using a multilevel metabolomic approach (multilevel-sPLSDA) as it was found to be the most efficient approach for the study design. Metabolic pathway analysis of the most affected metabolites revealed that tryptophan and acylcarnitine’s biochemistries were most influenced. Furthermore, several metabolites connected to indole metabolism were detected, which may indicate enhanced serotonin turnover. Phenylethylamine and related metabolites, as well as estrone, were connected to enhanced performance. In addition, possible changes to the lipidemic profile and the blood and urine redox statuses were investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Metabolism of Bioactive Compounds)
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Review
The Potential of Metabolomics in Biomedical Applications
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020194 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
The metabolome offers a dynamic, comprehensive, and precise picture of the phenotype. Current high-throughput technologies have allowed the discovery of relevant metabolites that characterize a wide variety of human phenotypes with respect to health, disease, drug monitoring, and even aging. Metabolomics, parallel to [...] Read more.
The metabolome offers a dynamic, comprehensive, and precise picture of the phenotype. Current high-throughput technologies have allowed the discovery of relevant metabolites that characterize a wide variety of human phenotypes with respect to health, disease, drug monitoring, and even aging. Metabolomics, parallel to genomics, has led to the discovery of biomarkers and has aided in the understanding of a diversity of molecular mechanisms, highlighting its application in precision medicine. This review focuses on the metabolomics that can be applied to improve human health, as well as its trends and impacts in metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, longevity, the exposome, liquid biopsy development, and pharmacometabolomics. The identification of distinct metabolomic profiles will help in the discovery and improvement of clinical strategies to treat human disease. In the years to come, metabolomics will become a tool routinely applied to diagnose and monitor health and disease, aging, or drug development. Biomedical applications of metabolomics can already be foreseen to monitor the progression of metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, using branched-chain amino acids, acylcarnitines, certain phospholipids, and genomics; these can assess disease severity and predict a potential treatment. Future endeavors should focus on determining the applicability and clinical utility of metabolomic-derived markers and their appropriate implementation in large-scale clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics and Its Application in Human Diseases Volume 2)
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Review
The Role of Taurine in Skeletal Muscle Functioning and Its Potential as a Supportive Treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020193 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 573
Abstract
Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is required for ensuring proper muscle functioning. Knockout of the taurine transporter in mice results in low taurine concentrations in the muscle and associates with myofiber necrosis and diminished exercise capacity. Interestingly, regulation of taurine and its transporter is altered [...] Read more.
Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is required for ensuring proper muscle functioning. Knockout of the taurine transporter in mice results in low taurine concentrations in the muscle and associates with myofiber necrosis and diminished exercise capacity. Interestingly, regulation of taurine and its transporter is altered in the mdx mouse, a model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). DMD is a genetic disorder characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and weakness due to the absence of dystrophin from the muscle membrane, causing destabilization and contraction-induced muscle cell damage. This review explores the physiological role of taurine in skeletal muscle and the consequences of a disturbed balance in DMD. Its potential as a supportive treatment for DMD is also discussed. In addition to genetic correction, that is currently under development as a curative treatment, taurine supplementation has the potential to reduce muscle inflammation and improve muscle strength in patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation and Effect of Taurine on Metabolism)
Article
Plasma Oxylipin Profile Discriminates Ethnicities in Subjects with Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis: An Exploratory Analysis
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020192 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 551
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver pathology that includes steatosis, or non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Without a clear pathophysiological mechanism, it affects Hispanics disproportionately compared to other ethnicities. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammatory lipid mediators [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver pathology that includes steatosis, or non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Without a clear pathophysiological mechanism, it affects Hispanics disproportionately compared to other ethnicities. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammatory lipid mediators including oxylipin (OXL) and endocannabinoid (eCB) are altered in NAFLD and thought to contribute to its pathogenesis. However, the existence of ethnicity-related differences is not clear. We employed targeted lipidomic profiling for plasma PUFAs, non-esterified OXLs and eCBs in White Hispanics (HIS, n = 10) and Caucasians (CAU, n = 8) with biopsy-confirmed NAFL, compared with healthy control subjects (HC; n = 14 HIS; n = 8 CAU). NAFLD was associated with diminished long chain PUFA in HIS, independent of histological severity. Differences in plasma OXLs and eCBs characterized ethnicities in NASH, with lower arachidonic acid derived OXLs observed in HIS. The secondary analysis comparing ethnicities within NASH (n = 12 HIS; n = 17 CAU), confirms these ethnicity-related differences and suggests lower lipoxygenase(s) and higher soluble epoxide hydrolase(s) activities in HIS compared to CAU. While causes are not clear, these lipidomic differences might be with implications for NAFLD severity and are worth further investigation. We provide preliminary data indicating ethnicity-specific lipidomic signature characterizes NASH which requires further validation. Full article
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Article
Body Weight Gain Is Associated with the Disease Stage in Advanced Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis with Invasive Ventilation
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020191 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 385
Abstract
We investigated the incidence of weight gain and its related factors in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) who underwent tracheostomy and invasive ventilation (TIV). Seventy-eight patients with ALS and TIV were enrolled and followed up prospectively. We clarified the clinical profiles of [...] Read more.
We investigated the incidence of weight gain and its related factors in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) who underwent tracheostomy and invasive ventilation (TIV). Seventy-eight patients with ALS and TIV were enrolled and followed up prospectively. We clarified the clinical profiles of patients with increased weight following TIV and examined chronological variations in their body mass index (BMI), energy intake, and serum albumin levels. Post follow-up, we determined their disease stage according to their communication impairment (stage I to V) and investigated factors associated with BMI increase following TIV. Patients with a post-TIV BMI increase ≥1.86 kg/m2 demonstrated a higher incidence of ophthalmoplegia (76.2%), total quadriplegia (61.9%), severe communication impairment (stage V; 33.3%), and hypoalbuminemia than those with a BMI increase <1.86 kg/m2. Patients with stage V communication impairment exhibited a larger and faster BMI decrease before TIV (mean −4.2 kg/m2 and −2.5 kg/m2/year, respectively); a larger BMI increase (mean +4.6 kg/m2) following TIV, despite lower energy intake; and lower albumin levels post follow-up than those with lower-stage communication impairment. Multilevel linear regression analysis demonstrated an independent association between communication impairment stages (stage V) and a post-TIV BMI increase (p = 0.030). Weight gain and hypoalbuminemia during TIV in patients with ALS were associated with the disease stage and may be attributable to the neurodegenerative processes that are peculiar to ALS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Dysfunction in Motor Neuron Disease)
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Article
Complex Changes in Membrane Lipids Associated with the Modification of Autophagy in Arabidopsis
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020190 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 664
Abstract
Autophagy is a conserved mechanism among eukaryotes that degrades and recycles cytoplasmic components. Autophagy is known to influence the plant metabolome, including lipid content; however, its impact on the plant lipidome is not fully understood, and most studies have analyzed a single or [...] Read more.
Autophagy is a conserved mechanism among eukaryotes that degrades and recycles cytoplasmic components. Autophagy is known to influence the plant metabolome, including lipid content; however, its impact on the plant lipidome is not fully understood, and most studies have analyzed a single or few mutants defective in autophagy. To gain more insight into the effect of autophagy on lipid concentrations and composition, we quantitatively profiled glycerolipids from multiple Arabidopsis thaliana mutants altered in autophagy and compared them with wild-type seedlings under nitrogen replete (+N; normal growth) and nitrogen starvation (−N; autophagy inducing) conditions. Mutants include those in genes of the core autophagy pathway, together with other genes that have been reported to affect autophagy. Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization—Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS), we imaged the cellular distribution of specific lipids in situ and demonstrated that autophagy and nitrogen treatment did not affect their spatial distribution within Arabidopsis seedling leaves. We observed changes, both increases and decreases, in the relative amounts of different lipid species in the mutants compared to WT both in +N and −N conditions, although more changes were seen in −N conditions. The relative amounts of polyunsaturated and very long chain lipids were significantly reduced in autophagy-disrupted mutants compared to WT plants. Collectively, our results provide additional evidence that autophagy affects plant lipid content and that autophagy likely affects lipid properties such as chain length and unsaturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Plant Lipid Metabolism)
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Review
In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Methods for Investigating Cardiac Metabolism
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020189 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive and non-ionizing technique, enabling in vivo investigation of cardiac metabolism in normal and diseased hearts. In vivo measurement tools are critical for studying mechanisms that regulate cardiac energy metabolism in disease developments and to assist in [...] Read more.
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive and non-ionizing technique, enabling in vivo investigation of cardiac metabolism in normal and diseased hearts. In vivo measurement tools are critical for studying mechanisms that regulate cardiac energy metabolism in disease developments and to assist in early response assessments to novel therapies. For cardiac MRS, proton (1H), phosphorus (31P), and hyperpolarized 13-carbon (13C) provide valuable metabolic information for diagnosis and treatment assessment purposes. Currently, low sensitivity and some technical limitations limit the utility of MRS. An essential step in translating MRS for clinical use involves further technological improvements, particularly in coil design, improving the signal-to-noise ratios, field homogeneity, and optimizing radiofrequency sequences. This review addresses the recent advances in metabolic imaging by MRS from primarily the literature published since 2015. Full article
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Article
Alkaloid Profiling, Anti-Enzymatic and Antiproliferative Activity of the Endemic Chilean Amaryllidaceae Phycella cyrtanthoides
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020188 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 487
Abstract
This research aims to identify the alkaloid profile and to evaluate the enzyme inhibitory potential and antiproliferative effects of the Amaryllidaceae plant Phycella cyrtanthoides. The alkaloid extracts from bulbs and leaves were analyzed using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS) [...] Read more.
This research aims to identify the alkaloid profile and to evaluate the enzyme inhibitory potential and antiproliferative effects of the Amaryllidaceae plant Phycella cyrtanthoides. The alkaloid extracts from bulbs and leaves were analyzed using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS) analysis. A total of 70 alkaloids were detected in the P. cyrtanthoides’ extracts. The enzyme inhibition potential against cholinesterases (AChE: acetylcholinesterase, and BChE butyrylcholinesterase) and tyrosinase were studied. Bulbs displayed the best IC50 values against AChE (4.29 ± 0.03 µg/mL) and BChE (18.32 ± 0.03 µg/mL). These results were consistent with docking experiments with selected major compounds in the active sites of enzymes, while no activity was observed against tyrosinase enzyme. Antiproliferative effects were investigated against human cervical (HeLa), lung (A549, SW1573), colon (WiDr), and breast (HBL-100, T-47D) tumor cell lines. Bulbs and leaves were active in all cell lines (GI50 < 2.5 µg/mL). These findings suggest that the endemic Chilean plant P. cyrtanthoides contains diverse types of bioactive alkaloids with antiproliferative activities and inhibitory effects with potential therapeutic applications for neurodegenerative diseases Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Science)
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Article
Human Brain Lipidomics: Pilot Analysis of the Basal Ganglia Sphingolipidome in Parkinson’s Disease and Lewy Body Disease
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020187 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 621
Abstract
Sphingolipids constitute a complex class of bioactive lipids with diverse structural and functional roles in neural tissue. Lipidomic techniques continue to provide evidence for their association in neurological diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Lewy body disease (LBD). However, prior studies have primarily [...] Read more.
Sphingolipids constitute a complex class of bioactive lipids with diverse structural and functional roles in neural tissue. Lipidomic techniques continue to provide evidence for their association in neurological diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Lewy body disease (LBD). However, prior studies have primarily focused on biological tissues outside of the basal ganglia, despite the known relevancy of this brain region in motor and cognitive dysfunction associated with PD and LBD. Therefore electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry was used to analyze levels of sphingolipid species, including ceramides (Cer), dihydroceramides (DHC), hydoxyceramides (OH-Cer), phytoceramides (Phyto-Cer), phosphoethanolamine ceramides (PE-Cer), sphingomyelins (SM), and sulfatides (Sulf) in the caudate, putamen and globus pallidus of PD (n = 7) and LBD (n = 14) human subjects and were compared to healthy controls (n = 9). The most dramatic alterations were seen in the putamen, with depletion of Cer and elevation of Sulf observed in both groups, with additional depletion of OH-Cer and elevation of DHC identified in LBD subjects. Diverging levels of DHC in the caudate suggest differing roles of this lipid in PD and LBD pathogenesis. These sphingolipid alterations in PD and LBD provide evidence for biochemical involvement of the neuronal cell death that characterize these conditions. Full article
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Review
Environmental Metabolomics Promises and Achievements in the Field of Aquatic Ecotoxicology: Viewed through the Pharmaceutical Lens
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020186 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Scientists often set ambitious targets using environmental metabolomics to address challenging ecotoxicological issues. This promising approach has a high potential to elucidate the mechanisms of action (MeOAs) of contaminants (in hazard assessments) and to develop biomarkers (in environmental biomonitoring). However, metabolomics fingerprints often [...] Read more.
Scientists often set ambitious targets using environmental metabolomics to address challenging ecotoxicological issues. This promising approach has a high potential to elucidate the mechanisms of action (MeOAs) of contaminants (in hazard assessments) and to develop biomarkers (in environmental biomonitoring). However, metabolomics fingerprints often involve a complex mixture of molecular effects that are hard to link to a specific MeOA (if detected in the analytical conditions used). Given these promises and limitations, here we propose an updated review on the achievements of this approach. Metabolomics-based studies conducted on the effects of pharmaceutical active compounds in aquatic organisms provide a relevant means to review the achievements of this approach, as prior knowledge about the MeOA of these molecules could help overcome some shortcomings. This review highlighted that current metabolomics advances have enabled more accurate MeOA assessment, especially when combined with other omics approaches. The combination of metabolomics with other measured biological endpoints has also turned out to be an efficient way to link molecular effects to (sub)-individual adverse outcomes, thereby paving the way to the construction of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs). Here, we also discuss the importance of determining MeOA as a key strategy in the identification of MeOA-specific biomarkers for biomonitoring. We have put forward some recommendations to take full advantage of environmental metabolomics and thus help fulfil these promises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Metabolomic in Ecotoxicology)
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Perspective
Build, Share and Remix: 3D Printing for Speeding Up the Innovation Cycles in Ambient Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (AIMS)
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020185 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Ambient ionisation mass spectrometry (AIMS) enables studying biological systems in their native state and direct high-throughput analyses. The ionisation occurs in the physical conditions of the surrounding environment. Simple spray or plasma-based AIMS devices allow the desorption and ionisation of molecules from solid, [...] Read more.
Ambient ionisation mass spectrometry (AIMS) enables studying biological systems in their native state and direct high-throughput analyses. The ionisation occurs in the physical conditions of the surrounding environment. Simple spray or plasma-based AIMS devices allow the desorption and ionisation of molecules from solid, liquid and gaseous samples. 3D printing helps to implement new ideas and concepts in AIMS quickly. Here, we present examples of 3D printed AIMS sources and devices for ion transfer and manipulation. Further, we show the use of 3D printer parts for building custom AIMS sampling robots and imaging systems. Using 3D printing technology allows upgrading existing mass spectrometers with relatively low cost and effort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ambient Ionization Techniques for Mass Spectrometry)
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Review
The Role of Nutraceutical Containing Polyphenols in Diabetes Prevention
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020184 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Research in pharmacological therapy has led to the availability of many antidiabetic agents. New recommendations for precision medicine and particularly precision nutrition may greatly contribute to the control and especially to the prevention of diabetes. This scenario greatly encourages the search for novel [...] Read more.
Research in pharmacological therapy has led to the availability of many antidiabetic agents. New recommendations for precision medicine and particularly precision nutrition may greatly contribute to the control and especially to the prevention of diabetes. This scenario greatly encourages the search for novel non-pharmaceutical molecules. In line with this, the daily and long-term consumption of diets rich in phenolic compounds, together with a healthy lifestyle, may have a protective role against the development of type 2 diabetes. In the framework of the described studies, there is clear evidence that the bio accessibility, bioavailability, and the gut microbiota are indeed affected by: the way phenolic compounds are consumed (acutely or chronically; as pure compounds, extracts, or in-side a whole meal) and the amount and the type of phenolic compounds (ex-tractable or non-extractable/macromolecular antioxidants, including non-bioavailable polyphenols and plant matrix complexed structures). In this review, we report possible effects of important, commonly consumed, phenolic-based nutraceuticals in pre-clinical and clinical diabetes studies. We highlight their mechanisms of action and their potential effects in health promotion. Translation of this nutraceutical-based approach still requires more and larger clinical trials for better elucidation of the mechanism of action toward clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolism and Metabolite Markers in Type 2 Diabetes)
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Systematic Review
Cardiovascular and Renal Effectiveness of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists vs. Other Glucose-Lowering Drugs in Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Real-World Studies
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020183 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOT) showed that treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular benefits. However, CVOT are scarcely representative of everyday clinical practice, and real-world studies could provide clinicians with more relatable evidence. Here, literature was thoroughly searched [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOT) showed that treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular benefits. However, CVOT are scarcely representative of everyday clinical practice, and real-world studies could provide clinicians with more relatable evidence. Here, literature was thoroughly searched to retrieve real-world studies investigating the cardiovascular and renal outcomes of GLP-1RA vs. other glucose-lowering drugs and carry out relevant meta-analyses thereof. Most real-world studies were conducted in populations at low cardiovascular and renal risk. Of note, real-world studies investigating cardio-renal outcomes of GLP-1RA suggested that initiation of GLP-1RA was associated with a greater benefit on composite cardiovascular outcomes, MACE (major adverse cardiovascular events), all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death, peripheral artery disease, and heart failure compared to other glucose-lowering drugs with the exception of sodium-glucose transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i). Initiation of SGLT-2i and GLP-1RA yielded similar effects on composite cardiovascular outcomes, MACE, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Conversely, GLP-1RA were less effective on heart failure prevention compared to SGLT-2i. Finally, the few real-world studies addressing renal outcomes suggested a significant benefit of GLP-1RA on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) reduction and hard renal outcomes vs. active comparators except SGLT-2i. Further real-world evidence is needed to clarify the role of GLP-1RA in cardio-renal protection among available glucose-lowering drugs. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Metabolites in 2021
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020182 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Article
A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Method in Characterization of Blood Metabolomics for Alzheimer’s Disease
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020181 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 536
Abstract
There is currently a crucial need for improved diagnostic techniques and targeted treatment methods for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a disease which impacts millions of elderly individuals each year. Metabolomic analysis has been proposed as a potential methodology to better investigate and understand the [...] Read more.
There is currently a crucial need for improved diagnostic techniques and targeted treatment methods for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a disease which impacts millions of elderly individuals each year. Metabolomic analysis has been proposed as a potential methodology to better investigate and understand the progression of this disease. In this report, we present our AD metabolomics results measured with high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on human blood plasma samples obtained from AD and non-AD subjects. Our study centers on developments of AD and non-AD metabolomics differentiating models with procedures of quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) through pooled samples. Our findings suggest that analysis of blood plasma samples using HRMAS NMR has the potential to differentiate between diseased and healthy subjects, which has important clinical implications for future improvements in AD diagnosis methodologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Analysis of Plasma)
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Article
Measurement of the Effect of Accelerated Aging on the Aromatic Compounds of Gewürztraminer and Teroldego Wines, Using a SPE-GC-MS/MS Protocol
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020180 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 618
Abstract
Knowing in detail how the white and red wine aroma compounds behave under various storage conditions and especially at high temperature is important in order to understand the changes occurring to their sensorial character during the shelf life. The initial aim of this [...] Read more.
Knowing in detail how the white and red wine aroma compounds behave under various storage conditions and especially at high temperature is important in order to understand the changes occurring to their sensorial character during the shelf life. The initial aim of this work was to develop and validate a fast, modern, robust, and comprehensive protocol for the quantification of 64 primary, secondary, and tertiary volatile compounds by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges in sample preparation and fast GC-MS/MS (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay) in analysis. The protocol was applied to a study of the behavior of seven Gewürztraminer and seven Teroldego wines stored in anoxia at 50 °C for 2.5 and 5 weeks. The results demonstrated a sharp decrease of the main linear terpenes linalool, geraniol, and nerol and the consequent increase of the cyclic ones, such as α-terpineol and 1,8-cineole; the increase of the C13-norisoprenoids 1,1,6,-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronapthalene (TDN), and β-damascenone and the C10 norisoprenoid safranal; the hydrolysis of acetates and linear esters; and the increase of some branched-chain esters. In red wines, a moderate increase was observed for some lactones. Some unwanted compounds, such as 2-aminoacetophenone (2-AAP), showed a notable increase in some Gewürztraminer wines, exceeding the olfactory threshold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grape and Wine Metabolome Analysis)
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Article
Serum Metabolomic Analysis of Male Patients with Cannabis or Amphetamine Use Disorder
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020179 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Studies have demonstrated that chronic consumption of abused drugs induces alterations in several proteins that regulate metabolism. For instance, methamphetamine exposure reduces glucose levels. Fatty and amino acid levels were altered in groups exposed to abused drugs. Therefore, in our study, we investigated [...] Read more.
Studies have demonstrated that chronic consumption of abused drugs induces alterations in several proteins that regulate metabolism. For instance, methamphetamine exposure reduces glucose levels. Fatty and amino acid levels were altered in groups exposed to abused drugs. Therefore, in our study, we investigated the serum metabolomic profile of patients diagnosed with cannabis and/or amphetamine use disorders. Blood was obtained from subjects (control, amphetamine, and cannabis). Detection of serum metabolites was performed using gas chromatography. The ratio peak areas for metabolites were analyzed across the three groups. Both cannabis and amphetamine groups showed higher d-erythrotetrafuranose, octadecanoic acid, hexadecenoic acid, trans-9-octadecanoic acid, lactic acid and methyl thio hydantoin metabolites compared with the control group. Moreover, cannabis patients were found to possess higher glycine, 9,12 octadecanoic acid malonic acid, phosphoric acid and prostaglandin F1a than controls. Our analysis showed that the identified metabolic profile of cannabis or amphetamine use disorder patients was different than control group. Our data indicated that chronic exposure to cannabis or amphetamine dysregulated metabolites in the serum. Future studies are warranted to explore the effects of these abused drugs on the metabolic proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolite Analysis in Forensic Toxicology Volume II)
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Article
Combined Plasma and Urinary Metabolomics Uncover Metabolic Perturbations Associated with Severe Respiratory Syncytial Viral Infection and Future Development of Asthma in Infant Patients
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020178 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 598
Abstract
A large percentage of infants develop viral bronchiolitis needing medical intervention and often develop further airway disease such as asthma. To characterize metabolic perturbations in acute respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) bronchiolitis, we compared metabolomic profiles of moderate and severe RSV patients versus sedation [...] Read more.
A large percentage of infants develop viral bronchiolitis needing medical intervention and often develop further airway disease such as asthma. To characterize metabolic perturbations in acute respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) bronchiolitis, we compared metabolomic profiles of moderate and severe RSV patients versus sedation controls. RSV patients were classified as moderate or severe based on the need for invasive mechanical ventilation. Whole blood and urine samples were collected at two time points (baseline and 72 h). Plasma and urinary metabolites were extracted in cold methanol and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and data from the two biofluids were combined for multivariate data analysis. Metabolite profiles were clustered according to severity, characterized by unique metabolic changes in both plasma and urine. Plasma metabolites that correlated with severity included intermediates in the sialic acid biosynthesis, while urinary metabolites included citrate as well as multiple nucleotides. Furthermore, metabolomic profiles were predictive of future development of asthma, with urinary metabolites exhibiting higher predictive power than plasma. These metabolites may offer unique insights into the pathology of RSV bronchiolitis and may be useful in identifying patients at risk for developing asthma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology and Clinical Metabolic Research)
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Article
The Endogenous Metabolite Glycerophosphocholine Promotes Longevity and Fitness in Caenorhabditis elegans
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020177 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Metabolism and aging are closely connected. The choline derivative glycerophosphocholine (GPC), an important precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, plays important roles in brain and nervous system function. Although it has been reported to alleviate cognitive decline in aged mice, whether GPC could promote [...] Read more.
Metabolism and aging are closely connected. The choline derivative glycerophosphocholine (GPC), an important precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, plays important roles in brain and nervous system function. Although it has been reported to alleviate cognitive decline in aged mice, whether GPC could promote longevity and other fitness factors remains unclear. Here, we find endogenous GPC level declines in the plasma of ageing humans. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), GPC extends lifespan and improves exercise capacity during aging. Likewise, GPC inhibits lipofuscin accumulation. We further show that GPC treatment has no adverse effect on nematodes’ reproductive abilities and body length. In addition to its benefits under normal conditions, GPC enhances the stress resistance of C. elegans. Mechanically, we find GPC significantly inhibits the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in worms. Our findings indicate the health benefits of GPC and its potential application in strategies to improve lifespan and healthspan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
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Review
New Kids on the Block: Bile Salt Conjugates of Microbial Origin
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020176 - 13 Feb 2022
Viewed by 500
Abstract
Biotransformation of host bile salts by gut microbes results in generation of secondary bile salt species that have biological and physicochemical properties that are distinct from the parent compounds. There is increased awareness that a bile salt–gut microbiome axis modulates various processes in [...] Read more.
Biotransformation of host bile salts by gut microbes results in generation of secondary bile salt species that have biological and physicochemical properties that are distinct from the parent compounds. There is increased awareness that a bile salt–gut microbiome axis modulates various processes in the host, including innate and adaptive immunity, by interaction of microbial bile salt metabolites with host receptors. Omics and targeted approaches have vastly expanded the number and repertoire of secondary bile salt species. A new class of microbial bile salt metabolites was reported in 2020 and comprises bile salts that are conjugated by microbial enzymes. Amino acids other than those employed by host enzymes (glycine and taurine) are used as substrates in the formation of these microbial bile salt conjugates (MBSCs). Leucocholic acid, phenylalanocholic acid and tyrosocholic acid were the first MBSCs identified in mice and humans. The number of distinct MBSCs is now approaching 50, with variation both at the level of bile salt and amino acid employed for conjugation. Evidence is emerging that MBSC generation is a common feature of human gut bacteria, and initial links with disease states have been reported. In this review, we discuss this intriguing new class of secondary bile salts, with yet enigmatic function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bile Acid Metabolism and Gut Microbiota)
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Article
Differences between Arterial and Venous Umbilical Cord Plasma Metabolome and Association with Parity
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020175 - 13 Feb 2022
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Umbilical cord blood is frequently used in health monitoring of the neonate. Results may be affected by the proportion of arterial and venous cord blood, the venous blood coming from the mother to supply oxygen and nutrients to the infant, and the arterial [...] Read more.
Umbilical cord blood is frequently used in health monitoring of the neonate. Results may be affected by the proportion of arterial and venous cord blood, the venous blood coming from the mother to supply oxygen and nutrients to the infant, and the arterial carrying waste products from the fetus. Here, we sampled arterial and venous umbilical cords separately from 48 newly delivered infants and examined plasma metabolomes using GC-MS/MS metabolomics. We investigated differences in metabolomes between arterial and venous blood and their associations with gestational length, birth weight, sex, and whether the baby was the first born or not, as well as maternal age and BMI. Using multilevel random forest analysis, a classification rate of 79% was achieved for arteriovenous differences (p = 0.004). Several monosaccharides had higher concentrations in the arterial cord plasma while amino acids were higher in venous plasma, suggesting that the main differences in the measured arterial and venous plasma metabolomes are related to amino acid and energy metabolism. Venous cord plasma metabolites related to energy metabolism were positively associated with parity (77% classification rate, p = 0.004) while arterial cord plasma metabolites were not. This underlines the importance of defining cord blood type for metabolomic studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Proteomics and Metabolomics in Biomedicine)
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Article
2-Year-Old and 3-Year-Old Italian ALS Patients with Novel ALS2 Mutations: Identification of Key Metabolites in Their Serum and Plasma
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020174 - 12 Feb 2022
Viewed by 775
Abstract
Pathogenic variants in ALS2 have been detected mostly in juvenile cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), affecting mainly children and teenagers. Patients with ALS2 mutations demonstrate early onset cortical involvement in ALS. Currently, there are no effective treatment options. There is an immense [...] Read more.
Pathogenic variants in ALS2 have been detected mostly in juvenile cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), affecting mainly children and teenagers. Patients with ALS2 mutations demonstrate early onset cortical involvement in ALS. Currently, there are no effective treatment options. There is an immense need to reveal the underlying causes of the disease and to identify potential biomarkers. To shed light onto the metabolomic events that are perturbed with respect to ALS2 mutations, we investigated the metabolites present in the serum and plasma of a three-year-old female patient (AO) harboring pathogenic variants in ALS2, together with her relatives, healthy male and female controls, as well as another two-year-old patient DH, who had mutations at different locations and domains of ALS2. Serum and plasma samples were analyzed with a quantitative metabolomic approach to reveal the identity of metabolites present in serum and plasma. This study not only shed light onto the perturbed cellular pathways, but also began to reveal the presence of a distinct set of key metabolites that are selectively present or absent with respect to ALS2 mutations, laying the foundation for utilizing metabolites as potential biomarkers for a subset of ALS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Dysfunction in Motor Neuron Disease)
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Article
A Modular and Expandable Ecosystem for Metabolomics Data Annotation in R
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020173 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 2200
Abstract
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based untargeted metabolomics experiments have become increasingly popular because of the wide range of metabolites that can be analyzed and the possibility to measure novel compounds. LC-MS instrumentation and analysis conditions can differ substantially among laboratories and experiments, thus resulting [...] Read more.
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based untargeted metabolomics experiments have become increasingly popular because of the wide range of metabolites that can be analyzed and the possibility to measure novel compounds. LC-MS instrumentation and analysis conditions can differ substantially among laboratories and experiments, thus resulting in non-standardized datasets demanding customized annotation workflows. We present an ecosystem of R packages, centered around the MetaboCoreUtils, MetaboAnnotation and CompoundDb packages that together provide a modular infrastructure for the annotation of untargeted metabolomics data. Initial annotation can be performed based on MS1 properties such as m/z and retention times, followed by an MS2-based annotation in which experimental fragment spectra are compared against a reference library. Such reference databases can be created and managed with the CompoundDb package. The ecosystem supports data from a variety of formats, including, but not limited to, MSP, MGF, mzML, mzXML, netCDF as well as MassBank text files and SQL databases. Through its highly customizable functionality, the presented infrastructure allows to build reproducible annotation workflows tailored for and adapted to most untargeted LC-MS-based datasets. All core functionality, which supports base R data types, is exported, also facilitating its re-use in other R packages. Finally, all packages are thoroughly unit-tested and documented and are available on GitHub and through Bioconductor. Full article
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Article
Native Microbiome Members of C. elegans Act Synergistically in Biosynthesis of Pyridoxal 5′-Phosphate
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020172 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
The roles of the healthy microbiome on the host and the relationships between members of the microbiome remain to be fully characterized. Due to the complexity of the interactions between the mammalian microbiome and its host, the use of model organisms such as [...] Read more.
The roles of the healthy microbiome on the host and the relationships between members of the microbiome remain to be fully characterized. Due to the complexity of the interactions between the mammalian microbiome and its host, the use of model organisms such as the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans is a promising strategy to study host-microbiome interactions in vivo, as well as bacterial crosstalk within the host. Previously it was found that native bacterial isolates of the worm, Chryseobacterium sp. CHNTR56 MYb120 and Comamonas sp. 12022 MYb131, possess genomic diversity in the biosynthesis of the active form of vitamin B6, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), and contribute to host fitness and lifespan extension. However, the relative contribution of PLP from each isolate, as well as the existence of interbacterial relationships within the worm gut remain to be characterized. In the present work, we investigated the presence and measured the abundance of PLP in the isolates and in the worms grown with the isolates using ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Our analyses confirmed the presence of PLP in vitro and in vivo. The elevated abundance of PLP in the isolates (which reached statistically significant levels when the two isolates were combined), and within worms grown with the combination of bacterial isolates, compared to control, indicated synergism between the isolates in the production of PLP. Isotope labeling revealed that Comamonas sp. 12022 MYb131 was the main provider of PLP in worms grown with the combination of bacterial isolates. The dominance of this isolate inside the worm was further confirmed by a colonization assay. An untargeted metabolomics analysis of the bacteria showed that the pathways related to cell growth, protein synthesis and lipid synthesis/energy production were regulated in the combination group in comparison with Comamonas sp. 12022 MYb131 alone. Furthermore, glutamine, involved in the de novo synthesis of purine and pyrimidines, was specifically abundant in this group, indicating the potential role of this metabolite in initiating and sustaining bacterial growth. This bacterial crosstalk is suggested to promote the growth of Comamonas sp. 12022 MYb131 in vivo, and synthesis of bacterial metabolites such as PLP in the worm gut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarker Discovery through Microbiome Metabolism Analysis)
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Article
Multi-Omic Analysis to Characterize Metabolic Adaptation of the E. coli Lipidome in Response to Environmental Stress
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020171 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 574
Abstract
As an adaptive survival response to exogenous stress, bacteria undergo dynamic remodelling of their lipid metabolism pathways to alter the composition of their cellular membranes. Here, using Escherichia coli as a well characterised model system, we report the development and application of a [...] Read more.
As an adaptive survival response to exogenous stress, bacteria undergo dynamic remodelling of their lipid metabolism pathways to alter the composition of their cellular membranes. Here, using Escherichia coli as a well characterised model system, we report the development and application of a ‘multi-omics’ strategy for comprehensive quantitative analysis of the temporal changes in the lipidome and proteome profiles that occur under exponential growth phase versus stationary growth phase conditions i.e., nutrient depletion stress. Lipidome analysis performed using ‘shotgun’ direct infusion-based ultra-high resolution accurate mass spectrometry revealed a quantitative decrease in total lipid content under stationary growth phase conditions, along with a significant increase in the mol% composition of total cardiolipin, and an increase in ‘odd-numbered’ acyl-chain length containing glycerophospholipids. The inclusion of field asymmetry ion mobility spectrometry was shown to enable the enrichment and improved depth of coverage of low-abundance cardiolipins, while ultraviolet photodissociation-tandem mass spectrometry facilitated more complete lipid structural characterisation compared with conventional collision-induced dissociation, including unambiguous assignment of the odd-numbered acyl-chains as containing cyclopropyl modifications. Proteome analysis using data-dependent acquisition nano-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry analysis identified 83% of the predicted E. coli lipid metabolism enzymes, which enabled the temporal dependence associated with the expression of key enzymes responsible for the observed adaptive lipid metabolism to be determined, including those involved in phospholipid metabolism (e.g., ClsB and Cfa), fatty acid synthesis (e.g., FabH) and degradation (e.g., FadA/B,D,E,I,J and M), and proteins involved in the oxidative stress response resulting from the generation of reactive oxygen species during β-oxidation or lipid degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass Spectrometry-Based Lipidomics Volume 2)
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Article
A Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry-Based Method for the Quantification of Short Chain Fatty Acids
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020170 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) are produced by the gut microbiota and are present in varying concentrations in the intestinal lumen, in feces but also in the circulatory system. By interacting with different cell types in the body, they have a great impact [...] Read more.
Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) are produced by the gut microbiota and are present in varying concentrations in the intestinal lumen, in feces but also in the circulatory system. By interacting with different cell types in the body, they have a great impact on host metabolism and their exact quantification is indispensable. Here, we present a derivatization-free method for the gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based quantification of SCFAs in plasma, feces, cecum, liver and adipose tissue. SCFAs were extracted using ethanol and concentrated by alkaline vacuum centrifugation. To allow volatility for separation by GC, samples were acidified with succinic acid. Analytes were detected in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and quantified using deuterated internal standards and external calibration curves. Method validation rendered excellent linearity (R2 > 0.99 for most analytes), good recovery rates (95–117%), and good reproducibility (RSD: 1–4.5%). Matrix effects were ruled out in plasma, feces, cecum, liver and fat tissues where most abundant SCFAs were detected and accurately quantified. Finally, applicability of the method was assessed using samples derived from conventionally raised versus germ-free mice or mice treated with antibiotics. Altogether, a reliable, fast, derivatization-free GC-MS method for the quantification of SCFAs in different biological matrices was developed allowing for the study of the (patho)physiological role of SCFAs in metabolic health. Full article
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Review
How Gut Microbes Nurture Intestinal Stem Cells: A Drosophila Perspective
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020169 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Host-microbiota interactions are key modulators of host physiology and behavior. Accumulating evidence suggests that the complex interplay between microbiota, diet and the intestine controls host health. Great emphasis has been given on how gut microbes have evolved to harvest energy from the diet [...] Read more.
Host-microbiota interactions are key modulators of host physiology and behavior. Accumulating evidence suggests that the complex interplay between microbiota, diet and the intestine controls host health. Great emphasis has been given on how gut microbes have evolved to harvest energy from the diet to control energy balance, host metabolism and fitness. In addition, many metabolites essential for intestinal homeostasis are mainly derived from gut microbiota and can alleviate nutritional imbalances. However, due to the high complexity of the system, the molecular mechanisms that control host-microbiota mutualism, as well as whether and how microbiota affects host intestinal stem cells (ISCs) remain elusive. Drosophila encompasses a low complexity intestinal microbiome and has recently emerged as a system that might uncover evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of microbiota-derived nutrient ISC regulation. Here, we review recent studies using the Drosophila model that directly link microbiota-derived metabolites and ISC function. This research field provides exciting perspectives for putative future treatments of ISC-related diseases based on monitoring and manipulating intestinal microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe-Metabolite Interaction in Intestinal Health)
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Article
Comparison of Lysis and Detachment Sample Preparation Methods for Cultured Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells Using UHPLC–HRMS-Based Metabolomics
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020168 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 452
Abstract
Dysregulation of cellular metabolism is now a well-recognized hallmark of cancer. Studies investigating the metabolic features of cancer cells have shed new light onto processes in cancer cell biology and have identified many potential novel treatment options. The advancement of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics [...] Read more.
Dysregulation of cellular metabolism is now a well-recognized hallmark of cancer. Studies investigating the metabolic features of cancer cells have shed new light onto processes in cancer cell biology and have identified many potential novel treatment options. The advancement of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has improved the ability to monitor multiple metabolic pathways simultaneously in various experimental settings. However, questions still remain as to how certain steps in the metabolite extraction process affect the metabolic profiles of cancer cells. Here, we use ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC–HRMS) untargeted metabolomics to investigate the effects of different detachment and lysis methods on the types and abundances of metabolites extracted from MDA-MB-231 cells through the use of in-house standards libraries and pathway analysis software. Results indicate that detachment methods (trypsinization vs. scraping) had the greatest effect on metabolic profiles whereas lysis methods (homogenizer beads vs. freeze–thaw cycling) had a lesser, though still significant, effect. No singular method was clearly superior over others, with certain metabolite classes giving higher abundances or lower variation for each detachment–lysis combination. These results indicate the importance of carefully selecting sample preparation methods for cell-based metabolomics to optimize the extraction performance for certain compound classes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sample Preparation in Metabolomics Volume II)
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Article
Assessment of Exposure to Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) Metabolites and Bisphenol A (BPA) and Its Importance for the Prevention of Cardiometabolic Diseases
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020167 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Exposomics analyses have highlighted the importance of biomonitoring of human exposure to pollutants, even non-persistent, for the prevention of non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases. Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) [...] Read more.
Exposomics analyses have highlighted the importance of biomonitoring of human exposure to pollutants, even non-persistent, for the prevention of non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases. Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) widely used in industry and in a large range of daily life products that increase the risk of endocrine and cardiometabolic diseases especially if the exposure starts during childhood. Thus, biomonitoring of exposure to these compounds is important not only in adulthood but also in childhood. This was the goal of the LIFE-PERSUADED project that measured the exposure to phthalates (DEHP metabolites, MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP) and BPA in Italian mother–children couples of different ages. In this paper we describe the method that was set up for the LIFE PERSUADED project and validated during the proficiency test (ICI/EQUAS) showing that accurate determination of urinary phthalates and BPA can be achieved starting from small sample size (0.5 mL) using two MS techniques applied in cascade on the same deconjugated matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology and Clinical Metabolic Research)
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Article
Metabolic Features of Saliva in Breast Cancer Patients
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020166 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 513
Abstract
The aim of the work was to study the metabolic characteristics of saliva in breast cancer and the subsequent assessment of the potential information content of its individual biochemical indicators. The study included 487 patients of the Omsk Clinical Oncology Center with morphologically [...] Read more.
The aim of the work was to study the metabolic characteristics of saliva in breast cancer and the subsequent assessment of the potential information content of its individual biochemical indicators. The study included 487 patients of the Omsk Clinical Oncology Center with morphologically verified breast cancer and 298 volunteers without breast pathologies. Saliva samples were obtained from all patients before the start of treatment, and the values of 34 biochemical indicators were determined. It has been shown that concentration of total protein, urea, uric acid (UA), the total content of α-amino acids and lipid peroxidation products, and the activity of metabolic and antioxidant enzymes (in particular catalase—CAT) of saliva changed significantly in breast cancer. Biochemical indicators characterizing early breast cancer have been identified, which can be used for timely diagnosis in addition to existing methods. The coefficients UA/Urea and UA·CAT/Urea are proposed, for which the maximum deviation from the norm was observed in the early stages of the disease. It was shown that for ductal breast cancer, changes in the activity of metabolic enzymes of saliva were more pronounced, while, for lobular breast cancer, the indicators of enzymatic and non-enzymatic components of antioxidant protection changed. The results confirmed the potential importance of saliva in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Full article
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