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J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex., Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 51 articles

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23 pages, 1689 KiB  
Article
Open Innovation in Developing an Early Standardization of Battery Swapping According to the Indonesian National Standard for Electric Motorcycle Applications
by Wahyudi Sutopo, Dana Prianjani, Fakhrina Fahma, Eko Pujiyanto, Amran Rasli and Tan Owee Kowang
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040219 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3912
Abstract
This research aims to achieve early standardization for battery swapping in line with domestic capabilities and global standards, and to protect Indonesian battery swap stakeholders. By distributing questionnaires to 190 respondents, the Framework for Analysis, Comparison, and Testing of Standards (FACTS) approach was [...] Read more.
This research aims to achieve early standardization for battery swapping in line with domestic capabilities and global standards, and to protect Indonesian battery swap stakeholders. By distributing questionnaires to 190 respondents, the Framework for Analysis, Comparison, and Testing of Standards (FACTS) approach was used to analyze stakeholder needs, compare global standards regarding battery swaps, and validate the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) framework. An open innovation approach was considered to integrate a FACTS approach with open participation, mutual understanding, and consensus to generate parameters. Therefore, characteristics of open participation, mutual understanding, and consensus were identified using FACTS to catalyze market needs as well as stakeholder needs. The relationship between SNI implementation variables, national uniqueness, and stakeholder needs was predicted using structural equation modeling (SEM). We found that the proposed constructs—i.e., electromagnetic compatibility, equipment construction requirements, marking and instruction, and protection against electric shock—positively affect SNI implementation. Meanwhile, the SNI implementation, national uniqueness, and stakeholder protection positively affect SNI acceptance. Therefore, SNI acceptance can be obtained by considering SNI implementation, national uniqueness, and stakeholder protection. The findings of this study can be used to develop an SNI battery swap test that is globally competitive, has national characteristics, and considers domestic capabilities when developing the SNI documentation. Full article
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17 pages, 2290 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Employee Development Practices on Human Capital and Social Capital: The Mediating Contribution of Knowledge Management
by Ahmad Adnan Al-Tit, Sura Al-Ayed, Abdulaziz Alhammadi, Mohammad Hunitie, Aktham Alsarayreh and Wijdan Albassam
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040218 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6020
Abstract
There is a shortage of research investigating the link between employee development practices and intellectual capital as mediated by knowledge management. The aim of the current research was to consider the influence of employee development practices on intellectual capital through knowledge management. Data [...] Read more.
There is a shortage of research investigating the link between employee development practices and intellectual capital as mediated by knowledge management. The aim of the current research was to consider the influence of employee development practices on intellectual capital through knowledge management. Data were collected through an instrument distributed to a sample of 464 employees working at information and communications technology companies. The results indicate that employee development practices had significant effects on human capital, knowledge management, and social capital. The results reveal that knowledge management had a significant effect on human capital but not on social capital. Finally, the results show that knowledge management significantly mediated the impact of employee development practices on human capital. Additionally, implications for intellectual capital development, organizational strategy, and academic research are discussed. Full article
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15 pages, 3779 KiB  
Review
Strategy for Cultural Inclusion in New Product Development Processes: A New Zealand Study
by Sanjay Mathrani and Sara Diaa Eldin Ibrahim
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040217 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3092
Abstract
Cultural inclusion generates a positive impact by socially increasing pride for individuals or economically increasing a country’s global capital. Currently, in New Zealand (NZ), not many strategies exist that ensure inclusion of culture in new products introduced locally and globally. Further, cultural inclusion [...] Read more.
Cultural inclusion generates a positive impact by socially increasing pride for individuals or economically increasing a country’s global capital. Currently, in New Zealand (NZ), not many strategies exist that ensure inclusion of culture in new products introduced locally and globally. Further, cultural inclusion in products appears highly represented in the tourist markets, but not so much in the domestic markets. This paper examines the current NZ strategies for cultural inclusion in product development of different sized companies that supply locally and globally through three case studies and compares the findings with theoretical models used in other regions. Findings elaborate that NZ lacks in documented standardized strategies when it comes to cultural inclusion. A positive impact of having such a strategy is perceived by participating companies with a culture for open innovation to ensure they are following a process approach that can help include cultural aspects appropriately. Creating a unique position for the brand globally, increasing global capital and deeper connectivity, and increasing the understanding of culture were some key benefits identified. However, a few steps in the new product development process were found largely lacking in NZ firms, such as communication with cultural representatives and leaders. A cultural inclusion model is developed based on the study findings to include an open innovation culture that can help NZ companies be more inclusive in their design and establish a unique NZ market for generating positive impacts. Full article
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21 pages, 3222 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Technological Knowledge Transfer between Silicon Fen Firms and University of Cambridge Based on Patents Analysis
by Asma Rezaei and Ali Reza Kamali
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040216 - 11 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2753
Abstract
Silicon Fen (SF) is a cluster of high-tech firms located around the University of Cambridge (UoC) in the UK. This article, for the first time, investigates the technological bonds between SF firms and UoC based on patent analysis covering the period of 1999–2021. [...] Read more.
Silicon Fen (SF) is a cluster of high-tech firms located around the University of Cambridge (UoC) in the UK. This article, for the first time, investigates the technological bonds between SF firms and UoC based on patent analysis covering the period of 1999–2021. We provide a short history of SF, highlighting its early formation and growth, and the role of spin-off firms on its evolution. We employ joint patents generated by UoC and various business sectors of SF to calculate the values of technological collaboration strength (TCS). It is found that the majority of joint patents (61%) are generated by the Pharma/Biotech sector of SF with the highest value of TCS (16.45 × 10−3). Moreover, the patent’s economic values across various business disciplines in SF are calculated based on the total counts of citations. Our observations suggest that senior university academics making spin-off firms in a business cluster around their university can effectively facilitate university–firm technological collaboration. Furthermore, the relatively strong technological bond between UoC and the Pharma/Biotech sector of SF is confirmed to be influenced by the collaboration of the university with its own spin-off firms rather than large independent firms in SF. The outcomes of this research contribute to the knowledge of the collaboration between a main research university and a cluster of firms located in its geographical proximity. Full article
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21 pages, 2208 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Education and Open Innovation for Small Industry Sustainability Post COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia
by Anne Charina, Ganjar Kurnia, Asep Mulyana and Kosuke Mizuno
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040215 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2798
Abstract
COVID-19 severely impacted small industries in Indonesia and many collapsed. Sustainable education is essential to help small industries recover post-pandemic through an open innovation design program to improve small industries’ economic, social, and environmental performance. This paper examined the impacts of the sustainable [...] Read more.
COVID-19 severely impacted small industries in Indonesia and many collapsed. Sustainable education is essential to help small industries recover post-pandemic through an open innovation design program to improve small industries’ economic, social, and environmental performance. This paper examined the impacts of the sustainable education program implemented and explored open innovations suitable for the sustainability of small industries in developing countries, such as Indonesia, after the pandemic. This research employed a Participatory Action Research (PAR) approach involving academics, government, the community, and four small industries in West Java, Indonesia. Our findings reveal that the sustainable education program through learning activities and direct practice provides valuable knowledge and experience for small industries in designing economic, social, and environmental innovations. Open innovations post-pandemic suitable for small industries in Indonesia include simple business digitalization for company economic growth, the recruitment of people losing their jobs due to the pandemic to achieve social benefits, and innovations in using environmentally friendly packaging and charcoal briquette fuel as an environmental awareness effort. This study recommends that the open innovation designed for small industries be right on target and done using a participatory method to achieve sustainability after the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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16 pages, 3727 KiB  
Review
An Updated Systematic Review of Business Accelerators: Functions, Operation, and Gaps in the Existing Literature
by Jaber Aljalahma and John Slof
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040214 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4151
Abstract
Business accelerators have emerged as an important innovation intermediary, with their primary role identified as stimulating premature startups through mentorship and training programs. However, despite significant improvement and 17 years of working history, there are still gaps in working behavior, business accelerator forms, [...] Read more.
Business accelerators have emerged as an important innovation intermediary, with their primary role identified as stimulating premature startups through mentorship and training programs. However, despite significant improvement and 17 years of working history, there are still gaps in working behavior, business accelerator forms, organizational structure, operations, and outcomes. This systematic review aims to boost the understanding of seed accelerators in innovation and entrepreneurial activities. The Context, Intervention, Mechanism, and Outcome (CIMO) framework was used to collect data from the 53 articles published in the last 17 years. In this current systematic review of applying a CIMO analysis to business accelerators, we retrieved 53 articles for further detailed studies, out of which 21 articles were assessed for the risk of bias analysis. The current review highlights that by providing learning opportunities, idea validation, increased access to growth, and innovation, startup accelerators achieved their goals. Moreover, the study also identified gaps in the literature and opportunities for cohort-based, short-term mentorship programs. The outcomes of the present study will provide suggestions for policymakers, entrepreneurs, managers, and investors. Full article
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20 pages, 2108 KiB  
Article
An Empirical Analysis of Cashless Payment Systems for Business Transactions
by Mahfuzur Rahman, Izlin Ismail, Shamshul Bahri and Muhammad Khalilur Rahman
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040213 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 21995
Abstract
This paper examines the antecedents of cashless payment systems among businesses in Malaysia. The adoption of cashless payment systems by businesses has the potential to reduce the costs related to handling huge amounts of cash in the market and enhance transaction speed. Unfortunately, [...] Read more.
This paper examines the antecedents of cashless payment systems among businesses in Malaysia. The adoption of cashless payment systems by businesses has the potential to reduce the costs related to handling huge amounts of cash in the market and enhance transaction speed. Unfortunately, its current adoption in Malaysia is still small and very little is known about the factors. A seven-factor model based on the TOE framework was developed and tested. The partial least square (PLS) statistical approach was employed to analyze data collected from 200 business entities in Malaysia. The results reveal that compatibility and technology competence have higher significant relationships with the adoption of cashless payment systems. Management support, firm critical mass, competitive pressure, and information intensity are significantly related to the adoption of cashless payment systems, while firm size is not associated with it. The findings of this study provide significant practical implications for Malaysian stakeholders and technology vendors to recognize factors that affect a firm’s adoption of cashless payment systems to support business transactions. By investigating the phenomenon through the TOE framework, this study presents an integrated model of cashless payment systems by businesses. Our findings also offer guidance for future application of the PLS method in cashless payment and related research. The paper provides a more holistic understanding of the factors influencing cashless payment systems among businesses. Full article
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27 pages, 1331 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Effect of Flow on Impulsive Consumption: Evidence from Southeast Asian Live Streaming Platforms
by Pradeep Paraman, Sanmugam Annamalah, Peter Vlachos, Selim Ahmed, Arunnan Balasubramaniam, Baharudin Kadir, Murali Raman and Wong Chee Hoo
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040212 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3551
Abstract
The impulsive live streaming consumption intentions of the Southeast Asian market are examined in this study. Online live streaming transactions, a new form of social media, are becoming popular due to their real-time communication and innovative business concept. Though little attention has been [...] Read more.
The impulsive live streaming consumption intentions of the Southeast Asian market are examined in this study. Online live streaming transactions, a new form of social media, are becoming popular due to their real-time communication and innovative business concept. Though little attention has been dedicated to it, a theoretical knowledge of Live Streaming Transaction (LST) is crucial given its broad application and unique features. The analysis of 8613 respondents from Southeast Asia in this study, based on flow, temperament, and personality theories, offers fresh perspectives on the mediating role of flow and the moderating effect of temperament in a cross-national setting. Cluster sampling was used to construct a mixed-method conditional indirect effects model. Since introverted temperament types look for voices that echo within them, our findings revealed that LSTs are more intriguing to this market segment. Theoretical and practical elements, as well as implications for future directions, are presented. Full article
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15 pages, 475 KiB  
Article
Circular Entrepreneurship in Emerging Markets through the Lens of Sustainability
by Rui Miguel Dantas, Aamar Ilyas, José Moleiro Martins and João Xavier Rita
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040211 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3606
Abstract
The purpose of this research paper is to explore the antecedents and consequences of circular entrepreneurship in emerging markets. The consequences of circular entrepreneurship will be explored through the lens of three dimensions of sustainability: social, economic, and environmental. This study used a [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research paper is to explore the antecedents and consequences of circular entrepreneurship in emerging markets. The consequences of circular entrepreneurship will be explored through the lens of three dimensions of sustainability: social, economic, and environmental. This study used a multi-case approach, which is frequently applied in circular business literature. The study used convenient and purposeful sampling techniques to identify circular entrepreneurs starting a business by recognizing opportunities in CE. We interviewed the 15 entrepreneurs (all participants engage in plastic circular entrepreneurship) with more than 8 years of experience. We employed a semi-structured interview method because respondents explored important information during the interview. Atlas.ti, a prominent qualitative software package, was used for analysis. This study portrays the antecedents and consequences of circular entrepreneurship identified when circular entrepreneurs take the initiative to serve low-income customers. This study points out that circular entrepreneurs can be motivated both intrinsically and extrinsically. The consequences of circular entrepreneurship show how such enterprises impact on society, sustainability, and the economy. The study points out that circular entrepreneurship can have both positive and negative impacts on the environment. By investigating the determinants and consequences of circular entrepreneurship in emerging markets, the authors make a significant contribution to the field of circular economy and entrepreneurship. We have limited logistics and resources, thus we did not collect data from stakeholders, who might provide a richer picture and insights into how circular products affect their lifestyle. Policymakers can get a better understanding of such enterprises from the findings of this study. They should reassess policies regarding circular entrepreneurship and suggest ways to promote open innovation within circular entrepreneurship. Circular enterprises serve low-income customers by offering an affordable product with attractive features. The government should develop an open innovation action-packed forum to find, design, and create prototypes, as well as introduce more comprehensive sustainable solutions for wastable plastic products. Full article
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18 pages, 368 KiB  
Article
Public Policies, Open Innovation Ecosystems and Innovation Performance. Analysis of the Impact of Funding and Regulations
by Joana Costa and António Carrizo Moreira
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040210 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3596
Abstract
Open innovation (OI) has been implemented to develop competitive advantages based on the management of innovation with external players. As such, it is expected that the generalized adoption of OI practices needs to be nurtured by governmental public policies in order to enhance [...] Read more.
Open innovation (OI) has been implemented to develop competitive advantages based on the management of innovation with external players. As such, it is expected that the generalized adoption of OI practices needs to be nurtured by governmental public policies in order to enhance OI-based ecosystems. The role of open innovation ecosystems is known by the importance of multiple synergies among players/stakeholders, which are expected to be supported by regulations and funding to consolidate firms’ innovation results. This paper analyzes the role of regulations and funding on firms’ innovation performance using the double-hurdle estimation procedure. The results show that, in the first tier, inbound knowledge flows positively affect performance, and, in the second tier, public funds further reinforce innovation performance and fiscal and security regulations. In contrast, as regulations are perceived as barriers, they fail to impact innovation performance. With this paper, we manage to shed light on the importance of public policy funds in the support of thriving OI-based ecosystems as enhancers of firms’ innovation performance. Full article
28 pages, 1288 KiB  
Article
Factors Affecting Community Participation in Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility Projects: Evidence from Mangrove Forest Management Project
by Thirdchai Sattayapanich, Piyapong Janmaimool and Jaruwan Chontanawat
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040209 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 8896
Abstract
Community participation in an environmental corporate social responsibility (CSR) project can help business enterprises effectively develop projects that respond to the actual demands of the community and effectively utilize a firm’s resources. This study aims to investigate factors that affect community participation in [...] Read more.
Community participation in an environmental corporate social responsibility (CSR) project can help business enterprises effectively develop projects that respond to the actual demands of the community and effectively utilize a firm’s resources. This study aims to investigate factors that affect community participation in each stage of environmental corporate social responsibility project development. The environmental corporate social responsibility project explored in this study is a sustainable mangrove forest management project in the Pakprasae sub-district of Rayong province in Thailand. This study has tested whether enterprise-related factors (such as perceived CSR credibility and organization–public relationship (OPR) quality) and participant-related factors (such as ecological knowledge, perceived ecological values, and expected benefits from participation in the project, both monetary and non-monetary related benefits) could predict community participation in an environmental corporate social responsibility project development initiated by a business enterprise. Questionnaire surveys were administered to 355 community members who were the target group of this environmental corporate social responsibility project from June to July 2022. The collected data were inspected and analyzed using an inferential statistical technique. Multiple regression analyses were performed to test significant factors that affected community members’ participation in planning, implementing, and monitoring the project. The results revealed that perceived ecological values were the strongest predictor of participation in all stages of the project, including planning, implementing, and monitoring the project. Perceived CSR credibility and OPR quality also significantly affected participation in all stages, whereas ecological knowledge significantly affected participation only in the monitoring stage. These findings suggest that to promote community participation in each stage of environmental corporate social responsibility project development, it is important to enhance community members’ perceived ecological values, and community members should be educated in ecology to enhance participation in the monitoring stage. Full article
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15 pages, 2404 KiB  
Article
Fintech Adoption Drivers for Innovation for SMEs in Indonesia
by Deni Pandu Nugraha, Budi Setiawan, Robert Jeyakumar Nathan and Maria Fekete-Farkas
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040208 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5676
Abstract
The rapid evolution of technology and a large number of smartphone users are transforming the way the masses access financial services. Fintech companies consistently innovate in developing customized products and services for users and SMEs to increase financial access and inclusiveness to achieve [...] Read more.
The rapid evolution of technology and a large number of smartphone users are transforming the way the masses access financial services. Fintech companies consistently innovate in developing customized products and services for users and SMEs to increase financial access and inclusiveness to achieve the Indonesian national financial inclusion target of 90 percent by 2024. Access to digital financial products via Fintech contributes to greater financial inclusion for SMEs, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, which restricted economic activities. Using an extended TAM model, this study explores the driving factors of Fintech adoption for Indonesian SMEs during the COVID-19 outbreak. Data analysis of 415 respondents was conducted utilizing Smart-PLS 3.0 software. The findings confirm perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, government support, trust, and user innovativeness to have a direct positive effect on the intention of SMEs to adopt Fintech. The result also reveals that financial literacy indirectly correlates with Fintech adoption mediated by user innovativeness. This indicates that Fintech could contribute to bridging financial inclusion where SMEs with lower financial literacy can utilize financial products and services via Fintech. This is a positive contribution of Fintech for SMEs in developing economies. The present study suggests that policymakers could foster the expansion of Fintech business infrastructure to improve access to SME financial services. Full article
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21 pages, 2515 KiB  
Article
Life-Cycle Contract as an Innovative Business Model for High-Tech Medical Organizations
by Igor Ilin, Anastasia Levina, Konstantin Frolov, Alexandra Borremans, Alyona Ershova, Andrea Tick and Mariia Averina
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040207 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2644
Abstract
The active digitalization of the healthcare system has given impetus to the emergence of a new type of enterprise—high-tech medical organizations (HMO). Their main distinguishing feature is the use of innovative high-tech medical equipment. However, the high cost of this equipment has become [...] Read more.
The active digitalization of the healthcare system has given impetus to the emergence of a new type of enterprise—high-tech medical organizations (HMO). Their main distinguishing feature is the use of innovative high-tech medical equipment. However, the high cost of this equipment has become a factor slowing down the development of such organizations. This paper considers the life-cycle contract (LCC) as a special form of interaction between stakeholders and investments throughout the life cycles of equipment. Moreover, to provide technological support, continuous acquisition and life-cycle support (CALS) technologies, which are based on the same principles of working with the life cycle as LCC, are proposed. This question turned out to be a significant research gap, which was not sufficiently reflected in the available world studies. Thus, the aim of the current study is to describe the features of the use of LCC for HMO using CALS technologies and the impact of the life cycle of high-tech medical equipment on LCC, as well as to present the innovative component of the proposed model. Based on the analysis of the literature and the best world practices, the authors propose a visualization of the interaction of all stakeholders within the LCC for HMO. Such a decision is extremely relevant for developing organizations, public authorities and investors around the world. Full article
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23 pages, 1426 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Capabilities for Open Innovation: A Typology of Pathways toward Aligning Resources, Strategies and Capabilities
by Anjar Priyono and Anas Hidayat
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040206 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3827
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to analyze how dynamic capabilities are integrated into open innovation to support firms pursuing innovation. Dynamic capabilities enable firms to adjust to emerging changes through redesigning resource configuration. Nevertheless, how dynamic capabilities are integrated into open innovation [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to analyze how dynamic capabilities are integrated into open innovation to support firms pursuing innovation. Dynamic capabilities enable firms to adjust to emerging changes through redesigning resource configuration. Nevertheless, how dynamic capabilities are integrated into open innovation for obtaining external knowledge and resources has not been observed in previous studies. Utilizing seven small and medium enterprises (SMEs) with various degrees of knowledge and technology intensity as subjects, this qualitative study identified a typology of pathways for integrating dynamic capabilities into open innovation. This study found that firms’ internal resources coupled with complementary assets obtained from open innovation determine what strategies to deploy and what capabilities are needed to execute the strategies. The fit among firms’ resources, strategies, capabilities and emerging business environment is not serendipitous, but rather it must be designed and supported by collective efforts from participants across organizations. In other words, the nature of knowledge and degree of technology adoption determine how sensing, seizing and performing are applied in each phase of open innovation. The main drawback of qualitative study is that it cannot cover a large number of subjects, although it can scrutinize an abundant number of detailed data. Future research can analyze the findings of this study using a survey method covering a large number of firms from various industries so that generalizability can be assured. Full article
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22 pages, 950 KiB  
Article
Configurational Analysis of Inbound and Outbound Innovation Impact on Competitive Advantage in the SMEs of the Portuguese Hospitality Sector
by Jorge de Andrés-Sánchez, Francisco Musiello-Neto, Orlando Lima Rua and Mario Arias-Oliva
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040205 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3061
Abstract
This study analyzes the effects of inbound and outbound open innovation, along with organizational strategy and corporate risk management, on competitive advantage and disadvantage in the Portuguese hospitality sector’s cost, service, and product. We use a quantitative approach based on fuzzy set qualitative [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the effects of inbound and outbound open innovation, along with organizational strategy and corporate risk management, on competitive advantage and disadvantage in the Portuguese hospitality sector’s cost, service, and product. We use a quantitative approach based on fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) of survey data from 251 executive directors of hotels from Portuguese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The results allow visualization of the interactions of inbound and outbound open innovation with corporate risk management and organizational strategy in order to generate competitive advantage. The results demonstrate that corporate risk management is a keystone for a competitive cost advantage, whereas inbound open innovation plays a fundamental role in obtaining competitive advantages for products and services. Other factors, such as outbound open innovation or those linked with organizational strategy, have less impact, and/or the sign of their influence depends on the configuration of the remaining variables. Full article
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13 pages, 558 KiB  
Article
Innovation Capabilities and Business Performance in the Smart Farm Sector of South Korea
by Daeyu Kim and Seunghoo Jin
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040204 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3341
Abstract
Ever-increasing unpredictability has led to recognition of increasing importance of innovation capabilities of businesses. In spite of recognizing such an important issue of innovation capability, not much research has been conducted on the relationship between innovation capabilities in business planning, R&D, commercialization and [...] Read more.
Ever-increasing unpredictability has led to recognition of increasing importance of innovation capabilities of businesses. In spite of recognizing such an important issue of innovation capability, not much research has been conducted on the relationship between innovation capabilities in business planning, R&D, commercialization and innovation performance. The current research, thus, intends to provide an empirical analysis of the effect of smart farm companies’ innovation activities on their innovation performance. Classifying innovation capabilities into three categories of planning, R&D and commercialization capability, the current research aims to identify the effect of each category on sales and patent acquired. Moreover, it aims to identify the moderating effect of governmental policy and support for technology on the relationship between innovation activities and performance. It was found that planning, R&D and commercialization capabilities exerted a positive impact on business performance. It was also found that governmental policies and support helped enhance business performance. Full article
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15 pages, 617 KiB  
Article
The Development of Digital Collection Platform under Responsible Innovation Framework: A Study on China’s Non-Fungible Token (NFT) Industry
by Dandan He, Zheng Liu, Qingqing Yang and Lei Ma
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040203 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3296
Abstract
The combination of non-fungible token (NFT) with paintings, music, games, videos and other forms of creative content is an innovation to protect the copyright of authors. It digitizes physical works with unique labels. At present, the NFT industry is blooming in the area [...] Read more.
The combination of non-fungible token (NFT) with paintings, music, games, videos and other forms of creative content is an innovation to protect the copyright of authors. It digitizes physical works with unique labels. At present, the NFT industry is blooming in the area of digital collections in China, attracting increasingly more artists, art collectors and platform enterprises to interact. However, the NFT digital collection platform is facing challenges and growth limitations. This study adopts the theory framework of responsible innovation. Through semi-structured interview and secondary document review, it analyzes the positive and negative effects of China’s NFT digital collections alongside technological, economical, ethical and social dimensions. The paper proposes four development paths to achieve responsible innovation of this emerging new business. Further discussion links NFT with open innovation dynamics, alongside areas for future research. Full article
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18 pages, 1919 KiB  
Review
The Success of Technology Transfer in the Industry 4.0 Era: A Systematic Literature Review
by Razan Alkhazaleh, Konstantinos Mykoniatis and Ali Alahmer
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040202 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6226
Abstract
Modern innovative models have the possibility of transferring research and development (R&D) output through technology transfer from scientific and research institutions or other enterprises. The complex process of technology transfer is significantly dependent on cooperation among academia, industry, and governments (I4.0) in response [...] Read more.
Modern innovative models have the possibility of transferring research and development (R&D) output through technology transfer from scientific and research institutions or other enterprises. The complex process of technology transfer is significantly dependent on cooperation among academia, industry, and governments (I4.0) in response to the technological developments driven together through Industry 4.0. As a result, numerous technology transfer factors must be addressed for I4.0 to become a reality. However, the abundance of literature on I4.0 and associated technologies, the key ingredients, and insights for effectively executing I4.0 technology transfer are fairly limited. This study focuses on the success factors of technology transfer for I4.0. The framework is based on systematic literature to outline significant results and factors. Furthermore, this study summarizes, analysis, and criticizes the actual models and their influential variables for I4.0 technology transfer. One of the findings of this study is the significance of cooperation between technology recipients, agents, and inventors for I4.0 technology transfer. Another impressive finding is the significance of the ecosystem component in technology transfer. Combining I4.0 technologies and open innovation is a game-changer, enabling businesses to significantly save time and cost. This article will assist decision-makers in developing policies and strategies to improve the I4.0 technology transfer process. Furthermore, this involves identifying the kind of government assistance that will help accelerate the transition to I4.0 via technology transfer. Full article
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13 pages, 293 KiB  
Article
US Consumer Behavior during a Pandemic: Precautionary Measures and Compensatory Consumption
by Jane E. Workman and Seung-Hee Lee
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040201 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2357
Abstract
This study’s purposes were to examine how selected demographic variables affect frequency of use of precautionary measures when shopping for clothing in retail stores; and how uncertainty avoidance/ambiguity intolerance and fashion innovativeness affect (a) precautionary measures used when shopping in retail stores during [...] Read more.
This study’s purposes were to examine how selected demographic variables affect frequency of use of precautionary measures when shopping for clothing in retail stores; and how uncertainty avoidance/ambiguity intolerance and fashion innovativeness affect (a) precautionary measures used when shopping in retail stores during a pandemic and (b) compensatory consumption. Participants (122 US men; 209 US women aged 20 to 64) completed an online questionnaire containing demographic items plus measures of uncertainty avoidance/ambiguity intolerance, compensatory consumption, precautionary measures, and fashion innovativeness. Data analysis included reliability, factor analysis, M/ANOVA and SNK. Older adults, adults with higher education, and married adults more frequently used precautionary measures when shopping in retail stores. Men and women reported similar frequency of use. Fashion innovators and consumers with less tolerance for uncertainty/ambiguity more frequently used precautionary measures. Fashion innovators and consumers higher in uncertainty avoidance/ambiguity intolerance engaged in more compensatory consumption. Generalization of the results is limited because the data are context-specific: country (US), time period (during a pandemic), and sample. Guidelines for the general public regarding precautionary measures came from within organizations, between organizations and experts but the general public was not consulted (public open innovation) perhaps hindering compliance with precautionary measures. Full article
22 pages, 1092 KiB  
Article
An Extended Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) Framework for Online Retailing Utilization in Digital Transformation: Empirical Evidence from Vietnam
by Tran Hung Nguyen, Xuan Cu Le and Thi Hai Ly Vu
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040200 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 14547
Abstract
Digital transformation has profoundly influenced various socio-economic fields and induced retailing firms to utilize digital innovations to maximize business effectiveness in the digital era. The study aims to pinpoint the motivations for online retailing (ORE) adoption and business performance among Vietnamese businesses in [...] Read more.
Digital transformation has profoundly influenced various socio-economic fields and induced retailing firms to utilize digital innovations to maximize business effectiveness in the digital era. The study aims to pinpoint the motivations for online retailing (ORE) adoption and business performance among Vietnamese businesses in the formative digital transformation stage within an extended technology-organization-environment (TOE) framework. The questionnaire-based data are accumulated for this study. Firm respondents are those who have used and increased their familiarity with ORE in Vietnam. All analysis is performed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results posit that important factors of technological context (i.e., relative advantage, compatibility, and observability), organizational context (i.e., top management support, entrepreneurial orientation, and technological orientation), and the environmental context (i.e., perceived trend, government support, and legal framework) substantially boost ORE adoption. Additionally, firm age is an essential control variable that strongly influences firms’ engagement in ORE. Unexpectedly, firm size, competitive pressure, and control variable (i.e., number of employees) do not significantly affect ORE adoption. Besides, ORE adoption serves as an underlying motivation for business performance. Ultimately, theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Full article
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25 pages, 701 KiB  
Article
The Adoption of Green Market Orientation in Logistic Industries—Empirical Evidence from Vietnamese SMEs
by Quang-Huy Ngo
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040199 - 9 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
Recently, the Vietnamese government established an ambitious plan that strongly promotes the development of the logistic industry. However, there is an environmental concern regarding this development. In addition, adopting environmental management practices may reduce the performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Therefore, [...] Read more.
Recently, the Vietnamese government established an ambitious plan that strongly promotes the development of the logistic industry. However, there is an environmental concern regarding this development. In addition, adopting environmental management practices may reduce the performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Therefore, this study draws upon the natural resource-based and ambidextrous views of green innovation to examine the impact of green market orientation on performance. Particularly, this study proposes that adopting green market orientation permits logistic small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to improve exploitational and exploratory green innovation and, as such, results in the implications of organizational performance based on the balanced scorecard approach. Data were collected from 338 SMEs operating in the logistics industry. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to assess the data. The results indicate that the adoption of GMO permits these SMEs to indirectly improve their operational performance through exploitational and exploratory green innovation. These results provide practical implications for managers of logistic SMEs in Vietnam. In addition, this study also contributes to the literature by addressing the gaps in the existing literature. Full article
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29 pages, 1129 KiB  
Article
Lurkers versus Contributors: An Empirical Investigation of Knowledge Contribution Behavior in Open Innovation Communities
by Mohammad Daradkeh
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040198 - 9 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
This study aims to examine and compare the mechanisms through which social learning processes influence the knowledge contribution behavior of lurkers and contributors in open innovation communities (OICs). Based on social learning theory and stimulus–organism–response (SOR) framework, this study developed a model of [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine and compare the mechanisms through which social learning processes influence the knowledge contribution behavior of lurkers and contributors in open innovation communities (OICs). Based on social learning theory and stimulus–organism–response (SOR) framework, this study developed a model of knowledge contribution formation mechanism from environmental stimuli (observational learning, reinforcement learning), organism cognition (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy) to behavioral response (initial contribution, continuous contribution). The model was tested using structural equation modeling based on a dataset collected through a questionnaire from an OIC of business intelligence and analytics software. The empirical results showed that, at the initial participation stage, observational learning had a significant effect on the organism’s cognition of the lurkers, and indirectly influenced the initial knowledge contribution behavior through self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. At the continuous participation stage, observational learning had a significantly lower impact on the organism’s cognition of contributors and only indirectly influenced continuous knowledge contribution behavior through outcome expectancy. In contrast, reinforcement learning influenced the organism’s cognition of contributors and partially influenced their continuous knowledge contribution behavior through the mediating effects of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. However, self-efficacy had a more pronounced effect on contributors’ continuous knowledge contribution behavior than outcome expectancy. These findings provide practical guidance for the management of OICs to reduce knowledge contributor attrition and induce lurkers to evolve into knowledge contributors for sustainable community development. Full article
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33 pages, 3295 KiB  
Article
Arranged Marriages in Multilateral Partnerships—Investigating Sustainable Human Development Financing of Belize in the World Bank Group: A Brand Relationship Theory Approach
by Jacqueline D. Ifield and Chia-Han Yang
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040197 - 7 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2328
Abstract
The structure of multilateral financial partnerships has many relationship challenges, which need to be solved to positively impact sustainable human development. There is a lack of understanding in the development relationship between the so-called developed and developing countries, and development economics theories and [...] Read more.
The structure of multilateral financial partnerships has many relationship challenges, which need to be solved to positively impact sustainable human development. There is a lack of understanding in the development relationship between the so-called developed and developing countries, and development economics theories and research, which guide policies, knowledge, and funding to nations in need. Amid widespread pleas for change to the structure, Belize is a country, which remains in an economic development crisis 41 years after joining the World Bank Group. This original paper, uniquely positions “World Bank” as a brand, and adds to missing empirical research on Belize and development economics with a mixed-methods, brand relationship approach. The researchers perform a survey of 20 years of Belize government personnel dialogues about the Bank, and apply Fournier’s (1998) brand relationship theories as tools to measure their perceptions of the Bank as well as get a deeper understanding of the relationship. This investigative research finds that Belize perceives it has an “arranged marriage” type brand relationship with the Bank: it is not a sustainable development partner. This brand relationship also negatively affects the way government personnel see themselves and their abilities. The World Bank Group must innovate its development economics methods and practices, assert its social mission, and meet the development needs of its members by first building genuine brand bonds with them. Debtor member countries must re-define their worth, join together, and design their own paths to sustainable development. All countries are developing. Full article
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26 pages, 2961 KiB  
Article
An Innovation Framework of Medical Organic Cannabis Traceability in Digital Supply Chain
by Weerapat Pookkaman and Taweesak Samanchuen
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040196 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3314
Abstract
Cannabis is increasingly accepted by medical organizations for medicinal and research purposes. A traceability system is required for monitoring and controlling the use of cannabis. This work aimed to investigate the relationship between critical success factors (CSFs) for creating the innovation framework that [...] Read more.
Cannabis is increasingly accepted by medical organizations for medicinal and research purposes. A traceability system is required for monitoring and controlling the use of cannabis. This work aimed to investigate the relationship between critical success factors (CSFs) for creating the innovation framework that affects the implementation of the cannabis traceability system. These factors are identified based on the digital supply chain by structural modeling. Additionally, the issue of patients’ safety is a crucial factor that needs to be considered. Total Interpretive Structural Modeling (TISM) and fuzzy MICMAC analysis techniques were applied to investigate the relationship between CSFs. Finally, the 14 CSFs affecting cannabis traceability systems were determined. The research results discovered that system reliability is the most significant key factor with the greatest influence and contribution to the achievement. The five CSFs based on TISM comprise harmonized strategic orientation, inter-organization collaboration, standardization, government regulations, and customer awareness. According to the conclusive dependence–driving power diagram, they have the most driving power in the implementation and operation traceability system. The innovation framework helps to establish the traceability system in a way that works well. This will build trust in the supply chain and prevent abuse and substandard products. Full article
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24 pages, 1558 KiB  
Article
Global Digital Convergence: Impact of Cybersecurity, Business Transparency, Economic Transformation, and AML Efficiency
by Aleksandra Kuzior, Tetiana Vasylieva, Olha Kuzmenko, Vitaliia Koibichuk and Paulina Brożek
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040195 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3773
Abstract
The article substantiates the existence of convergence processes in the field of digitization of countries, taking into account the number of Internet users; people with advanced skills; and indicators of infrastructure (network coverage, population covered by at least a 3G mobile network, population [...] Read more.
The article substantiates the existence of convergence processes in the field of digitization of countries, taking into account the number of Internet users; people with advanced skills; and indicators of infrastructure (network coverage, population covered by at least a 3G mobile network, population covered by at least a 4G mobile network), access (access to ICT at home, active mobile broadband subscriptions, fixed broadband subscriptions), enablers (fixed broadband over 10 Mbps, mobile data and voice basket, high consumption) and barriers (improved broadband access from 256 kbps to 2 Mbps and from 2 Mbps to 10 Mbps mobile data and voice basket, low consumption) of digital development. The methodological basis for determining the sigma convergence of digitization processes is the coefficient of variation. The values of the coefficient of variation confirmed the high level of convergence between the studied countries in terms of the degree of use of the Internet for conducting digital transactions. The developed econometric model, which describes the influence of statistically significant integral indicators of the national cybersecurity level, ease of doing business, and the anti-money laundering index on the country’s digital development level, made it possible to determine the average trend of dependence on the level of digital development. One hundred four countries were considered for the analysis. The conducted study of the impact of digitalization on economic transformations based on developed quantile regressions made it possible to analyze exactly how the level of digital development for countries with a high level of digitalization and for countries with a low level of digitalization development depends on the value of the national cybersecurity indicator and the ease of doing business, and which countries have the least resistance to the risk factors of their involvement in fraudulent schemes for the purpose of legalizing criminal income. Full article
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13 pages, 484 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Socio-Cultural Factors on Knowledge-Based Innovation and the Digital Economy
by Maksim Vlasov, Sergey N. Polbitsyn, Michael Olumekor and Adekunle Oke
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040194 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3080
Abstract
The knowledge economy, fostered by knowledge-based innovation, has been linked to entrepreneurial and economic success, especially in OECD countries. Studies have shown the influence of socio-cultural factors on almost every area of economic behavior. However, few studies have attempted to connect these factors [...] Read more.
The knowledge economy, fostered by knowledge-based innovation, has been linked to entrepreneurial and economic success, especially in OECD countries. Studies have shown the influence of socio-cultural factors on almost every area of economic behavior. However, few studies have attempted to connect these factors to the knowledge economy. Our research bridges this gap. We investigated the impact of socio-cultural factors on knowledge-based innovation, then we also examined whether digitalization impacted knowledge-based innovation, regardless of the influence of socio-cultural factors. Using official data from Russia’s statistical office, we developed a correlation regression model using a linear graphical test and Pearson correlation. Our results show that certain socio-cultural factors significantly influenced knowledge-based innovation. We also found that digitalization could mitigate the negative effects of socio-cultural factors. Digitalization had a positive influence on knowledge-based innovation across all regions and socio-cultural characteristics. Our research provides pioneering analysis of the topic within post-Soviet economies and has huge implications for business practice, policy making, and academic research. Full article
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20 pages, 2536 KiB  
Article
The Dynamics of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSE) toward Bankability with Coronavirus Pandemic Adjustment
by Ruslan Prijadi, Permata Wulandari, Fajar Ayu Pinagara and Putri Mega Desiana
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040193 - 24 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2077
Abstract
The objective of this study is to elaborate on the development of micro and small enterprises (MSEs) at the bottom of the economy, where most of them began as unbanked micro-ventures and may continue to be micro-enterprises even after being elevated to higher [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to elaborate on the development of micro and small enterprises (MSEs) at the bottom of the economy, where most of them began as unbanked micro-ventures and may continue to be micro-enterprises even after being elevated to higher levels. This study contributes to the field of entrepreneurial finance by identifying the factors that influence the drivers and constraints of MSE upgrading. This paper employed models to show how unbanked MSEs transition to bankable ones, as well as to reveal the dynamics of MSEs’ transition to bankability during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study’s unit of analysis is MSEs, which initially have little or no access to bank loans. This study employs system dynamics (SD) modeling to investigate and manage the multifaceted response system of MSEs’ growth toward bankability in the face of a coronavirus pandemic in Indonesia. This study also simulates a coronavirus pandemic outbreak to fine-tune MSEs’ progress toward bankability. The dynamic models in this study reveal a number of variables that are critical in accelerating the bankability status of MSE from un-bankable to bankable, namely entrepreneurial MSE time to bankability, channel business, and MSE NPL. Policymakers can create high leverage policies for MSE bankability progression by changing these values. Full article
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20 pages, 1032 KiB  
Article
Systemic Acquired Critique of Credit Card Deception Exposure through Machine Learning
by Rui Miguel Dantas, Raheela Firdaus, Farrokh Jaleel, Pedro Neves Mata, Mário Nuno Mata and Gang Li
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040192 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
A wide range of recent studies are focusing on current issues of financial fraud, especially concerning cybercrimes. The reason behind this is even with improved security, a great amount of money loss occurs every year due to credit card fraud. In recent days, [...] Read more.
A wide range of recent studies are focusing on current issues of financial fraud, especially concerning cybercrimes. The reason behind this is even with improved security, a great amount of money loss occurs every year due to credit card fraud. In recent days, ATM fraud has decreased, while credit card fraud has increased. This study examines articles from five foremost databases. The literature review is designed using extraction by database, keywords, year, articles, authors, and performance measures based on data used in previous research, future research directions and purpose of the article. This study identifies the crucial gaps which ultimately allow research opportunities in this fraud detection process by utilizing knowledge from the machine learning domain. Our findings prove that this research area has become most dominant in the last ten years. We accessed both supervised and unsupervised machine learning techniques to detect cybercrime and management techniques which provide evidence for the effectiveness of machine learning techniques to control cybercrime in the credit card industry. Results indicated that there is room for further research to obtain better results than existing ones on the basis of both quantitative and qualitative research analysis. Full article
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14 pages, 628 KiB  
Article
Green Transformational Leadership, Green Entrepreneurial Orientation and Performance of SMEs: The Mediating Role of Green Product Innovation
by Tha’er Majali, Mahmoud Alkaraki, Muzaffar Asad, Nael Aladwan and Mazen Aledeinat
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040191 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 3441
Abstract
Green practices are becoming increasingly important throughout the world. The performance of SMEs is becoming a crucial issue because of increasing awareness of consumers about environmentally friendly products; therefore, enterprises not following green practices may face a significant decline in performance. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
Green practices are becoming increasingly important throughout the world. The performance of SMEs is becoming a crucial issue because of increasing awareness of consumers about environmentally friendly products; therefore, enterprises not following green practices may face a significant decline in performance. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to identify the mediating role of green product innovation between green entrepreneurial orientation, green transformational leadership, and the performance of SMEs. To meet the objectives of the study, structural equation modeling was applied to the data collected from 384 manufacturing SMEs operating in Amman, Jordan, using systematic sampling. The findings revealed that the mediating role of green product innovation was insignificant at the 5% level of significance but significant at the 10% level of significance. All other relationships were significant at the 5% level of significance. This study provides theoretical support for investing more resources in green product innovation to gain sustainability. Full article
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28 pages, 2682 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Level of Innovation of Poland from the Perspective of Regions between 2010 and 2020
by Jarosław Brodny and Magdalena Tutak
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040190 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1944
Abstract
The growing and expanding zone of the free-market economy results in increasing competition in the global market, which leads companies to seek and implement solutions that will give them a competitive advantage. The authorities of countries and regions are also increasingly involved in [...] Read more.
The growing and expanding zone of the free-market economy results in increasing competition in the global market, which leads companies to seek and implement solutions that will give them a competitive advantage. The authorities of countries and regions are also increasingly involved in this process, seeing it as an opportunity to develop and build a knowledge-based economy. One of the main factors improving competitiveness and providing opportunities for development is innovation, particularly developed at the local level. For this reason, activities that support research and development of innovation at the regional level are increasingly appreciated and gain greater importance. This article refers to regional innovation in Poland by analyzing its level between 2010 and 2020. The basis of the analysis was 15 selected indicators characterizing three dimensions related to the innovative development of regions, namely innovative capacity, innovative position, and economic development. This assessment was regarded as a multi-criteria problem, for which the CODAS method was used. Its application made it possible to achieve the main objective of this paper, which was to determine the level of innovation of studied regions and, on this basis, to create their ranking. In addition, the evaluation of the level of innovation of the regions for each of the analyzed dimensions was also carried out, and the relationship between the level of economic development and the capacity and innovative position of the regions was specified. The measure for evaluating the level of innovation, for each case studied, was the value of the Hi index, taken as a synthetic measure of regional innovation. The results show that the level of innovation for the regions in Poland varies widely as a function of time as well as the location of these regions. Differences in the dynamics of change and different levels of development of the analyzed dimensions characterizing innovation are evident. The results provide new knowledge in the field of regional development and should be used when creating a regional development strategy for individual regions, Poland, and the EU. Full article
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