Next Issue
Volume 11, September
Previous Issue
Volume 11, March
 
 

Diseases, Volume 11, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 35 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): “A sound mind in a sound body” is a famous Greek quote, which underscores the connection between physical exercise, mental balance and capacity for pleasure in life. Engaging in physical activity stimulates endorphins and neurotransmitters, boosting mood and euphoria while improving overall health. Many individuals participate in exercise programs to enhance body appearance and gain social acceptance, with positive correlations observed between physical activity, body image and self-esteem. Body image is closely tied to social physique anxiety—a concern about how others perceive one's body. Social physique anxiety can make individuals feel embarrassed or avoid athletic environments where their bodies are exposed. This study aimed to explore body image, social physique anxiety and self-esteem in Greek adults engaged in training programs. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
9 pages, 462 KiB  
Article
Prediction of the Prevalence of Hypertension and Associated Risk Factors in Rwanda Using Gibbs Sampling Method
by Angélique Dukunde, Jean Marie Ntaganda, Juma Kasozi and Joseph Nzabanita
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020087 - 16 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1731
Abstract
In Rwanda, the prevalence of hypertension was 15.3% in 2015. At present, there are no accurate predictions of the prevalence of hypertension and its trend over time in Rwanda to assist decision makers in making plans for prevention and more effective interventions. This [...] Read more.
In Rwanda, the prevalence of hypertension was 15.3% in 2015. At present, there are no accurate predictions of the prevalence of hypertension and its trend over time in Rwanda to assist decision makers in making plans for prevention and more effective interventions. This study used the Gibbs sampling method in combination with the Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach to predict the prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors in Rwanda over a period of ten years. The data were from World Health Organization (WHO) reports. The findings showed that the prevalence of hypertension is estimated to reach 17.82% in 2025, with tobacco use, being overweight or obese, and other risk factors having a respective prevalence of 26.26%, 17.13%, 4.80%, and 33.99%, which shows the increase and, therefore, measures for prevention to be taken. Therefore, to prevent and reduce the prevalence of this disease, the government of Rwanda should take appropriate measures to promote a balanced diet and physical exercise. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 864 KiB  
Review
Mechanical Properties of Glioblastoma: Perspectives for YAP/TAZ Signaling Pathway and Beyond
by Bruno Pontes and Fabio A. Mendes
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020086 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2376
Abstract
Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive brain tumor with a poor prognosis. Recent studies have suggested that mechanobiology, the study of how physical forces influence cellular behavior, plays an important role in glioblastoma progression. Several signaling pathways, molecules, and effectors, such as focal adhesions, [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive brain tumor with a poor prognosis. Recent studies have suggested that mechanobiology, the study of how physical forces influence cellular behavior, plays an important role in glioblastoma progression. Several signaling pathways, molecules, and effectors, such as focal adhesions, stretch-activated ion channels, or membrane tension variations, have been studied in this regard. Also investigated are YAP/TAZ, downstream effectors of the Hippo pathway, which is a key regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation. In glioblastoma, YAP/TAZ have been shown to promote tumor growth and invasion by regulating genes involved in cell adhesion, migration, and extracellular matrix remodeling. YAP/TAZ can be activated by mechanical cues such as cell stiffness, matrix rigidity, and cell shape changes, which are all altered in the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, YAP/TAZ have been shown to crosstalk with other signaling pathways, such as AKT, mTOR, and WNT, which are dysregulated in glioblastoma. Thus, understanding the role of mechanobiology and YAP/TAZ in glioblastoma progression could provide new insights into the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Targeting YAP/TAZ and mechanotransduction pathways in glioblastoma may offer a promising approach to treating this deadly disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Diseases: Featured Reviews)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1652 KiB  
Systematic Review
Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine in the Treatment of Dry Eye Disease
by Julia Prinz, Nicola Maffulli, Matthias Fuest, Peter Walter, Frank Hildebrand and Filippo Migliorini
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020085 - 12 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2116
Abstract
The role of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the management of dry eye disease is still unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the efficacy and feasibility of CQ and HCQ in patients with dry eye disease. In February 2023, PubMed, Embase, [...] Read more.
The role of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the management of dry eye disease is still unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the efficacy and feasibility of CQ and HCQ in patients with dry eye disease. In February 2023, PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, and Web of Science were accessed. Data from 462 patients (mean age 54.4 ± 2.8 years) were collected. Compared to baseline, the tear breakup time (p < 0.0001) and Schirmer I test (p < 0.0001) were significantly increased, and the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI, p < 0.0001) and corneal staining (p < 0.0001) were significantly decreased at the last follow-up in the CQ/HCQ group. At the last follow-up, the OSDI was significantly lower in the CQ/HCQ group compared to the control group (p < 0.0001). Corneal staining was significantly greater in the control group compared to the CQ/HCQ group (p < 0.0001). The Schirmer I test showed no significant difference between the groups (p = 0.2). Altogether, CQ and HCQ improved the symptoms and signs of dry eye disease. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 12181 KiB  
Article
Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma on the Oxymetholone-Induced Testicular Toxicity
by Amal I. Saba, Reda H. Elbakary, Omayma K. Afifi and Heba E. M. Sharaf Eldin
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020084 - 9 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
Oxymetholone is one of the anabolic steroids that has widely been used among teenagers and athletes to increase their muscle bulk. It has undesirable effects on male health and fertility. In this study, the therapeutic effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on oxymetholone-induced testicular [...] Read more.
Oxymetholone is one of the anabolic steroids that has widely been used among teenagers and athletes to increase their muscle bulk. It has undesirable effects on male health and fertility. In this study, the therapeutic effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on oxymetholone-induced testicular toxicity were investigated in adult albino rats. During the experiments, 49 adult male albino rats were divided into 4 main groups: Group 0 (donor group) included 10 rats for the donation of PRP, Group I (control group) included 15 rats, Group II included 8 rats that received 10 mg/kg of oxymetholone orally, once daily, for 30 days, and Group III included 16 rats and was subdivided into 2 subgroups (IIIa and IIIb) that received oxymetholone the same as group II and then received PRP once and twice, respectively. Testicular tissues of all examined rats were obtained for processing and histological examination and sperm smears were stained and examined for sperm morphology. Oxymetholone-treated rats revealed wide spaces in between the tubules, vacuolated cytoplasm, and dark pyknotic nuclei of most cells, as well as deposition of homogenous acidophilic material between the tubules. Electron microscopic examination showed vacuolated cytoplasm of most cells, swollen mitochondria, and perinuclear dilatation. Concerning subgroup IIIa (PRP once), there was a partial improvement in the form of decreased vacuolations and regeneration of spermatogenic cells, as well as a reasonable improvement in sperm morphology. Regarding subgroup IIIb (PRP twice), histological sections revealed restoration of the normal testicular structure to a great extent, regeneration of the spermatogenic cells, and most sperms had normal morphology. Thus, it is recommended to use PRP to minimize structural changes in the testis of adult albino rats caused by oxymetholone. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 553 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation of the New Chemiluminescence Immunoassay CL-1200i for HBV, HIV Panels
by Eleonora Nicolai, Serena Sarubbi, Martina Pelagalli, Valerio Basile, Alessandro Terrinoni, Marilena Minieri, Oreste Cennamo, Sandro Grelli, Sergio Bernardini and Massimo Pieri
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020083 - 8 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2815
Abstract
Infectious diseases such as HIV and HBV are a global concern for their impact in terms of public health and costs for national health services. A central role in contrasting the spread of the infections is represented by timely diagnosis. The speed of [...] Read more.
Infectious diseases such as HIV and HBV are a global concern for their impact in terms of public health and costs for national health services. A central role in contrasting the spread of the infections is represented by timely diagnosis. The speed of detection depends on several factors including the type of test used. Antibody response to hepatitis B surface antigens (anti-HBs) is an important serological marker used for HBV-infection detection. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the Abbott system and of the new analyser Mindray 1200i in the detection of HBV- and HIV-infections. Clinical serum samples were collected from patients randomly selected from PTV University Hospital of University of Rome “Tor Vergata” and tested for HBV and HIV antibodies. Samples were evaluated by Mindray Cl 1200i CLIA screening tests for HBV and HIV and the results were compared with the Abbott Architect analytical system, the routine instrument of the hospital clinical biochemistry laboratory. Precision study, linearity, and carryover were performed on the results obtained. The agreement between the results of the Abbott and Mindray CLIA ranged from 99% to 100% and the discrepancy rate from 0% to 1%. The measurements demonstrated that the Mindray CL-1200i platform offers high-level performance with accurate and consistent test results and could represent a valuable tool if implemented in routine analysis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1244 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Reclosure of Posterior Capsule Aperture by Flat Opacifications with Pearls after Nd:YAG Laser Posterior Capsulotomy
by Akiko Ota, Ichiro Ota, Shu Kachi, Goichiro Miyake, Fuminori Haga, Kensaku Miyake, Mineo Kondo and Kumiko Kato
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020082 - 3 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1650
Abstract
In this retrospective case series, we investigated factors associated with posterior capsule aperture (PCA) reclosure following neodymium-yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy. The study encompassed patients who underwent cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation or a combined vitrectomy, cataract surgery, and [...] Read more.
In this retrospective case series, we investigated factors associated with posterior capsule aperture (PCA) reclosure following neodymium-yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy. The study encompassed patients who underwent cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation or a combined vitrectomy, cataract surgery, and IOL implantation between 2009 and 2022. PCA reclosure was observed in 22 eyes of 17 patients: 45% (10 eyes) underwent the triple procedure, and 55% (12 eyes) received cataract surgery with IOL implantation. In our clinic, 14% of patients were given IOLs with a 4% water content, while 73% (13 eyes) of those experiencing PCA reclosure had IOLs with a 4% water content. The mean interval between Nd:YAG capsulotomies was notably shorter than that between the initial cataract surgery and the first Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. We also identified five stages of PCA reclosure progression. In conclusion, IOL water content may be linked to PCA reclosure, and the time to recurrence is shorter with each successive reclosure. Further research is needed to verify these findings and uncover additional contributing factors. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 252 KiB  
Article
Health Workers’ Knowledge and Attitude towards Monkeypox in Southwestern Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Nasser H. Sobaikhi, Najim Z. Alshahrani, Rakan S. Hazazi, Hafiz I. Al-Musawa, Raed E. Jarram, Amjad E. Alabah, Nawaf F. Haqawi, Fadi A. Munhish, Mohammed A. Shajeri, Mohammed H. Matari, Riyadh M. Salami, Alhassan H. Hobani, Najla A. Yahya and Abdulaziz H. Alhazmi
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020081 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2323
Abstract
Background: Monkeypox outbreaks in non-endemic countries emphasize the importance of being prepared to prevent its progression to a pandemic. To effectively control monkeypox, healthcare providers must have sufficient knowledge and good attitudes and practices to limit its spread. We initiated this project to [...] Read more.
Background: Monkeypox outbreaks in non-endemic countries emphasize the importance of being prepared to prevent its progression to a pandemic. To effectively control monkeypox, healthcare providers must have sufficient knowledge and good attitudes and practices to limit its spread. We initiated this project to assess the factors associated with health workers’ knowledge and attitude toward monkeypox in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Methods: We included 398 eligible health workers working at various health facilities. Data was collected using an online survey, and participants had an opportunity to consent. We conducted descriptive statistics for all variables and used chi-square statistics, t-test, and multivariate analysis to establish the association between health workers’ demographic characteristics and knowledge of monkeypox disease. Results: The mean age was 30.93 ± 8.25 years for the included participants, and most of them were between 22 and 29 years, male, single, nurses, working in government hospitals, and had worked for at least five years. The chi-square and t-test showed that the participants’ knowledge level was significantly related to age, marital status, job title, and medical practice. Most of the participants had low knowledge and good attitudes toward monkeypox prevention measures. Multivariate analysis showed that higher knowledge was associated with younger age after controlling all other significant bivariate relationships between knowledge and demographics. Conclusions: This study found low knowledge levels and high good attitude levels of monkeypox among the participants. As such, there is a need to support health workers in understanding monkeypox epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. Therefore, Saudi Arabia will be making significant strides to being well prepared and ready to handle future monkeypox outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
12 pages, 1832 KiB  
Systematic Review
Clinical Features of COVID-19 Vaccine-Associated Autoimmune Hepatitis: A Systematic Review
by Hao Zhou and Qing Ye
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020080 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3194
Abstract
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an inflammatory liver disease wherein the body’s immune system instigates an attack on the liver, causing inflammation and hepatic impairment. This disease usually manifests in genetically predisposed individuals and is triggered by stimuli or environments such as viral infections, [...] Read more.
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an inflammatory liver disease wherein the body’s immune system instigates an attack on the liver, causing inflammation and hepatic impairment. This disease usually manifests in genetically predisposed individuals and is triggered by stimuli or environments such as viral infections, environmental toxins, and drugs. The causal role of COVID-19 vaccination in AIH remains uncertain. This review of 39 cases of vaccine-related AIH indicates that female patients above the age of 50 years or those with potential AIH risk factors may be susceptible to vaccine-related AIH, and the clinical features of vaccine-associated AIH are similar to those of idiopathic AIH. These features commonly manifest in patients after the first dose of vaccination, with symptom onset typically delayed by 10–14 days. The incidence of underlying liver disease in patients with potential health conditions associated to liver disease is similar to that of patients without preexisting illnesses. Steroid administration is effective in treating vaccine-related AIH-susceptible patients, with most patients experiencing improvement in their clinical symptoms. However, care should be taken to prevent bacterial infections during drug administration. Furthermore, the possible pathogenic mechanisms of vaccine-associated AIH are discussed to offer potential ideas for vaccine development and enhancement. Although the incidence of vaccine-related AIH is rare, individuals should not be deterred from receiving the COVID-19 vaccine, as the benefits of vaccination significantly outweigh the risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Inflammation: The Cause of All Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2318 KiB  
Review
Post-COVID-19 Anosmia and Therapies: Stay Tuned for New Drugs to Sniff Out
by Gabriele Riccardi, Giovanni Francesco Niccolini, Mario Giuseppe Bellizzi, Marco Fiore, Antonio Minni and Christian Barbato
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020079 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4065
Abstract
Background: Anosmia is defined as the complete absence of olfactory function, which can be caused by a variety of causes, with upper respiratory tract infections being among the most frequent causes. Anosmia due to SARS-CoV-2 infection has attracted attention given its main role [...] Read more.
Background: Anosmia is defined as the complete absence of olfactory function, which can be caused by a variety of causes, with upper respiratory tract infections being among the most frequent causes. Anosmia due to SARS-CoV-2 infection has attracted attention given its main role in symptomatology and the social impact of the pandemic. Methods: We conducted systematic research in a clinicaltrials.gov database to evaluate all active clinical trials worldwide regarding drug therapies in adult patients for anosmia following SARS-CoV-2 infection with the intention of identifying the nearby prospects to treat Anosmia. We use the following search terms: “Anosmia” AND “COVID-19” OR “SARS-CoV-2” OR “2019 novel coronavirus”. Results: We found 18 active clinical trials that met our criteria: one phase 1, one phase 1–2, five phases 2, two phases 2–3, three phases 3, and six phases 4 studies were identified. The drug therapies that appear more effective and promising are PEA-LUT and Cerebrolysin. The other interesting drugs are 13-cis-retinoic acid plus aerosolized Vitamin D, dexamethasone, and corticosteroid nasal irrigation. Conclusions: COVID-19 has allowed us to highlight how much anosmia is an important and debilitating symptom for patients and, above all, to direct research to find a therapy aimed at curing the symptom, whether it derives from SARS-CoV-2 infection or other infections of the upper airways. Some of these therapies are very promising and are almost at the end of experimentation. They also provide hope in this field, which not addressed until recently. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 275 KiB  
Review
Scurvy: Rediscovering a Forgotten Disease
by Mustafa Gandhi, Omar Elfeky, Hamza Ertugrul, Harleen Kaur Chela and Ebubekir Daglilar
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020078 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5415
Abstract
Scurvy is a nutritional deficiency caused by low vitamin C levels that has been described since ancient times. It leads to a varied presentation, affecting multiple organ systems due to its role in the biochemical reactions of connective tissue synthesis. Common manifestations include [...] Read more.
Scurvy is a nutritional deficiency caused by low vitamin C levels that has been described since ancient times. It leads to a varied presentation, affecting multiple organ systems due to its role in the biochemical reactions of connective tissue synthesis. Common manifestations include gingival bleeding, arthralgias, skin discoloration, impaired wound healing, perifollicular hemorrhage, and ecchymoses. Although there has been a dramatic reduction in the prevalence of scurvy in modern times owing to vitamin C supplementation and intake, sporadic cases still occur. In developed countries, it is mainly diagnosed in the elderly and malnourished individuals and is associated with alcoholism, low socio-economic status, and poor dietary habits. Scurvy has been an unusual cause of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding among other GI manifestations. It can be adequately treated and prevented via vitamin C supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Inflammation: The Cause of All Diseases)
12 pages, 280 KiB  
Review
MicroRNAs’ Role in Diagnosis and Treatment of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
by Zahra Hasanpour Segherlou, Lennon Saldarriaga, Esaan Azizi, Kim-Anh Vo, Ramya Reddy, Mohammad Reza Hosseini Siyanaki and Brandon Lucke-Wold
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020077 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is most commonly seen in patients over 55 years of age and often results in a loss of many productive years. SAH has a high mortality rate, and survivors often suffer from early and secondary brain injuries. Understanding the pathophysiology [...] Read more.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is most commonly seen in patients over 55 years of age and often results in a loss of many productive years. SAH has a high mortality rate, and survivors often suffer from early and secondary brain injuries. Understanding the pathophysiology of the SAH is crucial in identifying potential therapeutic agents. One promising target for the diagnosis and prognosis of SAH is circulating microRNAs, which regulate gene expression and are involved in various physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we discuss the potential of microRNAs as a target for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in SAH. Full article
8 pages, 9476 KiB  
Case Report
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome after Pazopanib Therapy
by Madhavkumar Savaliya, Drishty Surati, Ramesh Surati, Shailesh Padmani and Stergios Boussios
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020076 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1691
Abstract
The term posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) refers to an acute syndrome characterised by a range of neurological symptoms and posterior transient changes on neuroimaging. Common clinical presentation includes headache, confusion, visual disturbances, seizures, and focal neurological deficit. With the advancement and increasing [...] Read more.
The term posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) refers to an acute syndrome characterised by a range of neurological symptoms and posterior transient changes on neuroimaging. Common clinical presentation includes headache, confusion, visual disturbances, seizures, and focal neurological deficit. With the advancement and increasing availability of neuroimaging, this syndrome is increasingly recognised. There are several underlying causes for PRES, including certain medications. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as pazopanib can increase the risk of developing PRES by markedly elevating the blood pressure due to its effect of inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). We are reporting a case of a 55-year-old male patient with the clear cell type of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who developed PRES within a short period after starting pazopanib therapy. With the effective control of his blood pressure and discontinuation of pazopanib, his typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesion of PRES resolved in the follow-up scan after four weeks. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 546 KiB  
Article
The COVID-19 Infection Resulted Delayed Esophagogastroduodenoscopy in Patients Admitted with Variceal Bleeding: Hospital-Based Outcomes of a National Database
by Mustafa Gandhi, Zahid Ijaz Tarar, Umer Farooq, Saad Saleem, Harleen Kaur Chela and Ebubekir Daglilar
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020075 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1619
Abstract
During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, most healthcare services, including inpatient and outpatient procedures, got delayed. We reviewed the effect of COVID-19 infection on the timing of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in variceal bleeding patients and analyzed the complications of delayed EGD. Using the National [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, most healthcare services, including inpatient and outpatient procedures, got delayed. We reviewed the effect of COVID-19 infection on the timing of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in variceal bleeding patients and analyzed the complications of delayed EGD. Using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2020, we identified patients admitted for variceal bleeding with COVID-19 infection. We performed a multivariable regression analysis and adjusted it for patient and hospital-related variables. The International Classification of Disease Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes were used for patient selection. We measured the effect of COVID-19 on the timing of EGD and further analyzed the effect of delayed EGD on hospital-based outcomes. A total of 49,675 patients diagnosed with variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding were analyzed, out of which 915 (1.84%) were COVID-19 positive. Variceal bleeding patients who were COVID-positive had a significantly lower rate of EGD performed within the first 24 h of admission (36.1% vs. 60.6% p = 0.001) compared to the patients who tested negative for COVID-19. The performance of EGD within 24 h of admission resulted in a decrease in all-cause mortality by 70% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.30, 95% CI 0.12–0.76, p = 0.01) compared to EGD after 24 h. A significant decrease was noted in the odds of ICU admission rate (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14–0.97, p = 0.04) in patients who got EGD within the first 24 h of admission. No difference in odds of sepsis (AOR 0.44, 95% CI 0.15–1.30, p = 0.14) and vasopressor use (AOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.04–2.87, p = 0.32) was seen in COVID positive vs. COVID negative group. The hospital mean length of stay (2.14 days, 95% CI 4.35–0.06, p = 0.06), mean total charges ($51,936, 95% CI $106,688–$2816, p = 0.06), and total cost (11,489$, 95% CI 30,380$–7402$, p = 0.23) was similar in both COVID-positive and -negative groups. In our study, we found that the presence of COVID-19 infection in variceal bleeding patients resulted in a significant delay in EGD compared to COVID-negative patients. This delay in EGD resulted in increased all-cause mortality and intensive care unit admissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1171 KiB  
Article
Primary Cardiac Sarcoma: Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Factors over the Past 2 Decades
by Ayrton Bangolo, Pierre Fwelo, Kritika M. Iyer, Sarah Klinger, Lorena Tavares, Shraboni Dey, Angel Ann Chacko, Myat Hein, Samyukta Gudena, Gbenga Lawal, Barath P. Sivasubramanian, Zekordavar Rimba, Kinjal Hirpara, Merajunnissa Merajunnissa, Swathi Veliginti, Georgemar Arana, Dily T. Sathyarajan, Sachin Singh, Tanvi Shetty, Kshitij Bhardwaj, Sayed Hashemy, Roberto L. Duran, Sung H. Kim, Candice M. Hipolito, Kibo Yoon, Vrusha Patel, Aseel Alshimari, Pugazhendi Inban, Saaniya Yasmeen, Krushika Devanaboyina, Gulshan Kumar, Saran Preet, Mishgan Akhtar, Ayanleh Abdi, Navya Nalajala, Syed F. M. Rizvi, Bhavna Gupta and Simcha Weissmanadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020074 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2712
Abstract
Background: Primary cardiac sarcomas (PCS) are extremely rare malignant tumors involving the heart. Only isolated case reports have been described in the literature over different periods of time. This pathology has been associated with a dismal prognosis and given its rarity; treatment options [...] Read more.
Background: Primary cardiac sarcomas (PCS) are extremely rare malignant tumors involving the heart. Only isolated case reports have been described in the literature over different periods of time. This pathology has been associated with a dismal prognosis and given its rarity; treatment options are very limited. Furthermore, there are contrasting data about the effectiveness of current treatment modalities in improving the survival of patients with PCS, including surgical resection which is the mainstay of therapy. There is a paucity of data on the epidemiological characteristics of PCS. This study has the objective of investigating the epidemiologic characteristics, survival outcomes, and independent prognostic factors of PCS. Methods: A total of 362 patients were ultimately registered in our study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The study period was from 2000 to 2017. Demographics such as clinical characteristics, overall mortality (OM), and PCS-specific mortality (CSM) were taken into account. A p value of <0.1 in the univariate analysis leads to the incorporation of the variable into multivariate analysis adjusting for covariates. Adverse prognostic factors were represented by a Hazard Ratio (HR) greater than one. The five-year survival analysis was carried out using the Kaplan–Meier method and the log-rank test was used to compare survival curves. Results: Crude analysis revealed a high OM in age 80+ (HR = 5.958, 95% CI 3.357–10.575, p < 0.001), followed by age 60–79 (HR = 1.429, 95% CI 1.028–1.986, p = 0.033); and PCS with distant metastases (HR = 1.888, 95% CI 1.389–2.566, p < 0.001). Patients that underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor and patients with malignant fibrous histiocytomas (HR = 0.657, 95% CI 0.455–0.95, p = 0.025) had a better OM (HR = 0.606, 95% CI 0.465–0.791, p < 0.001). The highest cancer-specific mortality was observed in age 80+ (HR = 5.037, 95% CI 2.606–9.736, p < 0.001) and patients with distant metastases (HR = 1.953, 95% CI 1.396–2.733, p < 0.001). Patients with malignant fibrous histiocytomas (HR = 0.572, 95% CI 0.378–0.865, p = 0.008) and those who underwent surgery (HR = 0.581, 95% CI 0.436–0.774, p < 0.001) had a lower CSM. Patients in the age range 80+ (HR = 13.261, 95% CI 5.839–30.119, p < 0.001) and advanced disease with distant metastases (HR = 2.013, 95% CI 1.355–2.99, p = 0.001) were found to have a higher OM in the multivariate analyses adjusting for covariates). Lower OM was found in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (HR = 0.364, 95% CI 0.154–0.86, p = 0.021) and widowed patients (HR = 0.506, 95% CI 0.263–0.977, p = 0.042). Multivariate cox proportional hazard regression analyses of CSM also revealed higher mortality of the same groups, and lower mortality in patients with Rhabdomyosarcoma. Conclusion: In this United States population-based retrospective cohort study using the SEER database, we found that cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma was associated with the lowest CSM and OM. Furthermore, as expected, age and advanced disease at diagnosis were independent factors predicting poor prognosis. Surgical resection of the primary tumor showed lower CSM and OM in the crude analysis but when adjusted for covariates in the multivariate analysis, it did not significantly impact the overall mortality or the cancer-specific mortality. These findings allow for treating clinicians to recognize patients that should be referred to palliative/hospice care at the time of diagnosis and avoid any surgical interventions as they did not show any differences in mortality. Surgical resection, adjuvant chemotherapy, and/or radiation in patients with poor prognoses should be reserved as palliative measures rather than an attempt to cure the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 500 KiB  
Communication
People with Diabetes Have Poorer Self-Rated Health (SRH) and Diabetes Moderates the Association between Age and SRH
by Weixi Kang and Antonio Malvaso
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020073 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
Diabetes is a severe chronic condition that is related to decreased physical functioning. Recently, there has been growing interest in understanding how a brief report on health such as self-rated health (SRH) could be used to track changes in health status and service [...] Read more.
Diabetes is a severe chronic condition that is related to decreased physical functioning. Recently, there has been growing interest in understanding how a brief report on health such as self-rated health (SRH) could be used to track changes in health status and service needs in people with diabetes. The current research aims to investigate how SRH is affected by diabetes and how diabetes could moderate the association between age and SRH. By analyzing data from 47,507 participants, with 2869 of them clinically diagnosed with diabetes, the current study found that people with diabetes had significantly poorer SRH than people without diabetes after controlling for demographic covariates (t(2868) = −45.73, p < 0.001, 95% C.I. (−0.92, −0.85), Cohen’s d = −0.85). In addition, diabetes was a significant moderator of the relationship between age and SRH (b = 0.01, p < 0.001, 95% C.I. (0.01, 0.01)). Specifically, age was more strongly related to SRH in people without diabetes (b = −0.015, p < 0.001, 95% C.I. (−0.016, −0.015)) than in people with diabetes (b = −0.007, p < 0.001, 95% C.I. (−0.010, −0.004)). Health professionals should aim to improve SRH in people with diabetes given that SRH is related to various outcomes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 5846 KiB  
Article
Towards Understanding the Key Signature Pathways Associated from Differentially Expressed Gene Analysis in an Indian Prostate Cancer Cohort
by Nidhi Shukla, Bhumandeep Kour, Devendra Sharma, Maneesh Vijayvargiya, T. C. Sadasukhi, Krishna Mohan Medicherla, Babita Malik, Bhawana Bissa, Sugunakar Vuree, Nirmal Kumar Lohiya and Prashanth Suravajhala
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020072 - 11 May 2023
Viewed by 2890
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most prevalent cancers among men in India. Although studies on PCa have dealt with genetics, genomics, and the environmental influence in the causality of PCa, not many studies employing the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approaches of [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most prevalent cancers among men in India. Although studies on PCa have dealt with genetics, genomics, and the environmental influence in the causality of PCa, not many studies employing the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approaches of PCa have been carried out. In our previous study, we identified some causal genes and mutations specific to Indian PCa using Whole Exome Sequencing (WES). In the recent past, with the help of different cancer consortiums such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), along with differentially expressed genes (DEGs), many cancer-associated novel non-coding RNAs have been identified as biomarkers. In this work, we attempt to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with signature pathways from an Indian PCa cohort using the RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) approach. From a cohort of 60, we screened six patients who underwent prostatectomy; we performed whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (WTSS)/RNA-sequencing to decipher the DEGs. We further normalized the read counts using fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads (FPKM) and analyzed the DEGs using a cohort of downstream regulatory tools, viz., GeneMANIA, Stringdb, Cytoscape-Cytohubba, and cbioportal, to map the inherent signatures associated with PCa. By comparing the RNA-seq data obtained from the pairs of normal and PCa tissue samples using our benchmarked in-house cuffdiff pipeline, we observed some important genes specific to PCa, such as STEAP2, APP, PMEPA1, PABPC1, NFE2L2, and HN1L, and some other important genes known to be involved in different cancer pathways, such as COL6A1, DOK5, STX6, BCAS1, BACE1, BACE2, LMOD1, SNX9, CTNND1, etc. We also identified a few novel lncRNAs such as LINC01440, SOX2OT, ENSG00000232855, ENSG00000287903, and ENST00000647843.1 that need to be characterized further. In comparison with publicly available datasets, we have identified characteristic DEGs and novel lncRNAs implicated in signature PCa pathways in an Indian PCa cohort which perhaps have not been reported. This has set a precedent for us to validate candidates further experimentally, and we firmly believe this will pave a way toward the discovery of biomarkers and the development of novel therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 550 KiB  
Article
Physical Activity, Body Image, and Emotional Intelligence Differences in Adults with Overweight and Obesity
by Marilyn Gilyana, Alexios Batrakoulis and Vasiliki Zisi
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020071 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
Physical activity (PA) and emotional intelligence (EI) are integral parts of human nature. Body image (BI) and body mass index (BMI) may be indications of the psycho-emotional and physical health of human beings. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship [...] Read more.
Physical activity (PA) and emotional intelligence (EI) are integral parts of human nature. Body image (BI) and body mass index (BMI) may be indications of the psycho-emotional and physical health of human beings. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between PA and EI of Greek adults living with overweight and obesity, as well as to identify the BI and EI differences in this population. A cross-sectional study design was used, involving 216 participants (65% females) of whom 51.4% were young adults (20–40 years), 48.6% were middle-aged adults (41–60 years), while 51.4% of participants were living with overweight or obesity. According to the results, all indicators of PA had very low correlations with EI factors, while statistically significant correlations were observed only for PA at work and the total score of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire with the use of emotions (r = 0.16 and r = 0.17, respectively, p < 0.05). Women had significantly higher EI scores than men regarding the care and empathy factor, while the individuals with obesity had lower scores in the use of emotions factor. Regarding BI, young adults who were satisfied with their BI had better control of feelings than the middle-aged adult counterparts. In conclusion, BI satisfaction and EI may differ between individuals living with overweight and obesity in both genders. Younger individuals with obesity may compensate better for their BI and better control their emotions. On the other side, PA does not seem to have an important role in these associations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1782 KiB  
Article
Assessing Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Mango Leaf Tea and Mangiferin within Cultured Adipocytes
by Sepideh Alasvand Zarasvand, Vivian Haley-Zitlin, Olanrewaju Oladosu, Ikechukwu Esobi, Rhonda Reigers Powell, Terri Bruce and Alexis Stamatikos
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020070 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3222
Abstract
Obesity is a condition caused by surplus adipose tissue and is a risk factor for several diet-related diseases. Obesity is a global epidemic that has also been challenging to treat effectively. However, one promoted therapy to safely treat obesity is anti-adipogenic therapeutics. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Obesity is a condition caused by surplus adipose tissue and is a risk factor for several diet-related diseases. Obesity is a global epidemic that has also been challenging to treat effectively. However, one promoted therapy to safely treat obesity is anti-adipogenic therapeutics. Therefore, identifying potent anti-adipogenic bioactive compounds that can safely be used clinically may effectively treat obesity in humans. Mango leaf has potential medicinal properties due to its many bioactive compounds that may enhance human health. Mangiferin (MGF) is a primary constituent in mango plants, with many health-promoting qualities. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of MGF, and tea brewed with mango leaves in cultured adipocytes. The anti-adipogenic efficacy of mango leaf tea (MLT) and MGF in 3T3-L1 cells were assessed, along with cell viability, triglyceride levels, adiponectin secretion, and glucose uptake analyzed. In addition, changes in the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism within 3T3-L1 cells were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed while both MLT and MGF increased glucose uptake in adipocytes, only MLT appeared to inhibit adipogenesis, as determined by decreased triglyceride accumulation. We also observed increased secretory adiponectin levels, reduced ACC mRNA expression, and increased FOXO1 and ATGL gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells treated with MLT but not MGF. Together, these results suggest that MLT may exhibit anti-adipogenic properties independent of MGF content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Diseases 2.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4923 KiB  
Article
Colonic Ganglioneuroma: A Combined Single-Institution Experience and Review of the Literature of Forty-Three Patients
by Hisham F. Bahmad, Sally Trinh, Linda Qian, Kristy Terp, Ferial Alloush, Mohamad K. Elajami, Ekim Kilinc and Robert Poppiti
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020069 - 6 May 2023
Viewed by 3382
Abstract
Ganglioneuromas (GNs) are rare, benign tumors composed of ganglion cells, nerve fibers, and glial cells. Three types of colonic GN lesions exist: polypoid GNs, ganglioneuromatous polyposis, and diffuse ganglioneuromatosis. Less than 100 cases of GN are documented in the literature. A 10-year retrospective [...] Read more.
Ganglioneuromas (GNs) are rare, benign tumors composed of ganglion cells, nerve fibers, and glial cells. Three types of colonic GN lesions exist: polypoid GNs, ganglioneuromatous polyposis, and diffuse ganglioneuromatosis. Less than 100 cases of GN are documented in the literature. A 10-year retrospective search of the pathology database at our institution identified eight cases of colonic GNs. All cases were incidental. Seven of the eight cases presented with colonoscopy findings of small sessile polyps (ranging between 0.1 and 0.7 cm) treated with polypectomy, whereas one case showed a 4 cm partially circumferential and partially obstructing mass in the ascending colon, treated with right hemicolectomy. Almost two-thirds of the cases (5/8) demonstrated associated diverticulosis. All cases were positive for S100 protein and Synaptophysin via immunohistochemistry (IHC). No syndromic association was identified in any of the cases. We also conducted a comprehensive review using PubMed to identify cases of colonic GN reported in the literature. In total, 173 studies were retrieved, among which 36 articles met our inclusion criteria (35 patients and 3 cases on animals). We conclude that while most GNs are incidental and solitary small sessile lesions, many can be diffuse and associated with syndromes. In these cases, the tumor can result in bowel obstruction simulating adenocarcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 449 KiB  
Review
Use or Misuse of Albumin in Critical Ill Patients
by Fuat Hakan Saner, Bjoern-Ole Stueben, Dieter Peter Hoyer, Dieter Clemens Broering and Dmitri Bezinover
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020068 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 14254
Abstract
Since 1940 albumin has been used worldwide and is widely available commercially since this time. However, a meta-analysis in 1998 challenged the use of albumin and identified a trend toward higher mortality in critically ill patients who had received albumin. Since then, many [...] Read more.
Since 1940 albumin has been used worldwide and is widely available commercially since this time. However, a meta-analysis in 1998 challenged the use of albumin and identified a trend toward higher mortality in critically ill patients who had received albumin. Since then, many studies including multicenter randomized controlled trials have been carried out investigating the safety and efficacy of albumin treatment in different patient cohorts. In this context, patient cohorts that benefit from albumin were identified. However, particularly in non-liver patients, the use of albumin remains controversial. In our comprehensive review, we would like to highlight the most important studies in the recent 20 years and therefore offer an evidence-based outlook for the use of albumin for patients treated in the ICU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Diseases: Featured Reviews)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1663 KiB  
Case Report
Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I Presenting with Persistent Neonatal Respiratory Distress: A Case Report
by Ali Alsuheel Asseri, Ahmad Alzoani, Abdulwahab M. Almazkary, Nisreen Abdulaziz, Mufareh H. Almazkary, Samy Ailan Alahmari, Arul J. Duraisamy and Shruti Sureshkumar
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020067 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1915
Abstract
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. Despite several reports on MPS I-related neonatal interstitial lung disease, it is still considered to be an under-recognized disease manifestation. Thus, further study of MPS I is required to [...] Read more.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. Despite several reports on MPS I-related neonatal interstitial lung disease, it is still considered to be an under-recognized disease manifestation. Thus, further study of MPS I is required to improve specific therapies and management strategies. The current report describes a late preterm baby (36 weeks gestational age) with neonatal onset of interstitial lung disease eventually diagnosed as MPS I. The neonate required prolonged respiratory support and oxygen supplementation that further escalated the likely diagnosis of inherited disorders of pulmonary surfactant dysfunction. Whole-exome sequencing confirmed the diagnosis of MPS I, following the observation of low levels of the enzyme α-L-iduronidase. The results highlight the necessity of considering MPS I-related pulmonary involvement in newborns with persistent respiratory insufficiency. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 325 KiB  
Article
Body Image, Social Physique Anxiety Levels and Self-Esteem among Adults Participating in Physical Activity Programs
by Afroditi Zartaloudi, Dimitrios Christopoulos, Martha Kelesi, Ourania Govina, Marianna Mantzorou, Theodoula Adamakidou, Loukia Karvouni, Ioannis Koutelekos, Eleni Evangelou, Georgia Fasoi and Eugenia Vlachou
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020066 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5910
Abstract
(1) Background: individuals may benefit from being involved in physical and athletic activities in order to improve their body appearance and promote their physical and mental health. This study aimed to investigate body image, body mass index (BMI) characteristics, social physique anxiety, self-esteem [...] Read more.
(1) Background: individuals may benefit from being involved in physical and athletic activities in order to improve their body appearance and promote their physical and mental health. This study aimed to investigate body image, body mass index (BMI) characteristics, social physique anxiety, self-esteem and possible correlations between the above factors. (2) Methods: 245 adults engaged in training programs in gyms, as well as in track and field, football and basketball athletic activities completed (a) a sociodemographic questionnaire which recorded their BMI values and utilized the (b) Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults, (c) the Social Physique Anxiety Scale and (d) the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. (3) Results: Females and individuals with higher BMI reported statistically significant lower body-esteem and greater social physique anxiety levels compared to males and individuals with lower BMI, respectively (p < 0.05). A total of 25.3% of our participants were labeled as “overweight”, while 20.4% had been overweight in the past. Significant differences were reported between body-esteem and social physique anxiety levels (p < 0.001); age (p = 0.001); BMI value (p < 0.001) and never having a problem with body weight (p = 0.008). Additionally, individuals with lower body-esteem and greater social physique anxiety levels presented lower global self-esteem (p < 0.001). (4) Conclusions: individuals’ engagement in physical activity promotes physical as well as mental well-being, contributing to an improved quality of life, which may be the most important issue for health care professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation in Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders 2.0)
16 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
Supporting First Nations Family Caregivers and Providers: Family Caregivers’, Health and Community Providers’, and Leaders’ Recommendations
by Amber Ward, Laurie Buffalo, Colleen McDonald, Tanya L’Heureux, Lesley Charles, Cheryl Pollard, Peter G. Tian, Sharon Anderson and Jasneet Parmar
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020065 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2110
Abstract
Family caregivers and care providers are increasingly becoming more distressed and reaching a breaking point within current systems of care. First Nations family caregivers and the health and community providers employed in First Nations communities have to cope with colonial, discriminatory practices that [...] Read more.
Family caregivers and care providers are increasingly becoming more distressed and reaching a breaking point within current systems of care. First Nations family caregivers and the health and community providers employed in First Nations communities have to cope with colonial, discriminatory practices that have caused intergenerational trauma and a myriad of siloed, disconnected, and difficult-to-navigate federal-, provincial/territorial-, and community-level policies and programs. Indigenous participants in Alberta’s Health Advisory Councils described Indigenous family caregivers as having more difficulty accessing support than other Alberta caregivers. In this article, we report on family caregivers’, providers’, and leaders’ recommendations to support First Nations family caregivers and the health and community providers employed in First Nations. We used participatory action research methods in which we drew on Etuaptmumk (the understanding that being in the world is the gift of multiple perspectives) and that Indigenous and non-Indigenous views are complementary. Participants were from two First Nation communities in Alberta and included family caregivers (n = 6), health and community providers (n = 14), and healthcare and community leaders (n = 6). Participants advised that family caregivers needed four types of support: (1) recognize the family caregivers’ role and work; (2) enhance navigation and timely access to services, (3) improve home care support and respite, and (4) provide culturally safe care. Participants had four recommendations to support providers: (1) support community providers’ health and wellbeing; (2) recruit and retain health and community providers; (3) improve orientation for new providers; and (4) offer providers a comprehensive grounding in cultural awareness. While creating a program or department for family caregivers may be tempting to address caregivers’ immediate needs, improving the health of First Nations family caregivers requires a population-based public health approach that focuses on meaningful holistic system change to support family caregivers. Full article
22 pages, 3909 KiB  
Review
Development of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine: Challenges and Prospects
by Tooba Mahboob, Amni Adilah Ismail, Muhammad Raza Shah, Mohammed Rahmatullah, Alok K. Paul, Maria de Lourdes Pereira, Christophe Wiart, Polrat Wilairatana, Mogana Rajagopal, Karma G. Dolma and Veeranoot Nissapatorn
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020064 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2616
Abstract
The WHO declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic in March 2020, which was caused by novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 made its first entry into the world in November 2019, and the first case was detected in Wuhan, [...] Read more.
The WHO declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic in March 2020, which was caused by novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 made its first entry into the world in November 2019, and the first case was detected in Wuhan, China. Mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome distressed life in almost every discipline by the extended production of novel viral variants. In this article, authorized SARS-CoV-2 vaccines including mRNA vaccines, DNA vaccines, subunit vaccines, inactivated virus vaccines, viral vector vaccine, live attenuated virus vaccines and mix and match vaccines will be discussed based on their mechanism, administration, storage, stability, safety and efficacy. The information was collected from various journals via electronic searches including PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and the WHO platform. This review article includes a brief summary on the pathophysiology, epidemiology, mutant variants and management strategies related to COVID-19. Due to the continuous production and unsatisfactory understanding of novel variants of SARS-CoV-2, it is important to design an effective vaccine along with long-lasting protection against variant strains by eliminating the gaps through practical and theoretical knowledge. Consequently, it is mandatory to update the literature through previous and ongoing trials of vaccines tested among various ethnicities and age groups to gain a better insight into management strategies and combat complications associated with upcoming novel variants of SARS-CoV-2. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Gender Differences in Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices toward COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Mohammed Saif Anaam and Saud Alsahali
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020063 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1836
Abstract
Days after the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that COVID-19 was a pandemic, Saudi Arabia took preventative and precautionary measures to avoid its spread and to safeguard its citizens. In this study, we investigated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of both men [...] Read more.
Days after the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that COVID-19 was a pandemic, Saudi Arabia took preventative and precautionary measures to avoid its spread and to safeguard its citizens. In this study, we investigated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of both men and women toward COVID-19 as well as associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online, self-report questionnaire distributed via Google Forms. The overall percentage of correct answers for the knowledge statements was 80.2%, with a higher rate among the female respondents (82.4% vs. 78.5%, p = 0.005). Slightly more than half (i.e., 165: 51.6%) of the participants showed that they did not go to crowded places during the pandemic; however, more female respondents recorded that they avoided crowded places than male respondents (57.7% vs. 46.2%, p = 0.04). Most participants (i.e., 272: 85.0%) reported that they had worn a mask in recent days, and more than two-thirds (84.4%) said that they still follow the strategies recommended by government authorities to prevent the spread of the virus. Again, more female respondents reported this than males (89.9% vs. 79.5%; p = 0.01). Significant correlations (p < 001) were noted between knowledge and practices (r = 0.31), knowledge and attitudes (r = 0.37), and attitudes and practices (r = 0.29). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, occupation and education were independently associated with knowledge among both the male and female respondents (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–7.2; aOR: 5.9; 95% CI: 2.2–15.9). Residence was independently associated with attitudes, but only among the male respondents (aOR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1–4.9), and COVID-19 was independently associated with practices among both the male and female respondents (aOR: 4.5; 95% CI: 1.4–14.2; aOR: 9.8; 95% CI: 1.2–81.2). There were significant gender differences in both knowledge and practices toward COVID-19, with the female respondents achieving better scores than the male respondents. Thus, we recommend that health education campaigns are tailored to specifically target males. Full article
13 pages, 1195 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Hargeisa, Somaliland: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study
by Faisal Nooh, Mohamed I. Ali, Afona Chernet, Nicole Probst-Hensch and Jürg Utzinger
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020062 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3044
Abstract
Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and represents a major public health challenge worldwide. There is a paucity of information regarding the hypertension status of adults in Somaliland. We aimed to assess the magnitude of, and factors associated with, hypertension [...] Read more.
Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and represents a major public health challenge worldwide. There is a paucity of information regarding the hypertension status of adults in Somaliland. We aimed to assess the magnitude of, and factors associated with, hypertension among adult patients seeking care at Hargeisa group hospital in Hargeisa city, Somaliland. We conducted a health facility-based cross-sectional study enrolling adult outpatients. We used the World Health Organization (WHO) STEPwise surveillance approach to obtain patient information. A total of 319 participants (54.2% males; mean age 40.4 ± 14.0 years) had complete data records. The prevalence of hypertension was 22.6% (95% confidence interval; 18.2–27.6%). The prevalence of hypertension increased with age and was higher in males (24.9%) than in females (19.9%). Age, cholesterolaemia and obesity were significantly associated with hypertension. Separate analyses for females and males revealed that obesity was significantly associated with hypertension in females but not in males. On the contrary, cholesterolaemia was significantly associated with hypertension in males but not in females. We found a high prevalence of hypertension and multiple risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in outpatients seeking care in Hargeisa. Our findings emphasise the need for enhanced focus on the prevention and management of NCDs in Somaliland. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 622 KiB  
Review
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic Period on Patients with Head and Neck Carcinoma: A Systematic Review
by Maria Carolina Pinto Pereira, Juliana Campos Hasse Fernandes, Gustavo Vicentis Oliveira Fernandes, Felipe Nor, Tiago Marques and Patrícia Couto
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020061 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted all public life and the global economy. Since its discovery, the disease has spread rapidly, which led to an unprecedented public health crisis and the adoption of extreme measures to limit community and hospital spread. As [...] Read more.
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted all public life and the global economy. Since its discovery, the disease has spread rapidly, which led to an unprecedented public health crisis and the adoption of extreme measures to limit community and hospital spread. As a result of a confluence of extraordinary circumstances caused by this pandemic, the doctrines of treatment for patients with head and neck carcinoma had to be reanalyzed, guaranteeing the well-being of both patients and health professionals as well as society itself. Objective: The aim of our systematic review was to study the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic period on head and neck cancer patients, the effects on the health care provided and on patient health. Materials and Methods: This systematic review was based on the PRISMA guidelines and PICO strategy, with the focus question, “How has the COVID-19 pandemic period conditioned the treatment of patients with head and neck carcinoma?” Thus, electronic research was carried out on six databases: LILACS, PubMed/MedLine, Web of Science, the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, Scielo, and Scopus, aiming to answer the research question by considering the objective and defined criteria. The following information was extracted: author and year of the publication, patients’ age, gender, time until the first appointment, time from the first appointment to the surgery, the period in the hospital, time in intensive care, TNM, general stage of cancer, diagnostic procedures, oncological procedures, reconstructive surgery, and postoperative complications. Results: Initially, 837 articles were found. After removing duplicates, we obtained 471 studies. After screening by title and abstract, 67 articles were selected for full-text reading (k = 92) in order to assess their eligibility. Thus, nine articles were included (k = 1.0). All data and statistical results were obtained and contrasted. The included studies made it possible to reveal distinct impacts felt in different institutions of several countries, not allowing generalizable conclusions to be drawn. However, some of the variables analyzed are worrying, namely, the limitations that occurred in some types of oncological surgeries, as well as the increase in the number of patients admitted with higher TNM classifications and more debilitated general conditions. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this review, the results showed efforts made to prevent the pandemic from affecting the healthcare provided. There were no significant differences in days inside the intensive care unit, postoperative complications, and, in most cases, length of stay in the hospital. There were no differences in the number of patients admitted with a history of recurrence or neoadjuvant treatment. However, some variables raise concerns, such as the increase in patients with more advanced stage and TNM classification and a decrease in certain oncological procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Diseases: Featured Reviews)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 2259 KiB  
Case Report
Durable Response after Repeat Cytoreductive Surgery (CRS) and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) in a Patient with Extensive Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Appendix
by Dalia Kaakour, Garrett Ward, Maheswari Senthil and Farshid Dayyani
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020060 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1879
Abstract
Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix is a rare form of lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer. These cancers have a high tendency to progress towards peritoneal metastasis and their response to systemic treatment is typically low. Together, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy [...] Read more.
Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix is a rare form of lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer. These cancers have a high tendency to progress towards peritoneal metastasis and their response to systemic treatment is typically low. Together, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have become an established form of therapy used to prolong the survival of patients with this disease. Repeat CRS and HIPEC have been shown to be feasible in selected patients with GI peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC), among which those with appendix cancer receive the greatest benefit. The peritoneal cancer index (PCI) and completeness of cytoreduction have been shown to be important predictors of outcomes. However, repeat cytoreduction in patients with a high-volume peritoneal tumor burden (peritoneal cancer index (PCI) > 30) is not typically performed due to concerns regarding morbidity and mortality. Herein, we describe a case of repeat CRS and HIPEC for extensive appendiceal mucinous peritoneal carcinomatosis after initial incomplete cytoreduction and durable remission of 28 months without adjuvant chemotherapy. In appendiceal mucinous cancers, repeat CRS can achieve a durable response despite an initial failed CRS and high-volume disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 262 KiB  
Brief Report
Association between Multiple Myeloma and Ulcerative Colitis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
by Ayrton Bangolo, Sowmya Sagireddy, Paul Desrochers, Imane Laabidi, Vignesh K. Nagesh, Amer Jarri, Imranjot Sekhon, Youssef Laabidi, Deeksha Muralidhar, Adarshpreet Singh, Paranjyothy R. P. Sanjeeva, Damanpartap S. Sandhu, Saba Salma, Saad A. Khan, Mir I. Ali, Sung H. Kim, Wardah Bajwa, Angela C. Tai, Assma Itani, Kareem Ahmed, Mevlut Ozmen, Bhargav Hirpara, Shruti M. Borse and Simcha Weissmanadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020059 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2192
Abstract
Background and Aims: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell dyscrasia that is common among patients with autoimmune diseases. However, the association between ulcerative colitis (UC) and multiple myeloma (MM) is yet to be established. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MM [...] Read more.
Background and Aims: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell dyscrasia that is common among patients with autoimmune diseases. However, the association between ulcerative colitis (UC) and multiple myeloma (MM) is yet to be established. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MM among patients with UC in the United States. Methods: This cross-sectional cohort analysis used the National Inpatient Sample from 2015–2018 to assess the overall MM prevalence among patients with and without UC, and within specific demographic subgroups. Prevalences were compared using a logistic regression model controlling for sex and age. Results: The crude prevalence of MM among patients with UC (n = 1750) compared with patients without UC (n = 366,265) was 0.44% vs. 0.37%, respectively. Patients with UC had increased overall odds of having MM (odds ratio (OR), 1.26). Males with UC had higher prevalence of MM (53.7% vs. 46.3%, respectively) than females. Patients with UC and MM were more likely to be African American than White (15.6% vs. 9.2%, respectively). Patients with UC age >64 had a higher prevalence of MM than those aged below 65 (70.9% vs. 29.1%, respectively). Patients with UC who were obese (BMI > 30) had a higher prevalence of MM than those who were non-obese (12.6% vs. 8.3%). Conclusions: Overall, UC appears to be associated with MM. This association can be particularly observed in specific demographic groups, such as obese, African American males, or patients >64 years of age. Thus, a high degree of clinical suspicion for MM is warranted, even with minimal symptomatology, in patients with UC, in particular among elder, obese, and African American males. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
15 pages, 2158 KiB  
Article
Nanocarrier Drug Conjugates Exhibit Potent Anti-Naegleria fowleri and Anti-Balamuthia mandrillaris Properties
by Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Anania Boghossian, Muhammad Kawish, Tooba Jabri, Muhammad Raza Shah, Tengku Shahrul Anuar, Zainab Al-Shareef and Naveed Ahmed Khan
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020058 - 6 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1883
Abstract
Given the opportunity and access, pathogenic protists (Balamuthia mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri) can produce fatal infections involving the central nervous system. In the absence of effective treatments, there is a need to either develop new antimicrobials or enhance the efficacy of [...] Read more.
Given the opportunity and access, pathogenic protists (Balamuthia mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri) can produce fatal infections involving the central nervous system. In the absence of effective treatments, there is a need to either develop new antimicrobials or enhance the efficacy of existing compounds. Nanocarriers as drug delivery systems are gaining increasing attention in the treatment of parasitic infections. In this study, novel nanocarriers conjugated with amphotericin B and curcumin were evaluated for anti-amoebic efficacy against B. mandrillaris and N. fowleri. The results showed that nanocarrier conjugated amphotericin B exhibited enhanced cidal properties against both amoebae tested compared with the drug alone. Similarly, nanocarrier conjugated curcumin exhibited up to 75% cidal effects versus approx. 50% cidal effects for curcumin alone. Cytopathogenicity assays revealed that the pre-treatment of both parasites with nanoformulated-drugs reduced parasite-mediated host cellular death compared with the drugs alone. Importantly, the cytotoxic effects of amphotericin B on human cells alone were reduced when conjugated with nanocarriers. These are promising findings and further suggest the need to explore nanocarriers as a means to deliver medicine against parasitic infections. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop