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Resources, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) A valid model for the estimation of the 8000-series Athens trolleybuses total energy consumption, [...] Read more.
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Shedding Light on the Anthropogenic Europium Cycle in the EU–28. Marking Product Turnover and Energy Progress in the Lighting Sector
Received: 12 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 399 | PDF Full-text (1481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Phase-out strategies for incandescent bulbs in favor of advanced energy-efficiency lighting systems such as fluorescent lamps and solid-state technology have considerably reduced the energy use for lighting, but have also resulted in dependence on many critical materials like rare earth elements and shifted
[...] Read more.
Phase-out strategies for incandescent bulbs in favor of advanced energy-efficiency lighting systems such as fluorescent lamps and solid-state technology have considerably reduced the energy use for lighting, but have also resulted in dependence on many critical materials like rare earth elements and shifted the attention to sustainable use and recovery of resources. In this work, a dynamic material flow model was developed to analyze the socio-economic metabolism of europium in the EU–28. The analysis shows that europium marked product turnover and progress in lighting efficiency, with this element being employed both in traditional and novel lighting technology to provide luminescence. The results also demonstrate that the current anthropogenic reserve could constitute an attractive source of secondary europium with substantial potentials for environmental benefits. However, nonexistent recycling and market forces hinder strategies for material circularity. In particular, the transition from fluorescent lamps to solid-state technology is quickly decreasing the demand for europium. This trend adds further constraints to the creation of a sustainable recycling industry for europium, with primary sources that might remain the preferable route to supply phosphors to future lighting systems. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Ecological Footprint Accounting for Countries: Updates and Results of the National Footprint Accounts, 2012–2018
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Ecological Footprint accounting quantifies the supply and demand of Earth’s biocapacity. The National Footprint Accounts (NFA) are the most widely used Ecological Footprint (EF) dataset, and provide results for most countries and the world from 1961 to 2014, based primarily on publicly available
[...] Read more.
Ecological Footprint accounting quantifies the supply and demand of Earth’s biocapacity. The National Footprint Accounts (NFA) are the most widely used Ecological Footprint (EF) dataset, and provide results for most countries and the world from 1961 to 2014, based primarily on publicly available UN datasets. Here, we review the evolution of the NFA, describe and quantify the effects of improvements that have been implemented into the accounts since the 2012 edition, and review the latest global trends. Comparing results over six editions of NFAs, we find that time-series trends in world results remain stable, and that the world Ecological Footprint for the latest common year (2008) has increased six percent after four major accounting improvements and more than thirty minor improvements. The latest results from the NFA 2018 Edition for the year 2014 indicate that humanity’s Ecological Footprint is 1.7 Earths, and that global ecological overshoot continues to grow. While improved management practices and increased agricultural yields have assisted in a steady increase of Earth’s biocapacity since 1961, humanity’s Ecological Footprint continues to increase at a faster pace than global biocapacity, particularly in Asia, where the total and per capita Ecological Footprint are increasing faster than all other regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Footprint Assessment for Resources Management)
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Open AccessReview Global Lithium Sources—Industrial Use and Future in the Electric Vehicle Industry: A Review
Received: 28 July 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Lithium is a key component in green energy storage technologies and is rapidly becoming a metal of crucial importance to the European Union. The different industrial uses of lithium are discussed in this review along with a compilation of the locations of the
[...] Read more.
Lithium is a key component in green energy storage technologies and is rapidly becoming a metal of crucial importance to the European Union. The different industrial uses of lithium are discussed in this review along with a compilation of the locations of the main geological sources of lithium. An emphasis is placed on lithium’s use in lithium ion batteries and their use in the electric vehicle industry. The electric vehicle market is driving new demand for lithium resources. The expected scale-up in this sector will put pressure on current lithium supplies. The European Union has a burgeoning demand for lithium and is the second largest consumer of lithium resources. Currently, only 1–2% of worldwide lithium is produced in the European Union (Portugal). There are several lithium mineralisations scattered across Europe, the majority of which are currently undergoing mining feasibility studies. The increasing cost of lithium is driving a new global mining boom and should see many of Europe’s mineralisation’s becoming economic. The information given in this paper is a source of contextual information that can be used to support the European Union’s drive towards a low carbon economy and to develop the field of research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Saving Raw Materials for Cement Manufacture and Reusing an Untreated Waste from the Petrochemical Industry
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
This research addresses the replacement of cement by an untreated waste from the petrochemical industry. The effects of partial replacement of cement by spent fluid cracking catalyst (SFCC) on properties of mortar were determined. In this study, a series of mortar mixes was
[...] Read more.
This research addresses the replacement of cement by an untreated waste from the petrochemical industry. The effects of partial replacement of cement by spent fluid cracking catalyst (SFCC) on properties of mortar were determined. In this study, a series of mortar mixes was prepared with replacement ratios of 0%, 3%, 6%, and 12%. Furthermore, performance enhancing factors such as SFCC treatment or use of plasticizers were avoided. Workability, compressive strength, and durability related properties were assessed. An improvement regarding resistance to chloride penetration was observed, as well as that, when curing in salt water, the use of SFCC may be advantageous regarding compressive strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Resources, Clean Resources, Future Resources)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Value Chain Actors and Recycled Polymer Products in Lagos Metropolis: Toward Ensuring Sustainable Development in Africa’s Megacity
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
Polymer recycling is one of the major areas that need adequate intervention in any megacity’s effort toward sustainable development. However, megacities in Africa face various challenges in general waste management and also lag behind in developing efficient waste-to-wealth services. Therefore, this study examined
[...] Read more.
Polymer recycling is one of the major areas that need adequate intervention in any megacity’s effort toward sustainable development. However, megacities in Africa face various challenges in general waste management and also lag behind in developing efficient waste-to-wealth services. Therefore, this study examined the difficulties experienced by the actors involved in the value chain of polymer recycling in the Lagos megacity. Thirty in-depth interviews and four key informant interviews were conducted with value chain and supporting actors, while 400 questionnaires were administered among residents of Lagos metropolis. The study found that negative public perception, lack of adequate capital, poor health conditions, inefficient infrastructure, and technological difficulties are some of the problems in polymer recycling in the megacity. Therefore, social label redefinition, effective dissemination of recycling information, an efficient loan system, import duty relaxation, and stakeholder involvement are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underutilised Resources in Urban Environments)
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Open AccessArticle Simulations and Laboratory Tests for Assessing Phosphorus Recovery Efficiency from Sewage Sludge
Received: 4 August 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 577 | PDF Full-text (1167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phosphorus is a potential environmental pollutant, which could lead to the eutrophication of water bodies. For this reason, wastewater treatment plants worldwide are often designed and operated to eliminate phosphorous from effluents, at substantial cost. At the same time, phosphorus is an essential
[...] Read more.
Phosphorus is a potential environmental pollutant, which could lead to the eutrophication of water bodies. For this reason, wastewater treatment plants worldwide are often designed and operated to eliminate phosphorous from effluents, at substantial cost. At the same time, phosphorus is an essential nutrient for agriculture and, consequently, human life. Data seem to suggest that the world will run out of phosphorus by around 2300, in the best case scenario, although even shorter estimates exist. This situation evokes the need for more efficient phosphorus recovery technologies, in order to meet current water quality requirements and—at the same time—critical future phosphorous needs. Chemical precipitation is the main process for achieving a phosphorus-containing mineral suitable for reuse as a fertilizer, where Struvite is an example of such a product. In this study chemical equilibrium of struvite precipitation was simulated using US Geological Survey (USGS)’ PHREEQC model, and results were compared to laboratory precipitation tests to evaluate struvite recovery efficiency under various conditions. pH had the most significant effect on the results and P recovery of >90% was achieved at pH = 9.5. Simulations indicated that struvite precipitation is affected by the presence of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP) and calcite in the final product of the process. The model showed great potential for predicting equilibrium conditions, and could be very helpful for future optimization of the process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identifying Challenges and Barriers to Participating in the Source Separation of Waste Program in Tabriz, Northwest of Iran: A Qualitative Study from the Citizens’ Perspective
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 26 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
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Abstract
There are many problems with the waste management systems (WMSs) in developing countries. In order to provide applicable strategies for improving the WMSs in these countries, there is a need to identify the barriers and challenges at the community level. Our aim in
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There are many problems with the waste management systems (WMSs) in developing countries. In order to provide applicable strategies for improving the WMSs in these countries, there is a need to identify the barriers and challenges at the community level. Our aim in the present study was to explain the challenges and barriers in front of the citizen’s participation in the Source Separation of Waste (SSW) program in Tabriz, Iran. In this qualitative research, 13 citizens were invited to participate and were then interviewed. Data were analyzed with the content analysis approach. MAXQDA10 was applied to facilitate the organization of data. Four core categories of the barriers to sourcing the separation of household waste were identified: (a) problems in the collecting system of waste; (b) a lack of responsibility among citizens; (c) insufficient awareness among citizens, and (d) the expectation of receiving incentives. The findings of the study indicated the potential infrastructure barriers that may hinder in-process household solid waste separation attempts. Recycling investors, environmental health policymakers, and stakeholders should take into account these barriers while designing, implementing, and/or reorienting the Source Separation of Waste (SSW) programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underutilised Resources in Urban Environments)
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Open AccessArticle Application of Ecological Footprint Accounting as a Part of an Integrated Assessment of Environmental Carrying Capacity: A Case Study of the Footprint of Food of a Large City
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 926 | PDF Full-text (2448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increasing rate of urbanization along with its socio-environmental impact are major global challenges. Therefore, there is a need to assess the boundaries to growth for the future development of cities by the inclusion of the assessment of the environmental carrying capacity (ECC)
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The increasing rate of urbanization along with its socio-environmental impact are major global challenges. Therefore, there is a need to assess the boundaries to growth for the future development of cities by the inclusion of the assessment of the environmental carrying capacity (ECC) into spatial management. The purpose is to assess the resource dependence of a given entity. ECC is usually assessed based on indicators such as the ecological footprint (EF) and biocapacity (BC). EF is a measure of the biologically productive areas demanded by human consumption and waste production. Such areas include the space needed for regenerating food and fibers as well as sequestering the generated pollution, particularly CO2 from the combustion of fossil fuels. BC reflects the biological regeneration potential of a given area to regenerate resources as well to absorb waste. The city level EF assessment has been applied to urban zones across the world, however, there is a noticeable lack of urban EF assessments in Central Eastern Europe. Therefore, the current research is a first estimate of the EF and BC for the city of Wrocław, Poland. This study estimates the Ecological Footprint of Food (EFF) through both a top-down assessment and a hybrid top-down/bottom-up assessment. Thus, this research verifies also if results from hybrid method could be comparable with top-down approach. The bottom-up component of the hybrid analysis calculated the carbon footprint of food using the life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The top-down result of Wrocław’s EFF were 1% greater than the hybrid EFF result, 0.974 and 0.963 gha per person respectively. The result indicated that the EFF exceeded the BC of the city of Wrocław 10-fold. Such assessment support efforts to increase resource efficiency and decrease the risk associated with resources—including food security. Therefore, there is a need to verify if a city is able to satisfy the resource needs of its inhabitants while maintaining the natural capital on which they depend intact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Footprint Assessment for Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle Good Practices and Actions for Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management in the Tourist Sector
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 906 | PDF Full-text (650 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper deals with waste management in the tourism sector, specifically in the agro-tourism structures. Two regions of Romania and Italy have been considered as case studies in order to promote good practices and actions for sustainable municipal solid waste management. Specific criteria
[...] Read more.
This paper deals with waste management in the tourism sector, specifically in the agro-tourism structures. Two regions of Romania and Italy have been considered as case studies in order to promote good practices and actions for sustainable municipal solid waste management. Specific criteria to adopt for the sustainable consumption of beverages and food and for the sustainable use of packaging of various types have been analyzed and suggested. The adoption of an indicator at the level of the single tourist structure has been proposed to help self-analysis that is aimed at setting the priorities of intervention for improving its environmental sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Women, Water Resource Management, and Sustainable Development: The Turkey-North Cyprus Water Pipeline Project
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
Women’s role in water resource management is recognized, yet the implementation of methods and strategies to get beyond gender-based obstacles to women’s equal participation in water resource management related projects remain vague. Mainstream considerations on the gender aspects of development and environment focus
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Women’s role in water resource management is recognized, yet the implementation of methods and strategies to get beyond gender-based obstacles to women’s equal participation in water resource management related projects remain vague. Mainstream considerations on the gender aspects of development and environment focus on women as having an intrinsic relationship with the environment. Women are perceived as a natural reflection of their responsibilities for the household and the comfort and security of future generations. Contrary to mainstream environmental and political ecology research, this paper sees gender as relevant within policy and practice across multiple levels, and within institutions related to natural resource governance. Based on this, the paper looks at the sustainable development and water governance issues with the help of a specific case: the Turkey-North Cyprus Water Pipeline Project. Through broad reviews of project documentation, interviews with people who were directly involved with the project and with women’s organizations the paper draws insights on the gender aspect of the decision-making mechanisms related to water governance. The results indicate that participation by women in resource management is marginal in North Cyprus. The paper discusses that this is a reflection of a broader problem, which is gender inequality. In conclusion, one can argue that future water projects need to realize more sustainable outcomes and greater effects on gender equality in North Cyprus. Full article
Open AccessArticle Metals for Fuels? The Raw Material Shift by Energy-Efficient Transport Systems in Europe
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 806 | PDF Full-text (919 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The long-term transition towards a low-carbon transport sector is a key strategy in Europe. This includes the replacement of fossil fuels, modal shifts towards public transport as well as higher energy efficiency in the transport sector overall. While these energy savings are likely
[...] Read more.
The long-term transition towards a low-carbon transport sector is a key strategy in Europe. This includes the replacement of fossil fuels, modal shifts towards public transport as well as higher energy efficiency in the transport sector overall. While these energy savings are likely to reduce the direct greenhouse gas emissions of transport, they also require the production of new and different vehicles. This study analyses in detail whether final energy savings in the transport sector also induce savings for material resources from nature if the production of future vehicles is considered. The results for 28 member states in 2030 indicate that energy efficiency in the transport sector leads to lower carbon emissions as well as resource use savings. However, energy-efficient transport sectors can have a significant impact on the demand for metals in Europe. An additional annual demand for 28.4 Mt of metal ores was calculated from the personal transport sector in 2030 alone. The additional metal ores from semiprecious metals (e.g., copper) amount to 12.0 Mt, from precious metals (e.g., gold) to 9.1 Mt and from other metals (e.g., lithium) to 11.7 Mt, with small savings for ferrous metal ores (−4.6 Mt). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ecological Criteria for Comparing Linear and Circular Economies
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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In the present article, the main principles of the circular economy are outlined in contradistinction with the existing and traditional linear economic model. An econometric model describing the influence of the linear economy on the environment is presented. The environment is characterized by
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In the present article, the main principles of the circular economy are outlined in contradistinction with the existing and traditional linear economic model. An econometric model describing the influence of the linear economy on the environment is presented. The environment is characterized by seven key processes: change in global temperature; emissions of greenhouse gases from industry to the environment; emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture to the environment; CO2 emissions into the environment; depletion of fresh water supplies; reduction of forest cover; and economic damage from climatological disasters. The model describing the impact of the traditional linear economy on the environment consists of seven interdependent econometric equations, each comprising an autoregressive distributed lag (ADL)-model. The proposed econometric model is used to analyze the environmental effects of the present linear economy. Methodological provisions for a transformational transition of the traditional linear economic model to the closed-loop systems, which also permit the impact of the closed-loop systems on the environment to be analyzed, are set out. Seven ecological indicators are proposed as criteria for comparing the traditional linear economy and the closed-loop systems. The manuscript presents a new approach for the determination of ecological criteria for comparing linear and circular economies. The results of the study could be interesting to address circular processes, which can be used as a criterion to establish ecological management according to the status of natural resources. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Algorithm of Management Decision-Making Regarding the Feasibility of Investing in Geological Studies of Forecasted Hydrocarbon Resources
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 4 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Currently, under the conditions of increasing depletion of hydrocarbon reserves in Russia, it is necessary to consider the resource potential of poorly-researched oil and gas objects as a factor for ensuring the sustainable development of the oil and gas complex, in the context
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Currently, under the conditions of increasing depletion of hydrocarbon reserves in Russia, it is necessary to consider the resource potential of poorly-researched oil and gas objects as a factor for ensuring the sustainable development of the oil and gas complex, in the context of the concept formation of rational subsoil utilization and a circular economy. The methodology of this study is based on a clear sequence of geological and economic studies of poorly-researched oil and gas objects, including four stages, such as analysis of the raw material base, assessment of the raw material potential, determination of technological development parameters, and economic evaluation. The methods of the probabilistic estimation of oil resources of the forecasted objects with regard to geological risk are outlined. Software packages “EVA—Risk Analysis” and “EVA—Economic Evaluation of Oil and Gas Field Development Projects” were used for estimation. The result of the study is the determination of the geological and economic efficiency of the development of nine hydrocarbon objects with the determination of the order of their further geological exploration, and introduction into industrial development on the example of the poorly-researched region of the Timan-Pechora oil and gas province located in the Arctic zone. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Resource Utilization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) and Its Challenges
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
The unchecked growth of Eichhornia crassipes can cause significant harm, including covering of the water surface, depletion of oxygen, clogging of river channels, and promotion of the breeding of flies and mosquitoes. These effects can significantly impact farmland irrigation, water transportation, and human
[...] Read more.
The unchecked growth of Eichhornia crassipes can cause significant harm, including covering of the water surface, depletion of oxygen, clogging of river channels, and promotion of the breeding of flies and mosquitoes. These effects can significantly impact farmland irrigation, water transportation, and human health. However, methods for controlling its growth are not ideal, and control using biological and chemical agents can result in secondary pollution. The utilization of E. crassipes as a resource, for example, as animal feed or organic substrates, can not only turn waste into valuable resources, but it can also solve the problem of its growth, thus bringing about economic and ecological benefits. In this paper, the growth and ecological characteristics of E. crassipes, its nutrient composition, and resource utilization approaches were reviewed. The challenges associated with the large-scale utilization of E. crassipes were also analyzed in order to provide references for the control and resource utilization of the species. Regarding challenges such as the difficulty of cultivation and the high cost of harvesting and dehydrating, it is necessary to investigate the proper water surface and coverage characteristics of E. crassipes cultivation to assure adequate biomass and protect the ecological landscape. It is also necessary to evaluate the effect of E. crassipes cultivation on the health of aquatic ecosystems and the safety of the water environment in order to prevent the significant potential ecological and environmental risks. In addition, developing portable, high-efficiency facilities to promote the effectiveness of harvesting, transportation and dehydration are needed, as well as further improvement in the techniques of utilization and assessment of the economic value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Mining for Resource Supply)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Ecological Footprint at the Micro-Scale—How It Can Save Costs: The Case of ENPRO
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 29 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
The Ecological Footprint (EF) has become a very popular alternative indicator of development in the last three decades. It can be widely used to show the unsustainability of total and individual levels of consumption in countries. But can EF be a meaningful indicator
[...] Read more.
The Ecological Footprint (EF) has become a very popular alternative indicator of development in the last three decades. It can be widely used to show the unsustainability of total and individual levels of consumption in countries. But can EF be a meaningful indicator at the micro level as well? This paper presents an argument on this issue. Based on a literature review including our own analysis and the correlation of EF with GDP and other alternative indicators, EF is evaluated at the macro level. Then, an original case study is presented, underpinning the applicability of EF on the company level, linking the ordinary corporate carbon footprinting with the EF method. Based on the findings, micro level EF calculations can help organizations in finding fields of intervention (inefficiencies and emission hotspots). EF accounting can also be used to evaluate the economic benefits of such measures after their realization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Footprint Assessment for Resources Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Implications of Land-Grabbing on the Ecological Balance of Brazil
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
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In the global free-market, natural resource scarcity and opportunities for preserving the local environment are fostering international purchasing of large extensions of land, mainly for agricultural use. These land transactions often involve land cover change (i.e., through deforestation) or a shift from extensive
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In the global free-market, natural resource scarcity and opportunities for preserving the local environment are fostering international purchasing of large extensions of land, mainly for agricultural use. These land transactions often involve land cover change (i.e., through deforestation) or a shift from extensive or traditional to intensive agricultural practices. In Brazil, the land appropriation by foreign investors (i.e., the so-called “land-grabbing”) is affecting natural capital availability for local communities to a different extent in the very different territorial entities. At the same time, Brazilian investors are purchasing land in other countries. Ecological footprint accounting is one appropriate lens that can be employed to visualize the aggregated effect of natural capital appropriation and use. The aim of this paper is to provide a first estimate on the effect of land-grabbing on the ecological balance of Brazil through calculating the biocapacity embodied in purchased lands in the different states of Brazil. The results show that Brazil is losing between 9 to 9.3 million global hectares (on a gross basis, or a net total of 7.7 to 8.6 million of global hectares) of its biocapacity due to land-grabbing, when considering respectively a “cropland to cropland” (i.e., no land-cover change) and a “total deforestation” scenario. This represents a minimum estimate, highlighting the need for further land-grabbing data collection at the subnational scale. This analysis can be replicated for other countries of the world, adjusting their ecological balance by considering the biocapacity embodied in international transactions of land. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Footprint Assessment for Resources Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Energy Saving Estimation of Athens Trolleybuses Considering Regenerative Braking and Improved Control Scheme
Received: 23 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 22 July 2018
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Abstract
In this work, the electromechanical system of the 8000-series of Athens trolleybuses, based on data provided by OSY S.A., is analyzed. Those data were used to develop a valid model in order to estimate the total energy consumption of the vehicle under any
[...] Read more.
In this work, the electromechanical system of the 8000-series of Athens trolleybuses, based on data provided by OSY S.A., is analyzed. Those data were used to develop a valid model in order to estimate the total energy consumption of the vehicle under any possible operating conditions. In addition, an effort is made to estimate the energy saving potential if the wasted energy—in the form of heat—during braking or downhill courses is recovered (regenerative braking) and retrofitted during normal operation. This process requires the installation of appropriate electrical apparatus to recover and temporarily store this energy amount. Moreover, due to the fact that the main engine of the system is an asynchronous electric machine, its driving scheme is also of interest. This study assumes the current driving scheme, that is the direct vector control (DVC), and proposes an alternative control method, the direct torque control (DTC). Energy consumption/saving calculations highlight the effectiveness of incorporating regenerative braking infrastructure in trolleybuses transportation systems. Finally, a sustainable hybrid energy storage unit that supports regenerative braking is proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Agent-Based Model for End-of-Life Product Flow Analysis
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents an agent-based simulation model for end-of-life product flow analysis in recuperation and recycling supply networks that focuses on individual consumer behaviors. The simulation model is applied to a deposit-return program on wine bottles that could be developed in the province
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This paper presents an agent-based simulation model for end-of-life product flow analysis in recuperation and recycling supply networks that focuses on individual consumer behaviors. The simulation model is applied to a deposit-return program on wine bottles that could be developed in the province of Quebec. Canadian data was used to calibrate and validate the model. A series of experiments was then conducted with three artificial populations to analyse how they would react to several implementation scenarios of this end-of-life product flow strategy. The results suggest that the distance to the nearest depot is an important decision factor, but less predominant than the ownership of a private vehicle and the deposit value. The results also indicate that the use of agent-based modeling combined with the theory of planned behavior (TPB) can produce modular behavior models, that are intuitive and simple, to better understand consumer-behavior-driven supply chains. Such models can be used to give insights to decision-makers and policy-makers about the potential performance of end-of-life product flows strategies and further facilitate efficient resource management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Resources, Clean Resources, Future Resources)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Non-Timber Forest Products in Creating Incentives for Forest Conservation: A Case Study of Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary, Cambodia
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 1 July 2018
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The fundamental issue in this study is to confirm whether or not the extraction of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) will encourage additional pro-conservation behavior from local people. This study clarifies three research questions as follows: what is the current activity of forest conservation
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The fundamental issue in this study is to confirm whether or not the extraction of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) will encourage additional pro-conservation behavior from local people. This study clarifies three research questions as follows: what is the current activity of forest conservation in Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary?; does the extraction of NTFPs create incentives for forest conservation?; and how much value do NTFPs have for incentives for forest conservation activities? Fieldworks were conducted in September 2015, March and April 2016, March 2017 in Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary: participatory rural appraisals, key informant interviews, and structured questionnaire interviews with 288 households were randomly selected. Though this study confirmed that extraction of NTFPs is generally seen as the most positive influenced factors for local people’s participation towards forest conservation. Additionally, this study found that the annual value of NTFPs as incentives for forest conservation was around US$0.95/ha or US$95/km2 in Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary, Cambodia. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary Can Payment for Ecosystem Services Schemes Be an Alternative Solution to Achieve Sustainable Environmental Development? A Critical Comparison of Implementation between Europe and China
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 30 June 2018
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Abstract
The term “Ecosystem Services” was coined to indicate “all the multiple benefits humans obtain from ‘natural capital’ (i.e., the world’s stock of natural assets—geology, soil, air, water—including living things and beings)” that make human life possible, such as natural water purification, flood control
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The term “Ecosystem Services” was coined to indicate “all the multiple benefits humans obtain from ‘natural capital’ (i.e., the world’s stock of natural assets—geology, soil, air, water—including living things and beings)” that make human life possible, such as natural water purification, flood control by wetlands, and others. The concept expanded to include, nowadays, socio-economic and conservation objectives, and has been further popularized by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) in the early 2000s, as well as by the “Paris Agreement” reached at the 2015 UN Conference on Climate change (COP21). Payments for Ecosystems (or Environmental) Services (PESs) are financial incentives given directly to landholders to compensate them for implementing good land management, including conservation activities. Such compensation encourages them to “voluntarily” provide (or continue providing) such services, instead of monetizing their “natural capital” otherwise. This approach has been figuratively described as “making trees worth more standing than cut down” Examples of important PES schemes, implemented in China and in Europe, are described and analyzed in this paper, focusing on the methods applied, to assess their evolution over time, and attempt to identify which solutions could be most effective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Regression Model to Predict the Higher Heating Value of Poultry Waste from Proximate Analysis
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 23 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
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Abstract
Improper land application of excess poultry waste (PW) causes environmental issues and other problems. Meanwhile there is an increasing trend of using PW as an alternative energy resource. The Higher Heating Value (HHV) is critical for designing and analyzing the PW conversion process.
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Improper land application of excess poultry waste (PW) causes environmental issues and other problems. Meanwhile there is an increasing trend of using PW as an alternative energy resource. The Higher Heating Value (HHV) is critical for designing and analyzing the PW conversion process. Several proximate-based mathematical models have been proposed to estimate the HHV of biomass, coal, and other solid fuels. Nevertheless, only a small number of studies have focused on a subclass of fuels, especially for PW. The aim of this study is to develop proximate-based regression models for an HHV prediction of PW. Sample data of PW were collected from open literature to develop regression models. The resulting models were then validated by additional PW samples and other published models. Results indicate that the most accurate model contains linear (all proximate components), polynomial terms (quadratic and cubic of volatile matter), and interaction effect (fixed carbon and ash). Moreover, results show that best-fit regression model has a higher R2 (91.62%) and lower estimation errors than the existing proximate-based models. Therefore, this new regression model can be an excellent tool for predicting the HHV of PW and does not require any expensive equipment that measures HHV or elemental compositions. Full article
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