Special Issue "Renewable Resources, Clean Resources, Future Resources"

A special issue of Resources (ISSN 2079-9276).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Eliseu Monteiro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
VALORIZA-Research Center for Endogenous Resource Valorisation, Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre, Portugal
Interests: gasification; combustion; biomass; CFD; waste-to-energy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Renewable resources will play a crucial role on the path towards meeting the energy demands of a growing global population and the economic needs of countries if these goals are to be achieved in a climate-friendly environment. Deployment of increasingly-renewable energy options continue to expand with electricity generation from renewable energy systems, currently accounting for half of the additional global energy generation. This is enhanced by declining costs and by dedicated policy initiatives and subsidies. Despite these, present and future advancements in renewable energies present uncertainties in terms of technical, policy and sustainability. Although there is minor usage of biomass and wastes in energy production, they have been gradually stating their power generating capacity, which has been constantly rising in the last decades. From the exposed, biomass and wastes can be thought as advantageous fuels towards their energy generating capacity allied to the almost negligible ecological footprint, which makes their combination an environmental breakthrough. This Special Issue is devoted to articles related to renewable resources, including, but not limited to, biomass, wastes, biogas and hydrogen. We are also seeking papers related to the environmental impacts of renewable resources through life cycle analyses, and potential future resources.

Dr. Eliseu Monteiro
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Resources is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomass
  • Municipal solid waste
  • Industrial waste
  • Agricultural waste including manure
  • Anaerobic digestion
  • Thermal gasification
  • Pyrolysis
  • Torrefaction
  • Densification

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Impact of pH and Ionic Molar Ratios on Phosphorous Forms Precipitation and Recovery from Different Wastewater Sludges
Resources 2018, 7(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources7040071 - 06 Nov 2018
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2515
Abstract
Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plants, which use it as a basic fertilizer component and is expected to increase significantly in the coming years due to higher food crops demand. Unfortunately, the available phosphorus natural reserves are not renewable, and estimates indicate [...] Read more.
Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plants, which use it as a basic fertilizer component and is expected to increase significantly in the coming years due to higher food crops demand. Unfortunately, the available phosphorus natural reserves are not renewable, and estimates indicate their rapid decline in the future. Urban wastewater, due to its abundance and relatively high phosphorus content, is an excellent candidate for phosphorus recovery, while the element’s removal from urban effluents was introduced in the 1970′s to limit the undesired effects of eutrophication. In this study, the process of struvite (and related phosphorous compounds) crystallization was investigated for three different sludge types, and the results were compared. While most studies focus strictly on anaerobically digested sludge for high struvite precipitation efficiency, this study investigated the possibility of inducing precipitation on both aerobic (extended aeration) and anaerobic sludges produced by two wastewater treatment plants in northern Italy. Analysis of precipitates from sludge samples was compared, where the focus was on the aerobic sludge, and its potential for struvite recovery. The effect of different reaction parameters was studied under different operating conditions, and the use and effects of Ca(OH)2 addition as an inexpensive potential pH adjustment reagent was investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Resources, Clean Resources, Future Resources)
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Article
Fermentable Sugar Production from the Peels of Two Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) Cultivars by Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment
Resources 2018, 7(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources7040060 - 20 Sep 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2576
Abstract
The potential of durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) peel as feedstock for the production of fermentable sugars was evaluated. Durian peel biomass from two cultivars, monthong (Durio zibethinus Murr. cv. Monthong) and chanee (Durio zibethinus Murr. cv. Chanee), were pretreated with [...] Read more.
The potential of durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) peel as feedstock for the production of fermentable sugars was evaluated. Durian peel biomass from two cultivars, monthong (Durio zibethinus Murr. cv. Monthong) and chanee (Durio zibethinus Murr. cv. Chanee), were pretreated with different concentrations (70%, 75%, 80%, and 85%) of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) at a moderate temperature of 60 °C for 60 min. The H3PO4-pretreated durian peel biomass was then subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. Significantly higher glucan (44.74 ± 0.21%) content was observed in the monthong peel compared to the chanee peel (42.06 ± 0.28%). Phosphoric acid pretreatment caused the significant solubilization of the xylan and acid soluble lignin (ASL) contents. This enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis process causing a significant increase in the hydrolysis efficiency and glucose concentration. The highest hydrolysis efficiency and glucose concentration were obtained after 72 h from the 75% H3PO4-pretreated peel biomass for both the monthong (90.33 ± 0.42% and 9.55 ± 0.11 g/L, respectively) and chanee (90.06 ± 0.40% and 8.56 ± 0.13 g/L, respectively) peels. Biomass to glucose recovery for monthong and chanee were improved by approximately 7- and 6-fold, respectively. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed destruction of the peel biomass structure and changes in the cellulose crystallinity index (CrIs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Resources, Clean Resources, Future Resources)
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Article
Saving Raw Materials for Cement Manufacture and Reusing an Untreated Waste from the Petrochemical Industry
Resources 2018, 7(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources7030056 - 12 Sep 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2265
Abstract
This research addresses the replacement of cement by an untreated waste from the petrochemical industry. The effects of partial replacement of cement by spent fluid cracking catalyst (SFCC) on properties of mortar were determined. In this study, a series of mortar mixes was [...] Read more.
This research addresses the replacement of cement by an untreated waste from the petrochemical industry. The effects of partial replacement of cement by spent fluid cracking catalyst (SFCC) on properties of mortar were determined. In this study, a series of mortar mixes was prepared with replacement ratios of 0%, 3%, 6%, and 12%. Furthermore, performance enhancing factors such as SFCC treatment or use of plasticizers were avoided. Workability, compressive strength, and durability related properties were assessed. An improvement regarding resistance to chloride penetration was observed, as well as that, when curing in salt water, the use of SFCC may be advantageous regarding compressive strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Resources, Clean Resources, Future Resources)
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Article
Agent-Based Model for End-of-Life Product Flow Analysis
Resources 2018, 7(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources7030042 - 12 Jul 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3278
Abstract
This paper presents an agent-based simulation model for end-of-life product flow analysis in recuperation and recycling supply networks that focuses on individual consumer behaviors. The simulation model is applied to a deposit-return program on wine bottles that could be developed in the province [...] Read more.
This paper presents an agent-based simulation model for end-of-life product flow analysis in recuperation and recycling supply networks that focuses on individual consumer behaviors. The simulation model is applied to a deposit-return program on wine bottles that could be developed in the province of Quebec. Canadian data was used to calibrate and validate the model. A series of experiments was then conducted with three artificial populations to analyse how they would react to several implementation scenarios of this end-of-life product flow strategy. The results suggest that the distance to the nearest depot is an important decision factor, but less predominant than the ownership of a private vehicle and the deposit value. The results also indicate that the use of agent-based modeling combined with the theory of planned behavior (TPB) can produce modular behavior models, that are intuitive and simple, to better understand consumer-behavior-driven supply chains. Such models can be used to give insights to decision-makers and policy-makers about the potential performance of end-of-life product flows strategies and further facilitate efficient resource management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Resources, Clean Resources, Future Resources)
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Article
Rice Hulls as a Renewable Complex Material Resource
Resources 2018, 7(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources7020031 - 21 May 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3957
Abstract
As a result of rice grain processing, a big amount of waste (up to 20%) is produced. It is mainly rice hulls. The main components of rice hulls are cellulose, lignin and mineral ash. The mineral ash quantity in rice hulls varies from [...] Read more.
As a result of rice grain processing, a big amount of waste (up to 20%) is produced. It is mainly rice hulls. The main components of rice hulls are cellulose, lignin and mineral ash. The mineral ash quantity in rice hulls varies from 15 up to 20%, by weight of the rice hulls. The mineral ash consists of amorphous silica (opal-type). Due to the high content of silica in rice hulls, the material burns with difficulty under natural conditions, and it is biodegradably destroyed only with difficulty, when composted. Utilization of rice hulls then becomes an ecological problem due to huge rice production and its continuous growth. At the same time, the annual quantity of silica content in rice hulls is comparable with the quantity of amorphous silica produced as a mineral resource. The issue of manufacturing cellular glass silica construction materials from rice hulls as a renewable resource is discussed in this paper. The utilization technology is based on an amorphous silicon oxide with the use of energy from the combustion of the organic component of rice hulls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Resources, Clean Resources, Future Resources)
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Review

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Review
Review of Generated Waste from Cruisers: Dubrovnik, Split, and Zadar Port Case Studies
Resources 2018, 7(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources7040072 - 09 Nov 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2028
Abstract
The amount of waste generated is becoming an increasing problem both in terms of inefficient use of resources and its harmful effects. Large quantities of waste originate from land, but a certain amount of waste is generated at sea, in which shipping holds [...] Read more.
The amount of waste generated is becoming an increasing problem both in terms of inefficient use of resources and its harmful effects. Large quantities of waste originate from land, but a certain amount of waste is generated at sea, in which shipping holds its share. A recent analysis for 2015–2016 has rated the Croatian ports of Dubrovnik, Split, and Zadar in the top 10 out of 20 main cruising ports in the Adriatic Sea. As it is clear that a large number of persons present onboard generate a large amount of waste, the aim of this paper is to estimate the amount of waste (plastic, domestic, and food) and examine the significance of its increasing quantity produced by cruisers in the three main cruiser ports in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea for the period 2014–2017. Cruise calls correlation, together with repeated measures one-way Analysis of variance -ANOVA, showed that a future increase in the port calls for Zadar can be expected while, for the port of Dubrovnik, a decrease is projected, which is in correspondence with the taken measures for a reduction in the adverse effects of the cruise industry. Regarding the type of waste, domestic waste contributes the most with 62%, followed by the plastic waste with 26%, and food waste, which makes only 11% of the total amount of waste for that year. Waste minimization practices and further recommendations for the improvement of waste management practices are presented and put into relation with specific measures to protect and preserve the quality of the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Resources, Clean Resources, Future Resources)
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Other

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Erratum
Erratum: Daneshgar, S., et al. Simulations and Laboratory Tests for Assessing Phosphorus Recovery Efficiency from Sewage Sludge, Resources 2018, 7, 54
Resources 2019, 8(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8010040 - 20 Feb 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Resources, Clean Resources, Future Resources)
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