Next Article in Journal
Ecological Footprint Accounting for Countries: Updates and Results of the National Footprint Accounts, 2012–2018
Previous Article in Journal
Saving Raw Materials for Cement Manufacture and Reusing an Untreated Waste from the Petrochemical Industry
Open AccessReview

Global Lithium Sources—Industrial Use and Future in the Electric Vehicle Industry: A Review

EnviroCORE, Department of Science and Health, Institute of Technology Carlow, Kilkenny, Road, Co., R93-V960 Carlow, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Resources 2018, 7(3), 57;
Received: 28 July 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
Lithium is a key component in green energy storage technologies and is rapidly becoming a metal of crucial importance to the European Union. The different industrial uses of lithium are discussed in this review along with a compilation of the locations of the main geological sources of lithium. An emphasis is placed on lithium’s use in lithium ion batteries and their use in the electric vehicle industry. The electric vehicle market is driving new demand for lithium resources. The expected scale-up in this sector will put pressure on current lithium supplies. The European Union has a burgeoning demand for lithium and is the second largest consumer of lithium resources. Currently, only 1–2% of worldwide lithium is produced in the European Union (Portugal). There are several lithium mineralisations scattered across Europe, the majority of which are currently undergoing mining feasibility studies. The increasing cost of lithium is driving a new global mining boom and should see many of Europe’s mineralisation’s becoming economic. The information given in this paper is a source of contextual information that can be used to support the European Union’s drive towards a low carbon economy and to develop the field of research. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium; electric vehicle; source; industrial use lithium; electric vehicle; source; industrial use
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kavanagh, L.; Keohane, J.; Garcia Cabellos, G.; Lloyd, A.; Cleary, J. Global Lithium Sources—Industrial Use and Future in the Electric Vehicle Industry: A Review. Resources 2018, 7, 57.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop