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Resources, Volume 11, Issue 1 (January 2022) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Increasing Arctic exploitation activity has intensified maritime traffic in the Barents Sea. Due to the sparse population and insufficient oil spill response infrastructure on the extensive shoreline, it is necessary to address the possibility of offshore accidents and study hazards to the local environment and its resources. This research provides simulations of surface oil spills in the southeast of the Barents Sea. The spill site is located near ecologically and economically important areas and lies within busy maritime routes. The study shows probable seasonal spill trajectories over a 30-year time span. In addition to the discussion of likely impacts on local marine ecosystems, the applicable oil spill response tools are estimated, and favorable shipping seasons are suggested. View this paper
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Article
Changes in Terrestrial Evaporation across Poland over the Past Four Decades Dominated by Increases in Summer Months
Resources 2022, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11010006 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 854
Abstract
Given the importance of terrestrial evaporation (ET) for the water cycle, a fundamental understanding of the water quantity involved in this process is required. As recent observations reveal a widespread ET intensification across the world, it is important to evaluate regional ET variability. [...] Read more.
Given the importance of terrestrial evaporation (ET) for the water cycle, a fundamental understanding of the water quantity involved in this process is required. As recent observations reveal a widespread ET intensification across the world, it is important to evaluate regional ET variability. The specific objectives of this study are the following: (1) to assess annual and monthly ET trends across Poland, and (2) to reveal seasons and regions with significant ET changes. This study uses the ET estimates acquired from the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) dataset allowing for multi-year analysis (1980–2020). The Mann–Kendall test and the Sen’s slope were applied to estimate the significance and magnitude of the trends. The results show that a rising temperature, along with small precipitation increase, led to the accelerated ET of 1.36 mm/y. This was revealed by increased transpiration and interception loss not compensated by a decrease in bare soil evaporation and sublimation. The wide-spread higher water consumption especially occurred during the summer months of June, July, and August. Comparing the two subperiods of 1980–2020, it was found that in 2007–2020, the annual ET increased by 7% compared to the reference period of 1980–2006. These results can serve as an important reference for formulating a water resources management strategy in Poland. Full article
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Article
From Old Habits to New Routines—A Case Study of Food Waste Generation and Reduction in Four Swedish Schools
Resources 2022, 11(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11010005 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
Public food service organizations are large producers of food waste, which leads to greenhouse gas emissions and the waste of natural resources. The aim of the present article was to gain insight into reasons for food waste and possible solutions for lowering food [...] Read more.
Public food service organizations are large producers of food waste, which leads to greenhouse gas emissions and the waste of natural resources. The aim of the present article was to gain insight into reasons for food waste and possible solutions for lowering food waste in schools in Sweden. In order to do so, food waste quantification in school canteens in two Swedish municipalities and nine qualitative interviews with key actors were conducted. Both municipalities displayed a high degree of variation in food waste, but the common pattern was that serving waste constituted the largest fraction of food waste, followed by plate waste and storage waste, as well as a gradual decrease in food waste over time. Food waste was mainly a result of old, disadvantageous habits, such as overproduction due to forecasting difficulties, whereas new, better routines such as serving fewer options, better planning, and a less stressful environment are the key to lowering food waste. Because food waste varies from one case to the next, it becomes important to identify and measure the causes of food waste in each school in order to be able to establish tailor-made, conscious, and flexible food waste mitigation routines. Full article
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Article
Evaluating the Downstream Development Strategy of Oil Companies: The Case of Rosneft
Resources 2022, 11(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11010004 - 07 Jan 2022
Viewed by 744
Abstract
The relevance of this study is due to the low rate of development of the downstream sectors of Russian oil companies. Against a background of the sale of significant volumes of oil and gas raw materials, Russia lags behind world leaders in the [...] Read more.
The relevance of this study is due to the low rate of development of the downstream sectors of Russian oil companies. Against a background of the sale of significant volumes of oil and gas raw materials, Russia lags behind world leaders in the production and consumption of petrochemical and chemical products, with their share in the gross domestic product of the country being only 1.1%. Connected to this is the issue of substantiating strategies of development for the downstream sectors of Russian oil companies, which requires detailed research. In this light, it is necessary to take into account current trends in the worldwide demand on petroleum products and also the opportunities and competitive advantages of Russian oil and gas companies in the creation and development of refineries with a consideration of modern technological, environmental, social and market criteria. The paper tests hypotheses about modernisation as a process of increasing efficiency in the development of the industry as a whole. The results of the study show that the planned pace of development in the industry by means of modernisation proves to be insufficient and requires additional investments in innovative development and new construction. The value of the research lies in the modelling of modernisation strategy options by the example of a large oil company, the estimation of results by the criteria of world average indices of technological efficiency of production and the analysis of these results by state indicators of branch development. The theoretical significance of the research lies in the possibility of using this research approach as an analogue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resources in Smart Factory in Industry 4.0 Conditions)
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Article
Arctic Shelf Oil and Gas Prospects from Lower-Middle Paleozoic Sediments of the Timan–Pechora Oil and Gas Province Based on the Results of a Regional Study
Resources 2022, 11(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11010003 - 28 Dec 2021
Viewed by 573
Abstract
The Timan–Pechora oil and gas province (TPP), despite the good geological and geophysical knowledge of its central and southern regions, remains poorly studied in the extreme northwestern part within the north of the Izhma–Pechora depression and the Malozemelsk–Kolguev monocline, and in the extreme [...] Read more.
The Timan–Pechora oil and gas province (TPP), despite the good geological and geophysical knowledge of its central and southern regions, remains poorly studied in the extreme northwestern part within the north of the Izhma–Pechora depression and the Malozemelsk–Kolguev monocline, and in the extreme northeast within the Predpaikhoisky depression. Assessing the oil and gas potential of the Lower Paleozoic part of the section is urgently required in the northwestern part of the TPP, the productivity of which has been proven at the border and in the more eastern regions of the province (Pechora–Kolva, Khoreyverskaya, Varandei–Adzva regions), that have been evaluated ambiguously. A comprehensive interpretation of the seismic exploration of regional works was carried out, with the wells significantly clarifying the structural basis and the boundaries of the distribution of the main seismic facies’ complexes. The capabilities of potentially oil- and gas-producing strata in the Silurian–Lower Devonian were studied. An analysis of migration routes in transit strata used for basin modeling in order to reconstruct the conditions of oil and gas formation that are common in the land and water areas of the Arctic zone of the TPP was carried out. Modeling allowed us to reach an understanding of the formation of large zones with possible accumulations of hydrocarbons, including the time at which the formation occurred and under what conditions, to establish space–time links with possible centers of generation to identify migration directions and, based on a comparison with periods of intensive generation of hydrocarbons both directly located within the work area and beyond (noting the possible migration), to identify zones of the paleoaccumulation of hydrocarbons. The body of existing literature on the subject made it possible to outline promising oil and gas accumulation zones, with the allocation of target objects for further exploration in the Lower Paleozoic part of the section. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resource Provision of the Sustainable Development under Global Shocks)
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Article
Novel Foods and Neophobia: Evidence from Greece, Cyprus, and Uganda
Resources 2022, 11(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11010002 - 27 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1197
Abstract
The exploitation of agri-food industrial by-products to produce novel foods is a promising strategy in the framework of policies promoting the bioeconomy and circular economy. Within this context, this study aims to examine the effect of food neophobia and food technology neophobia in [...] Read more.
The exploitation of agri-food industrial by-products to produce novel foods is a promising strategy in the framework of policies promoting the bioeconomy and circular economy. Within this context, this study aims to examine the effect of food neophobia and food technology neophobia in the acceptance of a novel food by consumers (through an EU research project: Sybawhey). As a case study, a functional yogurt-like product was developed by synergistic processing of halloumi cheese whey, enriched with banana by-products. The present study contributes to the literature by examining consumers’ perceptions for such a novel food, identifying the profile of potential final users and classifying them according to their “neophobic tendency”. A comparative approach among groups from Greece, Cyprus and Uganda was adopted to explore whether respondents have a different attitude towards this novel yogurt. Results suggest that there is a potential for increasing consumption of novel foods derived by agri-food industrial by-products, but more information about the importance of using by-products are required to enhance consumers’ acceptance of this novel food. Such results may be useful to policy makers, aiming to promote strategies towards the effective reuse of food outputs leading to the manufacture of sustainable novel foods. Full article
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Article
A 30-Year Probability Map for Oil Spill Trajectories in the Barents Sea to Assess Potential Environmental and Socio-Economic Threats
Resources 2022, 11(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11010001 - 24 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1208
Abstract
Increasing exploration and exploitation activity in the Arctic Ocean has intensified maritime traffic in the Barents Sea. Due to the sparse population and insufficient oil spill response infrastructure on the extensive Barents Sea shoreline, it is necessary to address the possibility of offshore [...] Read more.
Increasing exploration and exploitation activity in the Arctic Ocean has intensified maritime traffic in the Barents Sea. Due to the sparse population and insufficient oil spill response infrastructure on the extensive Barents Sea shoreline, it is necessary to address the possibility of offshore accidents and study hazards to the local environment and its resources. Simulations of surface oil spills were conducted in south-east of the Barents Sea to identify oil pollution trajectories. The objective of this research was to focus on one geographical location, which lies along popular maritime routes and also borders with sensitive ecological marine and terrestrial areas. As a sample of traditional heavy bunker oil, IFO-180LS (2014) was selected for the study of oil spills and used for the 30-year simulations. The second oil case was medium oil type: Volve (2006)—to give a broader picture for oil spill accident scenarios. Simulations for four annual seasons were run with the open source OpenDrift modelling tool using oceanographic and atmospheric data from the period of 1988–2018. The modelling produced a 30-year probability map, which was overlapped with environmental data of the area to discuss likely impacts to local marine ecosystems, applicable oil spill response tools and favourable shipping seasons. Based on available data regarding the environmental and socio-economic baselines of the studied region, we recommend to address potential threats to marine resources and local communities in more detail in a separate study. Full article
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