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Synthesis of Antifungal Agents from Xanthene and Thiazine Dyes and Analysis of Their Effects

Fiber Science & Apparel Design, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA
Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, 2401 Research Dr., Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Nann
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(12), 243;
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Indoor fungi growth is an increasing home health problem as our homes are more tightly sealed. One thing that limits durability of the antifungal agents is the scarcity of reactive sites on many surfaces to attach these agents. In order to increase graft yield of photosensitizers to the fabrics, poly(acrylic acid-co-styrene sulfonic acid-co-vinyl benzyl rose bengal or phloxine B) were polymerized and then grafted to electrospun fabrics. In an alternative process, azure A or toluidine blue O were grafted to poly(acrylic acid), which was subsequently grafted to nanofiber-based and microfiber-based fabrics. The fabrics grafted with photosensitizers induced antifungal effects on all seven types of fungi in the order of rose bengal > phloxine B > toluidine blue O > azure A, which follows the quantum yield production of singlet oxygen for these photoactive dyes. Their inhibition rates for inactivating fungal spores decreased in the order of P. cinnamomi, T. viride, A. niger, A. fumigatus, C. globosum, P. funiculosum, and M. grisea, which is associated with lipid composition in membrane and the morphology of fungal spores. The antifungal activity was also correlated with the surface area of fabric types which grafted the photosensitizer covalently on the surface as determined by the bound color strength. View Full-Text
Keywords: antifungal photosensitizer; nanofiber; Aspergillus; Chaetomium; Magnaporthe antifungal photosensitizer; nanofiber; Aspergillus; Chaetomium; Magnaporthe
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Kim, J.R.; Michielsen, S. Synthesis of Antifungal Agents from Xanthene and Thiazine Dyes and Analysis of Their Effects. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 243.

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