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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 15, Issue 2 (February 2024) – 24 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Degradable layer-by-layer (LbL) coatings have advantages over traditional biomedical coatings due to their precision of assembly, versatile inclusion of bioactive molecules, and conformality to the complex architectures of implantable devices. However, controlling the degradation rate has remained a challenge. This work employs polyphosphazenes as promising candidates for film assembly due to their inherent biocompatibility, tunability of chemical composition, and the buffering capability of degradation products. Importantly, tunable degradation rates of polyphosphazene-based LbL films were achieved by varying assembly conditions. In practical applications, these coatings can serve as biocompatible platforms for various biomedical applications and controlled release systems. View this paper
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19 pages, 7403 KiB  
Article
Advanced Platelet Lysate Aerogels: Biomaterials for Regenerative Applications
by Fahd Tibourtine, Thibault Canceill, Andrea Marfoglia, Philippe Lavalle, Laure Gibot, Ludovic Pilloux, Clementine Aubry, Claire Medemblik, Dominique Goudouneche, Agnès Dupret-Bories and Sophie Cazalbou
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020049 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Human platelet lysate (HPL), rich in growth factors, is increasingly recognized for its potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, its use in liquid or gel form is constrained by limited stability and handling difficulties. This study aimed to develop dry and [...] Read more.
Human platelet lysate (HPL), rich in growth factors, is increasingly recognized for its potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, its use in liquid or gel form is constrained by limited stability and handling difficulties. This study aimed to develop dry and porous aerogels from HPL hydrogel using an environmentally friendly supercritical CO2-based shaping process, specifically tailored for tissue engineering applications. The aerogels produced retained their three-dimensional structure and demonstrated significant mechanical robustness and enhanced manageability. Impressively, they exhibited high water absorption capacity, absorbing 87% of their weight in water within 120 min. Furthermore, the growth factors released by these aerogels showed a sustained and favourable biological response in vitro. They maintained the cellular metabolic activity of fibroblasts (BALB-3T3) at levels akin to conventional culture conditions, even after prolonged storage, and facilitated the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, the aerogels themselves supported the adhesion and proliferation of murine fibroblasts (BALB-3T3). Beyond serving as excellent matrices for cell culture, these aerogels function as efficient systems for the delivery of growth factors. Their multifunctional capabilities position them as promising candidates for various tissue regeneration strategies. Importantly, the developed aerogels can be stored conveniently and are considered ready to use, enhancing their practicality and applicability in regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Periodontal Regeneration)
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19 pages, 754 KiB  
Systematic Review
Evaluating Glass Ionomer Cement Longevity in the Primary and Permanent Teeth—An Umbrella Review
by Alessandro Panetta, Pedro Lopes, Tatiane Fernandes Novaes, Rute Rio, Gustavo Vicentis Oliveira Fernandes and Anna Carolina Volpi Mello-Moura
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020048 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1299
Abstract
The aim of this umbrella review was to evaluate the longevity of glass ionomer cement (GIC) as a restorative material for primary and permanent teeth. Research in the literature was conducted in three databases (MedLine/PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus). The inclusion criteria [...] Read more.
The aim of this umbrella review was to evaluate the longevity of glass ionomer cement (GIC) as a restorative material for primary and permanent teeth. Research in the literature was conducted in three databases (MedLine/PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus). The inclusion criteria were: (1) to be a systematic review of clinical trials that (2) evaluated the clinical longevity of GICs as a restorative material in primary and/or permanent teeth; the exclusion criteria were: (1) not being a systematic review of clinical trials; (2) not evaluating longevity/clinical performance of GICs as a restorative material; and (3) studies of dental restorative materials in teeth with enamel alterations, root caries, and non-carious cervical lesions. Twenty-four eligible articles were identified, and 13 were included. The follow-up periods ranged from 6 months to 6 years. Different types of GICs were evaluated in the included studies: resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), compomers, and low- and high-viscosity glass ionomer cement. Some studies compared amalgam and composite resins to GICs regarding longevity/clinical performance. Analyzing the AMSTAR-2 results, none of the articles had positive criteria in all the evaluated requisites, and none of the articles had an a priori design. The criteria considered for the analysis of the risk of bias of the included studies were evaluated through the ROBIS tool, and the results of this analysis showed that seven studies had a low risk of bias; three studies had positive results in all criteria except for one criterion of unclear risk; and two studies showed a high risk of bias. GRADE tool was used to determine the quality of evidence; for the degree of recommendations, all studies were classified as Class II, meaning there was still conflicting evidence on the clinical performance/longevity of GICs and their recommendations compared to other materials. The level of evidence was classified as Level B, meaning that the data were obtained from less robust meta-analyses and single randomized clinical trials. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first umbrella review approaching GIC in permanent teeth. GICs are a good choice in both dentitions, but primary dentition presents more evidence, especially regarding the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) technique. Within the limitation of this study, it is still questionable if GIC is a good restorative material in the medium/long term for permanent and primary dentition. Many of the included studies presented a high risk of bias and low quality. The techniques, type of GIC, type of cavity, and operator experience highly influence clinical performance. Thus, clinical decision-making should be based on the dental practitioner’s ability, each case analysis, and the patient’s wishes. More evidence is needed to determine which is the best material for definitive restorations in permanent and primary dentition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art in Dental Composite Materials and Dentin Adhesion)
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0 pages, 6128 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Strain Distribution in Common Clinical Designs of Posterior Implant-Supported Fixed Partial Restorations: Comparison between Six Configurations
by Oded Ghelfan, Joseph Nissan, Asaf Shely, Gil Ben-Izhack, Liat Chaushu, Esi Sharon, Ari Glikman, Eran Zenziper and Ofir Rosner
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020047 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 899
Abstract
The configuration of implant-supported prostheses is considered to influence the magnitude of stress concentrations, affecting their survival rate. The purpose of this study is to determine, through strain gauge measurements during load application, the dispersion and magnitude of strain concentrations in different implant-supported [...] Read more.
The configuration of implant-supported prostheses is considered to influence the magnitude of stress concentrations, affecting their survival rate. The purpose of this study is to determine, through strain gauge measurements during load application, the dispersion and magnitude of strain concentrations in different implant-supported prosthesis designs. All designs matched those commonly used in posterior partially edentulous states. Three implants were inserted into an epoxy resin model (PLM-4B Vishay Measurements Group Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA), allowing for the delivery of three- and four-unit crowns in different cemented configurations. Loads were applied at vertical and oblique directions over the cast crowns in six different configurations representing various posterior partially edentulous restorations. The readings from the strain gauges adhered to the implant necks’ presented data on implant strain. Prostheses including cantilevers showed the highest strain among the three-unit prostheses within the prosthetic complex, and three single units showed the least (8133 µs vs. 201 µs, respectively). Angulated load application also had a role in amplifying the strains recorded, resulting in total strains of between 3.5 and 20 times higher than during vertical loading in all configurations. It can be concluded that the configuration of implant-fixed partial prosthesis changes the loads engaging the restoration, the implant, and, probably, the supporting bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Oral Reconstructive Treatment)
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24 pages, 19800 KiB  
Article
Advanced Ti–Nb–Ta Alloys for Bone Implants with Improved Functionality
by Jan-Oliver Sass, Marie-Luise Sellin, Elisa Kauertz, Jan Johannsen, Markus Weinmann, Melanie Stenzel, Marcus Frank, Danny Vogel, Rainer Bader and Anika Jonitz-Heincke
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020046 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1125
Abstract
The additive manufacturing of titanium–niobium–tantalum alloys with nominal chemical compositions Ti–xNb–6Ta (x = 20, 27, 35) by means of laser beam powder bed fusion is reported, and their potential as implant materials is elaborated by mechanical and biological characterization. The properties of dense [...] Read more.
The additive manufacturing of titanium–niobium–tantalum alloys with nominal chemical compositions Ti–xNb–6Ta (x = 20, 27, 35) by means of laser beam powder bed fusion is reported, and their potential as implant materials is elaborated by mechanical and biological characterization. The properties of dense specimens manufactured in different build orientations and of open porous Ti–20Nb–6Ta specimens are evaluated. Compression tests indicate that strength and elasticity are influenced by the chemical composition and build orientation. The minimum elasticity is always observed in the 90° orientation. It is lowest for Ti–20Nb–6Ta (43.2 ± 2.7 GPa) and can be further reduced to 8.1 ± 1.0 GPa for open porous specimens (p < 0.001). Furthermore, human osteoblasts are cultivated for 7 and 14 days on as-printed specimens and their biological response is compared to that of Ti–6Al–4V. Build orientation and cultivation time significantly affect the gene expression profile of osteogenic differentiation markers. Incomplete cell spreading is observed in specimens manufactured in 0° build orientation, whereas widely stretched cells are observed in 90° build orientation, i.e., parallel to the build direction. Compared to Ti–6Al–4V, Ti–Nb–Ta specimens promote improved osteogenesis and reduce the induction of inflammation. Accordingly, Ti–xNb–6Ta alloys have favorable mechanical and biological properties with great potential for application in orthopedic implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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27 pages, 1270 KiB  
Systematic Review
Surface Functionalization of Titanium-Based Implants with a Nanohydroxyapatite Layer and Its Impact on Osteoblasts: A Systematic Review
by Karolina Homa, Wojciech Zakrzewski, Wojciech Dobrzyński, Paweł J. Piszko, Aleksandra Piszko, Jacek Matys, Rafal J. Wiglusz and Maciej Dobrzyński
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020045 - 16 Feb 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the influence of a nanohydroxyapatite layer applied to the surface of titanium or titanium alloy implants on the intricate process of osseointegration and its effect on osteoblast cell lines, compared to uncoated implants. Additionally, the investigation scrutinizes various [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the influence of a nanohydroxyapatite layer applied to the surface of titanium or titanium alloy implants on the intricate process of osseointegration and its effect on osteoblast cell lines, compared to uncoated implants. Additionally, the investigation scrutinizes various modifications of the coating and their consequential effects on bone and cell line biocompatibility. On the specific date of November 2023, an exhaustive electronic search was conducted in esteemed databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, utilizing the meticulously chosen keywords ((titanium) AND ((osteoblasts) and hydroxyapatite)). Methodologically, the systematic review meticulously adhered to the PRISMA protocol. Initially, a total of 1739 studies underwent scrutiny, with the elimination of 741 duplicate records. A further 972 articles were excluded on account of their incongruence with the predefined subjects. The ultimate compilation embraced 26 studies, with a predominant focus on the effects of nanohydroxyapatite coating in isolation. However, a subset of nine papers delved into the nuanced realm of its modifiers, encompassing materials such as chitosan, collagen, silver particles, or gelatine. Across many of the selected studies, the application of nanohydroxyapatite coating exhibited a proclivity to enhance the osseointegration process. The modifications thereof showcased a positive influence on cell lines, manifesting in increased cellular spread or the attenuation of bacterial activity. In clinical applications, this augmentation potentially translates into heightened implant stability, thereby amplifying the overall procedural success rate. This, in turn, renders nanohydroxyapatite-coated implants a viable and potentially advantageous option in clinical scenarios where non-modified implants may not suffice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Biomaterials and Implants for Dentistry)
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15 pages, 1064 KiB  
Systematic Review
Multidimensional 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Regeneration of Intrabony Periodontal Defects: A Systematic Review
by Sotiria Davidopoulou, Panagiotis Karakostas, Leonidas Batas, Panagiotis Barmpalexis, Andreana Assimopoulou, Christos Angelopoulos and Lazaros Tsalikis
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020044 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Background: The utilization of regenerative techniques in periodontology involves tailoring tissue engineering principles to suit the oral cavity’s unique environment. Advancements in computer-assisted technology, specifically utilizing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), enabled the fabrication of 3D-printed scaffolds. The current review aims to explore [...] Read more.
Background: The utilization of regenerative techniques in periodontology involves tailoring tissue engineering principles to suit the oral cavity’s unique environment. Advancements in computer-assisted technology, specifically utilizing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), enabled the fabrication of 3D-printed scaffolds. The current review aims to explore whether 3D-printed scaffolds are effective in promoting osteogenesis in patients with periodontal defects. Methods: A thorough exploration was undertaken across seven electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Cochrane, Web of Science, Ovid) to detect pertinent research in accordance with specified eligibility criteria, aligning with the PRISMA guidelines. Two independent reviewers undertook the screening and selection of manuscripts, executed data extraction, and evaluated the bias risk using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale for non-randomized clinical trials and SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool for animal studies. Results: Initially, 799 articles were identified, refined by removing duplicates. After evaluating 471 articles based on title and abstract, 18 studies remained for full-text assessment. Eventually, merely two manuscripts fulfilled all the eligibility criteria concerning human trials. Both studies were prospective non-randomized clinical trials. Moreover, 11 animal studies were also included. Conclusions: The use of multidimensional, 3D-printed, customized scaffolds appears to stimulate periodontal regeneration. While the reported results are encouraging, additional studies are required to identify the ideal characteristics of the 3D scaffold to be used in the regeneration of periodontal tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Biomaterials)
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14 pages, 2120 KiB  
Article
Surface Modification Strategies for Chrysin-Loaded Iron Oxide Nanoparticles to Boost Their Anti-Tumor Efficacy in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells
by Aynura Karimova, Sabina Hajizada, Habiba Shirinova, Sevinj Nuriyeva, Lala Gahramanli, Mohammed M. Yusuf, Stefano Bellucci, Christoph Reissfelder and Vugar Yagublu
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020043 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1809
Abstract
Enhancing nanoparticles’ anti-cancer capabilities as drug carriers requires the careful adjustment of formulation parameters, including loading efficiency, drug/carrier ratio, and synthesis method. Small adjustments to these parameters can significantly influence the drug-loading efficiency of nanoparticles. Our study explored how chitosan and polyethylene glycol [...] Read more.
Enhancing nanoparticles’ anti-cancer capabilities as drug carriers requires the careful adjustment of formulation parameters, including loading efficiency, drug/carrier ratio, and synthesis method. Small adjustments to these parameters can significantly influence the drug-loading efficiency of nanoparticles. Our study explored how chitosan and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coatings affect the structural properties, drug-loading efficiency, and anti-cancer efficacy of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs). The loading efficiency of the NPs was determined using FTIR spectrometry and XRD. The quantity of chrysin incorporated into the coated NPs was examined using UV–Vis spectrometry. The effect of the NPs on cell viability and apoptosis was determined by employing the HCT 116 human colon carcinoma cell line. We showed that a two-fold increase in drug concentration did not impact the loading efficiency of Fe3O4 NPs coated with PEG. However, there was a 33 Å difference in the crystallite sizes obtained from chitosan-coated Fe3O4 NPs and drug concentrations of 1:0.5 and 1:2, resulting in decreased system stability. In conclusion, PEG coating exhibited a higher loading efficiency of Fe3O4 NPs compared to chitosan, resulting in enhanced anti-tumor effects. Furthermore, variations in the loaded amount of chrysin did not impact the crystallinity of PEG-coated NPs, emphasizing the stability and regularity of the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Nanocompounds for Cancer Therapy)
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17 pages, 10665 KiB  
Article
Femtosecond Laser Irradiation to Zirconia Prior to Calcium Phosphate Coating Enhances Osteointegration of Zirconia in Rabbits
by Hirotaka Mutsuzaki, Hidehiko Yashiro, Masayuki Kakehata, Ayako Oyane and Atsuo Ito
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020042 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1097
Abstract
Calcium phosphate (CaP) coating of zirconia and zirconia-based implants is challenging, due to their chemical instability and susceptibility to thermal and mechanical impacts. A 3 mol% yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal was subjected to femtosecond laser (FsL) irradiation to form micro- and submicron surface [...] Read more.
Calcium phosphate (CaP) coating of zirconia and zirconia-based implants is challenging, due to their chemical instability and susceptibility to thermal and mechanical impacts. A 3 mol% yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal was subjected to femtosecond laser (FsL) irradiation to form micro- and submicron surface architectures, prior to CaP coating using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and low-temperature solution processing. Untreated zirconia, CaP-coated zirconia, and FsL-irradiated and CaP-coated zirconia were implanted in proximal tibial metaphyses of male Japanese white rabbits for four weeks. Radiographical analysis, push-out test, alizarin red staining, and histomorphometric analysis demonstrated a much improved bone-bonding ability of FsL-irradiated and CaP-coated zirconia over CaP-coated zirconia without FsL irradiation and untreated zirconia. The failure strength of the FsL-irradiated and CaP-coated zirconia in the push−out test was 6.2–13.1-times higher than that of the CaP-coated zirconia without FsL irradiation and untreated zirconia. Moreover, the adhesion strength between the bone and FsL-irradiated and CaP-coated zirconia was as high as that inducing host bone fracture in the push-out tests. The increased bone-bonding ability was attributed to the micro-/submicron surface architectures that enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and mechanical interlocking, leading to improved osteointegration. FsL irradiation followed by CaP coating could be useful for improving the osteointegration of cement-less zirconia-based joints and zirconia dental implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scaffolds and Implants for Bone Regeneration)
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11 pages, 2317 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Dentinal Shear Bond Strength and Resin Interface in Primary Molars after Pre-Treatment with Various Dentin Bio-Modifiers: An In Vitro Study
by Saima Sultan, Seema Chaudhary, T. R. Chaitra, Naveen Manuja, Sinha Ashish Amit, Mamata Iranna Hebbal, Alhanoof Aldegheishem, Selma A. Saadaldin, Elzahraa Eldwakhly, Amal Ali and Mai Soliman
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020041 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Dentine adhesives have demonstrated great success with permanent teeth. Though the results in primary teeth are not well documented, some studies have demonstrated lower values of bond strength in primary teeth than those found in permanent teeth. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Dentine adhesives have demonstrated great success with permanent teeth. Though the results in primary teeth are not well documented, some studies have demonstrated lower values of bond strength in primary teeth than those found in permanent teeth. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the effect of grape seed extract (6.5%) (Herbal Bio Solutions, Delhi, India), glutaraldehyde (5%) (Loba Chemie PVT. LTD., Mumbai), hesperidin (0.5%) (Herbal Bio Solutions, Delhi, India), and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (tooth mousse) (GC Corporation, Alsip, IL, USA) on the shear bond strength of dentine of primary teeth and to evaluate the resin tags at the resin tooth interface. Seventy-five caries-free human primary molars were collected, and their occlusal surfaces were ground flat. Dentin surfaces were etched using phosphoric acid. Then teeth were randomly assigned in sequential order to five groups according to the dentinal treatment method: Group I (Control group) (no treatment), Group II (5% glutaraldehyde), Group III (6.5% grape seed extract), Group IV (0.5% hesperidin), and Group V (CPP-ACP). Ten teeth from each group were assigned for Shear Bond Strength and five for SEM analysis. ANOVA and a post hoc least significant difference test (p < 0.05) were used for statistical analysis of the collected data. The grape seed extract group showed significantly increased shear bond strength than the control group (p < 0.05), and the mean length of resin tags in different dentine bio modifiers groups was also statistically significant (p < 0.05). The use of dentin bio modifiers such as 5% glutaraldehyde, 6.5% grape seed extract, 0.5% hesperidin, and CPP-ACP in the bonding process for primary teeth did not improve the dentinal bond strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials in Conservative Dentistry and Prosthodontics)
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11 pages, 1386 KiB  
Article
Superfluorinated, Highly Water-Soluble Polyphosphazenes as Potential 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Contrast Agents
by Paul Strasser, Verena Schinegger, Joachim Friske, Oliver Brüggemann, Thomas H. Helbich, Ian Teasdale and Irena Pashkunova-Martic
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020040 - 10 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1029
Abstract
“Hot spot” 19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has garnered significant attention recently for its ability to image various disease markers quantitatively. Unlike conventional gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents, which rely on proton signal modulation, 19F-MRI’s direct detection has a unique advantage in [...] Read more.
“Hot spot” 19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has garnered significant attention recently for its ability to image various disease markers quantitatively. Unlike conventional gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents, which rely on proton signal modulation, 19F-MRI’s direct detection has a unique advantage in vivo, as the human body exhibits a negligible background 19F-signal. However, existing perfluorocarbon (PFC) or PFC-based contrast materials suffer from several limitations, including low longitudinal relaxation rates and relatively low imaging efficiency. Hence, we designed a macromolecular contrast agent featuring a high number of magnetically equivalent 19F-nuclei in a single macromolecule, adequate fluorine nucleus mobility, and excellent water solubility. This design utilizes superfluorinated polyphosphazene (PPz) polymers as the 19F-source; these are modified with sodium mercaptoethanesulfonate (MESNa) to achieve water solubility exceeding 360 mg/mL, which is a similar solubility to that of sodium chloride. We observed substantial signal enhancement in MRI with these novel macromolecular carriers compared to non-enhanced surroundings and aqueous trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) used as a positive control. In conclusion, these novel water-soluble macromolecular carriers represent a promising platform for future MRI contrast agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Polymers for the Delivery of Vaccines and Therapeutics)
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13 pages, 3614 KiB  
Article
Reconstructive Approach in Residual Periodontal Pockets with Biofunctionalized Heterografts—A Retrospective Comparison of 12-Month Data from Three Centers
by Anton Friedmann, Pheline Liedloff, Meizi Eliezer, Arthur Brincat, Thomas Ostermann and Daniel Diehl
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020039 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1103
Abstract
The regenerative capacity of well-preserved blood clots may be enhanced by biologics like enamel matrix derivative (EMD). This retrospective analysis compares outcomes reported by three centers using different heterografts. Center 1 (C1) treated intrabony defects combining cross-linked high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (xHyA) with a [...] Read more.
The regenerative capacity of well-preserved blood clots may be enhanced by biologics like enamel matrix derivative (EMD). This retrospective analysis compares outcomes reported by three centers using different heterografts. Center 1 (C1) treated intrabony defects combining cross-linked high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (xHyA) with a xenograft; center 2 (C2) used EMD with an allograft combination to graft a residual pocket. Center 3 (C3) combined xHyA with the placement of a resorbable polymer membrane for defect cover. Clinical parameters, BoP reduction, and radiographically observed defect fill at 12-month examination are reported. The 12-month evaluation yielded significant improvements in PPD and CAL at each center (p < 0.001, respectively). Analyses of Covariance revealed significant improvements in all parameters, and a significantly greater CAL gain was revealed for C2 vs. C1 (p = 0.006). Radiographic defect fill presented significantly higher scores for C2 and C3 vs. C1 (p = 0.003 and = 0.014; C2 vs. C3 p = 1.00). Gingival recession increased in C1 and C3 (p = 1.00), while C2 reported no GR after 12 months (C2:C1 p = 0.002; C2:C3 p = 0.005). BoP tendency and pocket closure rate shared similar rates. Within the limitations of the study, a data comparison indicated that xHyA showed a similar capacity to enhance the regenerative response, as known for EMD. Radiographic follow-up underlined xHyA’s unique role in new attachment formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Biomaterials for Regenerative Dentistry)
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23 pages, 26500 KiB  
Article
Fretting and Fretting Corrosion Behavior of Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-Nb-Zr Alloys in Air and Physiological Solutions
by Annsley O. Mace, Michael A. Kurtz and Jeremy L. Gilbert
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020038 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1325
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) of orthopedic implants has increased in recent years, providing benefits to surgeons, patients, and implant companies. Both traditional and new titanium alloys are under consideration for AM-manufactured implants. However, concerns remain about their wear and corrosion (tribocorrosion) performance. In this [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) of orthopedic implants has increased in recent years, providing benefits to surgeons, patients, and implant companies. Both traditional and new titanium alloys are under consideration for AM-manufactured implants. However, concerns remain about their wear and corrosion (tribocorrosion) performance. In this study, the effects of fretting corrosion were investigated on AM Ti-29Nb-21Zr (pre-alloyed and admixed) and AM Ti-6Al-4V with 1% nano yttria-stabilized zirconia (nYSZ). Low cycle (100 cycles, 3 Hz, 100 mN) fretting and fretting corrosion (potentiostatic, 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl) methods were used to compare these AM alloys to traditionally manufactured AM Ti-6Al-4V. Alloy and admixture surfaces were subjected to (1) fretting in the air (i.e., small-scale reciprocal sliding) and (2) fretting corrosion in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) using a single diamond asperity (17 µm radius). Wear track depth measurements, fretting currents and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis of oxide debris revealed that pre-alloyed AM Ti-29Nb-21Zr generally had greater wear depths after 100 cycles (4.67 +/− 0.55 µm dry and 5.78 +/− 0.83 µm in solution) and higher fretting currents (0.58 +/− 0.07 µA). A correlation (R2 = 0.67) was found between wear depth and the average fretting currents with different alloys located in different regions of the relationship. No statistically significant differences were observed in wear depth between in-air and in-PBS tests. However, significantly higher amounts of oxygen (measured by oxygen weight % by EDS analysis of the debris) were embedded within the wear track for tests performed in PBS compared to air for all samples except the ad-mixed Ti-29Nb-21Zr (p = 0.21). For traditional and AM Ti-6Al-4V, the wear track depths (dry fretting: 2.90 +/− 0.32 µm vs. 2.51 +/− 0.51 μm, respectively; fretting corrosion: 2.09 +/− 0.59 μm vs. 1.16 +/− 0.79 μm, respectively) and fretting current measurements (0.37 +/− 0.05 μA vs. 0.34 +/− 0.05 μA, respectively) showed no significant differences. The dominant wear deformation process was plastic deformation followed by cyclic extrusion of plate-like wear debris at the end of the stroke, resulting in ribbon-like extruded material for all alloys. While previous work documented improved corrosion resistance of Ti-29Nb-21Zr in simulated inflammatory solutions over Ti-6Al-4V, this work does not show similar improvements in the relative fretting corrosion resistance of these alloys compared to Ti-6Al-4V. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium-Based Implants: Advances in Materials and Applications)
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15 pages, 5312 KiB  
Article
An Anti-Oxidative Bioink for Cartilage Tissue Engineering Applications
by Xin Chen, Mengni Yang, Zheng Zhou, Jingjing Sun, Xiaolin Meng, Yuting Huang, Wenxiang Zhu, Shuai Zhu, Ning He, Xiaolong Zhu, Xiaoxiao Han and Hairong Liu
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020037 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Since chondrocytes are highly vulnerable to oxidative stress, an anti-oxidative bioink combined with 3D bioprinting may facilitate its applications in cartilage tissue engineering. We developed an anti-oxidative bioink with methacrylate-modified rutin (RTMA) as an additional bioactive component and glycidyl methacrylate silk fibroin as [...] Read more.
Since chondrocytes are highly vulnerable to oxidative stress, an anti-oxidative bioink combined with 3D bioprinting may facilitate its applications in cartilage tissue engineering. We developed an anti-oxidative bioink with methacrylate-modified rutin (RTMA) as an additional bioactive component and glycidyl methacrylate silk fibroin as a biomaterial component. Bioink containing 0% RTMA was used as the control sample. Compared with hydrogel samples produced with the control bioink, solidified anti-oxidative bioinks displayed a similar porous microstructure, which is suitable for cell adhesion and migration, and the transportation of nutrients and wastes. Among photo-cured samples prepared with anti-oxidative bioinks and the control bioink, the sample containing 1 mg/mL of RTMA (RTMA-1) showed good degradation, promising mechanical properties, and the best cytocompatibility, and it was selected for further investigation. Based on the results of 3D bioprinting tests, the RTMA-1 bioink exhibited good printability and high shape fidelity. The results demonstrated that RTMA-1 reduced intracellular oxidative stress in encapsulated chondrocytes under H2O2 stimulation, which results from upregulation of COLII and AGG and downregulation of MMP13 and MMP1. By using in vitro and in vivo tests, our data suggest that the RTMA-1 bioink significantly enhanced the regeneration and maturation of cartilage tissue compared to the control bioink, indicating that this anti-oxidative bioink can be used for 3D bioprinting and cartilage tissue engineering applications in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced 3D Printing Biomaterials)
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22 pages, 6821 KiB  
Article
Design of Laser Activated Antimicrobial Porous Tricalcium Phosphate-Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Orthopedic Applications
by Emil Filipov, Ridvan Yildiz, Anna Dikovska, Lamborghini Sotelo, Tharun Soma, Georgi Avdeev, Penka Terziyska, Silke Christiansen, Anne Leriche, Maria Helena Fernandes and Albena Daskalova
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020036 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1313
Abstract
The field of bone tissue engineering is steadily being improved by novel experimental approaches. Nevertheless, microbial adhesion after scaffold implantation remains a limitation that could lead to the impairment of the regeneration process, or scaffold rejection. The present study introduces a methodology that [...] Read more.
The field of bone tissue engineering is steadily being improved by novel experimental approaches. Nevertheless, microbial adhesion after scaffold implantation remains a limitation that could lead to the impairment of the regeneration process, or scaffold rejection. The present study introduces a methodology that employs laser-based strategies for the development of antimicrobial interfaces on tricalcium phosphate–hydroxyapatite (TCP-HA) scaffolds. The outer surfaces of the ceramic scaffolds with inner porosity were structured using a femtosecond laser (λ = 800 nm; τ = 70 fs) for developing micropatterns and altering local surface roughness. The pulsed laser deposition of ZnO was used for the subsequent functionalization of both laser-structured and unmodified surfaces. The impact of the fs irradiation was investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effects of the ZnO-layered ceramic surfaces on initial bacterial adherence were assessed by culturing Staphylococcus aureus on both functionalized and non-functionalized scaffolds. Bacterial metabolic activity and morphology were monitored via the Resazurin assay and microscopic approaches. The presence of ZnO evidently decreased the metabolic activity of bacteria and led to impaired cell morphology. The results from this study have led to the conclusion that the combination of fs laser-structured surface topography and ZnO could yield a potential antimicrobial interface for implants in bone tissue engineering. Full article
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19 pages, 7431 KiB  
Article
Multifunctional ZnO@DOX/ICG-LMHP Nanoparticles for Synergistic Multimodal Antitumor Activity
by Zhuoyue Li, Jingru Wang, Junwei Liu, Jianming Yu, Jingwen Wang, Hui Wang, Qingchao Wei, Man Liu, Meiqi Xu, Zhenhan Feng, Ting Zhong and Xuan Zhang
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020035 - 30 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
Multifunctional nanoparticles are of significant importance for synergistic multimodal antitumor activity. Herein, zinc oxide (ZnO) was used as pH-sensitive nanoparticles for loading the chemotherapy agent doxorubicin (DOX) and the photosensitizer agent indocyanine green (ICG), and biocompatible low-molecular-weight heparin (LMHP) was used as the [...] Read more.
Multifunctional nanoparticles are of significant importance for synergistic multimodal antitumor activity. Herein, zinc oxide (ZnO) was used as pH-sensitive nanoparticles for loading the chemotherapy agent doxorubicin (DOX) and the photosensitizer agent indocyanine green (ICG), and biocompatible low-molecular-weight heparin (LMHP) was used as the gatekeepers for synergistic photothermal therapy/photodynamic therapy/chemotherapy/immunotherapy. ZnO was decomposed into cytotoxic Zn2+ ions, leading to a tumor-specific release of ICG and DOX. ZnO simultaneously produced oxygen (O2) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The released ICG under laser irradiation produced ROS for PDT and raised the tumor temperature for photothermal therapy (PTT). The released DOX directly caused tumor cell death for chemotherapy. Both DOX and ICG also induced immunogenic cell death (ICD) for immunotherapy. The in vivo and in vitro results presented a superior inhibition of tumor progression, metastasis and recurrence. Therefore, this study could provide an efficient approach for designing multifunctional nanoparticles for synergistic multimodal antitumor therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Materials/Biomaterials for Healthcare Applications)
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23 pages, 33546 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Ultrashort Pulse Laser Structuring of Metals on In-Vitro Cell Adhesion of Keratinocytes
by Susanne Staehlke, Tobias Barth, Matthias Muench, Joerg Schroeter, Robert Wendlandt, Paul Oldorf, Rigo Peters, Barbara Nebe and Arndt-Peter Schulz
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020034 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1258
Abstract
Besides the need for biomaterial surface modification to improve cellular attachment, laser-structuring is favorable for designing a new surface topography for external bone fixator pins or implants. The principle of this study was to observe how bioinspired (deer antler) laser-induced nano–microstructures influenced the [...] Read more.
Besides the need for biomaterial surface modification to improve cellular attachment, laser-structuring is favorable for designing a new surface topography for external bone fixator pins or implants. The principle of this study was to observe how bioinspired (deer antler) laser-induced nano–microstructures influenced the adhesion and growth of skin cells. The goal was to create pins that allow the skin to attach to the biomaterial surface in a bacteria-proof manner. Therefore, typical fixator metals, steel, and titanium alloy were structured using ultrashort laser pulses, which resulted in periodical nano- and microstructures. Surface characteristics were investigated using a laser scanning microscope and static water contact angle measurements. In vitro studies with human HaCaT keratinocytes focused on cell adhesion, morphology, actin formation, and growth within 7 days. The study showed that surface functionalization influenced cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation. Micro-dimple clusters on polished bulk metals (DC20) will not hinder viability. Still, they will not promote the initial adhesion and spreading of HaCaTs. In contrast, additional nanostructuring with laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) promotes cell behavior. DC20 + LIPSS induced enhanced cell attachment with well-spread cell morphology. Thus, the bioinspired structures exhibited a benefit in initial cell adhesion. Laser surface functionalization opens up new possibilities for structuring, and is relevant to developing bioactive implants in regenerative medicine. Full article
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35 pages, 988 KiB  
Review
The Use of Functional Biomaterials in Aesthetic and Functional Restoration in Orbital Surgery
by Kevin Y. Wu, Jamie K. Fujioka, Patrick Daigle and Simon D. Tran
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020033 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1325
Abstract
The integration of functional biomaterials in oculoplastic and orbital surgery is a pivotal area where material science and clinical practice converge. This review, encompassing primary research from 2015 to 2023, delves into the use of biomaterials in two key areas: the reconstruction of [...] Read more.
The integration of functional biomaterials in oculoplastic and orbital surgery is a pivotal area where material science and clinical practice converge. This review, encompassing primary research from 2015 to 2023, delves into the use of biomaterials in two key areas: the reconstruction of orbital floor fractures and the development of implants and prostheses for anophthalmic sockets post-eye removal. The discussion begins with an analysis of orbital floor injuries, including their pathophysiology and treatment modalities. It is noted that titanium mesh remains the gold standard for orbital floor repair due to its effectiveness. The review then examines the array of materials used for orbital implants and prostheses, highlighting the dependence on surgeon preference and experience, as there are currently no definitive guidelines. While recent innovations in biomaterials show promise, the review underscores the need for more clinical data before these new materials can be widely adopted in clinical settings. The review advocates for an interdisciplinary approach in orbital surgery, emphasizing patient-centered care and the potential of biomaterials to significantly enhance patient outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Science: Functional Biomaterials)
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24 pages, 3982 KiB  
Review
Biomaterials Functionalized with Inflammasome Inhibitors—Premises and Perspectives
by Norina Vinţeler, Claudia Nicoleta Feurdean, Regina Petkes, Reka Barabas, Bianca Adina Boşca, Alexandrina Muntean, Dana Feștilă and Aranka Ilea
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020032 - 28 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1658
Abstract
This review aimed at searching literature for data regarding the inflammasomes’ involvement in the pathogenesis of oral diseases (mainly periodontitis) and general pathologies, including approaches to control inflammasome-related pathogenic mechanisms. The inflammasomes are part of the innate immune response that activates inflammatory caspases [...] Read more.
This review aimed at searching literature for data regarding the inflammasomes’ involvement in the pathogenesis of oral diseases (mainly periodontitis) and general pathologies, including approaches to control inflammasome-related pathogenic mechanisms. The inflammasomes are part of the innate immune response that activates inflammatory caspases by canonical and noncanonical pathways, to control the activity of Gasdermin D. Once an inflammasome is activated, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukins, are released. Thus, inflammasomes are involved in inflammatory, autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. The review also investigated novel therapies based on the use of phytochemicals and pharmaceutical substances for inhibiting inflammasome activity. Pharmaceutical substances can control the inflammasomes by three mechanisms: inhibiting the intracellular signaling pathways (Allopurinol and SS-31), blocking inflammasome components (VX-765, Emricasan and VX-740), and inhibiting cytokines mediated by the inflammasomes (Canakinumab, Anakinra and Rilonacept). Moreover, phytochemicals inhibit the inflammasomes by neutralizing reactive oxygen species. Biomaterials functionalized by the adsorption of therapeutic agents onto different nanomaterials could represent future research directions to facilitate multimodal and sequential treatment in oral pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials and Devices for Healthcare Applications)
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5 pages, 197 KiB  
Editorial
Advanced Materials for Clinical Endodontic Applications: Current Status and Future Directions
by Saulius Drukteinis, Sivaprakash Rajasekharan and Matthias Widbiller
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020031 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Endodontics has significantly evolved in recent years, with advancements in instruments, biomaterials and nanomaterials science playing a pivotal role [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Clinical Endodontic Applications)
11 pages, 2244 KiB  
Article
Effect of Silicon Carbide Fiber Length on the Flexural Strength and Flexural Modulus of Short Silicon Carbide Fiber-Reinforced Resin
by Norimasa Taka, Yujin Aoyagi, Keito Miida, Mitsugu Kanatani and Hiroshi Ogawa
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020030 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1161
Abstract
Silicon carbide fibers have superior flexural properties and chemical stability compared to glass fibers. We investigated the flexural strength and modulus of an experimental, short silicon carbide fiber-reinforced resin. Short silicon carbide fibers with lengths of ~0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mm were [...] Read more.
Silicon carbide fibers have superior flexural properties and chemical stability compared to glass fibers. We investigated the flexural strength and modulus of an experimental, short silicon carbide fiber-reinforced resin. Short silicon carbide fibers with lengths of ~0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mm were prepared and silanized. Urethane dimethacrylate and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate were mixed at a 70:30 wt% ratio and used as the matrix resins. Each length of short silicon carbide fibers and the matrix resin were combined using a mixing machine and then used for specimen preparation. The three-point bending test conditions were in accordance with ISO 4049:2009. The fracture surfaces of the specimens after the three-point bending test were observed using secondary electron images. The data were statistically analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s HSD test (α = 0.05). The flexural strength and modulus of the specimens containing 2 mm or 3 mm silicon carbide fibers were significantly higher than the other specimens. The river pattern was observed more clearly in specimens containing shorter silicon carbide fibers, although this pattern was observed in all specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Biomaterials)
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15 pages, 6823 KiB  
Article
Surface-Mediated Modulation of Different Biological Responses on Anatase-Coated Titanium
by Leila Mohammadnejad, Antonia Theurer, Julia Alber, Barbara Illing, Evi Kimmerle-Mueller, Jacob Schultheiss, Stefanie Krajewski and Frank Rupp
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020029 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1245
Abstract
Various surface modification strategies are being developed to endow dental titanium implant surfaces with micro- and nano-structures to improve their biocompatibility, and first of all their osseointegration. These modifications have the potential to address clinical concerns by stimulating different biological processes. This study [...] Read more.
Various surface modification strategies are being developed to endow dental titanium implant surfaces with micro- and nano-structures to improve their biocompatibility, and first of all their osseointegration. These modifications have the potential to address clinical concerns by stimulating different biological processes. This study aims to evaluate the biological responses of ananatase-modified blasted/etched titanium (SLA-anatase) surfaces compared to blasted/acid etched (SLA) and machined titanium surfaces. Using unipolar pulsed direct current (DC) sputtering, a nanocrystalline anatase layer was fabricated. In vitro experiments have shown that SLA-anatase discs can effectively promote osteoblast adhesion and proliferation, which are regarded as important features of a successful dental implant with bone contact. Furthermore, anatase surface modification has been shown to partially enhance osteoblast mineralization in vitro, while not significantly affecting bacterial colonization. Consequently, the recently created anatase coating holds significant potential as a promising candidate for future advancements in dental implant surface modification for improving the initial stages of osseointegration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Biomaterials)
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12 pages, 3455 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Rate of ZnAg3 as a Novel Bioabsorbable Material for Osteosynthesis
by Maria Roesner, Sergej Zankovic, Adalbert Kovacs, Moritz Benner, Roland Barkhoff and Michael Seidenstuecker
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020028 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1276
Abstract
Osteosynthesis in fracture treatment typically uses hardware that remains in the patient’s body, which brings a permanent risk of negative side effects such as foreign body reactions or chronic inflammation. Bioabsorbable materials, however, can degrade and slowly be replaced by autologous bone tissue. [...] Read more.
Osteosynthesis in fracture treatment typically uses hardware that remains in the patient’s body, which brings a permanent risk of negative side effects such as foreign body reactions or chronic inflammation. Bioabsorbable materials, however, can degrade and slowly be replaced by autologous bone tissue. A suitable material is requested to offer great biocompatibility alongside excellent mechanical properties and a reasonable corrosion rate. Zinc–silver alloys provide these characteristics, which makes them a promising candidate for research. This study investigated the aptitude as a bioabsorbable implant of a novel zinc–silver alloy containing 3.3 wt% silver (ZnAg3). Here, the tensile strength as well as the corrosion rate in PBS solution (phosphate buffered solution) of ZnAg3 were assessed. Furthermore, shear tests, including fatigue and quasi-static testing, were conducted with ZnAg3 and magnesium pins (MAGNEZIX®, Syntellix AG, Hannover, Germany), which are already in clinical use. The detected corrosion rate of 0.10 mm/year for ZnAg3 was within the proposed range for bioabsorbable implants. With a tensile strength of 237.5 ± 2.12 MPa and a shear strength of 144.8 ± 13.2 N, ZnAg3 satisfied the mechanical requirements for bioabsorbable implants. The fatigue testing did not show any significant difference between ZnAg3 and magnesium pins, whereas both materials withstood the cyclic loading. Thus, the results support the assumption that ZnAg3 is qualified for further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bone Substitute Biomaterials)
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23 pages, 5262 KiB  
Article
Composite Remineralization of Bone-Collagen Matrices by Low-Temperature Ceramics and Serum Albumin: A New Approach to the Creation of Highly Effective Osteoplastic Materials
by Vladislav V. Minaychev, Anastasia Yu. Teterina, Polina V. Smirnova, Ksenia A. Menshikh, Anatoliy S. Senotov, Margarita I. Kobyakova, Igor V. Smirnov, Kira V. Pyatina, Kirill S. Krasnov, Roman S. Fadeev, Vladimir S. Komlev and Irina S. Fadeeva
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020027 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1307
Abstract
This study examined the effectiveness of coating demineralized bone matrix (DBM) with amorphous calcium phosphate (DBM + CaP), as well as a composite of DBM, calcium phosphate, and serum albumin (DBM + CaP + BSA). The intact structure of DBM promotes the transformation [...] Read more.
This study examined the effectiveness of coating demineralized bone matrix (DBM) with amorphous calcium phosphate (DBM + CaP), as well as a composite of DBM, calcium phosphate, and serum albumin (DBM + CaP + BSA). The intact structure of DBM promotes the transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate (CaP) into dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) with a characteristic plate shape and particle size of 5–35 µm. The inclusion of BSA in the coating resulted in a better and more uniform distribution of CaP on the surface of DBM trabeculae. MG63 cells showed that both the obtained forms of CaP and its complex with BSA did not exhibit cytotoxicity up to a concentration of 10 mg/mL in vitro. Ectopic (subcutaneous) implantation in rats revealed pronounced biocompatibility, as well as strong osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic effects for both DBM + CaP and DBM + CaP + BSA, but more pronounced effects for DBM + CaP + BSA. In addition, for the DBM + CaP + BSA samples, there was a pronounced full physiological intrafibrillar biomineralization and proangiogenic effect with the formation of bone-morrow-like niches, accompanied by pronounced processes of intramedullary hematopoiesis, indicating a powerful osteogenic effect of this composite. Full article
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17 pages, 3429 KiB  
Article
Engineering Degradation Rate of Polyphosphazene-Based Layer-by-Layer Polymer Coatings
by Jordan Brito, Junho Moon, Raman Hlushko, Aliaksei Aliakseyeu, Alexander K. Andrianov and Svetlana A. Sukhishvili
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15020026 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1377
Abstract
Degradable layer-by-layer (LbL) polymeric coatings have distinct advantages over traditional biomedical coatings due to their precision of assembly, versatile inclusion of bioactive molecules, and conformality to the complex architectures of implantable devices. However, controlling the degradation rate while achieving biocompatibility has remained a [...] Read more.
Degradable layer-by-layer (LbL) polymeric coatings have distinct advantages over traditional biomedical coatings due to their precision of assembly, versatile inclusion of bioactive molecules, and conformality to the complex architectures of implantable devices. However, controlling the degradation rate while achieving biocompatibility has remained a challenge. This work employs polyphosphazenes as promising candidates for film assembly due to their inherent biocompatibility, tunability of chemical composition, and the buffering capability of degradation products. The degradation of pyrrolidone-functionalized polyphosphazenes was monitored in solution, complexes and LbL coatings (with tannic acid), providing the first to our knowledge comparison of solution-state degradation to solid-state LbL degradation. In all cases, the rate of degradation accelerated in acidic conditions. Importantly, the tunability of the degradation rate of polyphosphazene-based LbL films was achieved by varying film assembly conditions. Specifically, by slightly increasing the ionization of tannic acid (near neutral pH), we introduce electrostatic “defects” to the hydrogen-bonded pairs that accelerate film degradation. Finally, we show that replacing the pyrrolidone side group with a carboxylic acid moiety greatly reduces the degradation rate of the LbL coatings. In practical applications, these coatings have the versatility to serve as biocompatible platforms for various biomedical applications and controlled release systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials for Drug Delivery)
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