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Religions, Volume 7, Issue 3 (March 2016) – 17 articles

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Article
Charitable Sporting Events as a Context for Building Adolescent Generosity: Examining the Role of Religiousness and Spirituality
Religions 2016, 7(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030035 - 21 Mar 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2260
Abstract
Previous research demonstrates an association between religiousness, spirituality, and generosity in adolescents, but few studies have tested the mechanisms by which religion might facilitate the development of generosity in real-world contexts. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented describing the potential mechanisms [...] Read more.
Previous research demonstrates an association between religiousness, spirituality, and generosity in adolescents, but few studies have tested the mechanisms by which religion might facilitate the development of generosity in real-world contexts. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented describing the potential mechanisms by which engagement in transformational contexts (i.e., participating in charity marathon training) may lead to the development of generosity in adolescents. Participation in charity sporting events is theorized to increase generosity through both higher-order mechanisms, such as sanctification and the development of transcendent identity, and lower-order mechanisms, such as increased entitativity, positive emotions, and dissonance reduction. An empirical strategy for testing the model is presented; suggested methods for inquiry are longitudinal mixed method designs incorporating observations, questionnaires, and qualitative interviewing. Additionally, a case study of ongoing research on adolescents running with Team World Vision is described as an application of the model to an actual research context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth, Emerging Adults, Faith, and Giving)
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Concept Paper
Relational Inquiry—Attending to the Spirit of Nursing Students
Religions 2016, 7(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030034 - 21 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2686
Abstract
The impetus for this paper came from our experiences as learner-teachers of re-considering the epistemological and ontological roots of our undergraduate-nursing curriculum. It began as an earnest dialogue regarding particular aspects of first year undergraduate-nursing theory content, specifically, caring and compassion, self-concept and [...] Read more.
The impetus for this paper came from our experiences as learner-teachers of re-considering the epistemological and ontological roots of our undergraduate-nursing curriculum. It began as an earnest dialogue regarding particular aspects of first year undergraduate-nursing theory content, specifically, caring and compassion, self-concept and nursing identity, spirituality and culture, a simple question—how could we better engage first year nursing students with what they frequently considered to be “abstract” and “soft” concepts? An organic need to be “good teachers” and introduce learners to fundamental concepts in nursing, and have them understand, in meaningful ways, the complexity of “caring and compassion” with respect to what it is that nurses do, think, and enact. To this end, we enlisted Relational Inquiry, as articulated by Gweneth Hartrick Doane and Colleen Varcoe, as a means of creating an epistemological and ontological foundation for our teaching practice in order to better support the development of critically reflective, community orientated, caring relational practitioners. Initially, we thought relational inquiry was an epistemological endeavor and found that it is an ontological undertaking. We discovered that practicing from a relational caring perspective shifted our focus from the content to the student as a developing practitioner and human being. Through the process of re-imagining our teaching practice, we have begun to re-consider the importance of “attending to the spirit” of nursing students. Full article
Article
Producing High Priests and Princesses: The Father-Daughter Relationship in the Christian Sexual Purity Movement
Religions 2016, 7(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030033 - 18 Mar 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3530
Abstract
This article describes and analyzes father-daughter purity balls in the context of the contemporary U.S. American conservative Christian sexual purity movement, with an emphasis on taking the self-understanding of those involved in the movement into account. It shows the ways that the idealization [...] Read more.
This article describes and analyzes father-daughter purity balls in the context of the contemporary U.S. American conservative Christian sexual purity movement, with an emphasis on taking the self-understanding of those involved in the movement into account. It shows the ways that the idealization of a hierarchical father-daughter relationship both constructs and reflects sexual purity ideals. The Christian sexual purity teachings frame this father-daughter relationship as an essential part of forming the ideal subject, and as reflective of the right order of the kingdom of God. In the logic of sexual purity, a good man is the strong high-priest leader of the household and the ideal girl is princess-like: white, non-poor, attractive, pure, feminine, delicate, and receptive. She is preparing, under her father’s guidance, for heterosexual marriage. Attention to the father-daughter relationship in the sexual purity movement highlights the ways that sexual purity is primarily about subject formation and the ordering of relationships—in families, in the nation, and in the church—and less about the specifics of when particular sexual acts take place or the public health risks that might come from those acts. This exploration also brings into relief the ways that contemporary conservative Christian sexual purity teachings draw from and build on two prominent aspects of contemporary U.S. American popular culture: the important role of the princess figure, and the buying of goods as indispensable to the formation of the subject. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religion and Contemporary Culture(s))
Article
The Images of Jesus in the Emergence of Christian Spirituality in Ming and Qing China
Religions 2016, 7(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030032 - 18 Mar 2016
Viewed by 1847
Abstract
Images of Jesus Christ played an important role in the emergence of Christian spirituality in Ming and Qing China. Of the great many images that we know from this period, this paper introduces five of them: Jesus as infant, criminal, gate, brother, and [...] Read more.
Images of Jesus Christ played an important role in the emergence of Christian spirituality in Ming and Qing China. Of the great many images that we know from this period, this paper introduces five of them: Jesus as infant, criminal, gate, brother, and pig. The paper unfolds the historical, anthropological, and theological layers of these images to reveal the original tension between Christian spirituality and Chinese culture. The central thesis of the paper therefore is that this tension is reflected in the images of Jesus Christ and, moreover, that analyzing this tension allows us to achieve a more profound understanding of the emergence of Christian spirituality in Ming, Qing, and perhaps even today’s China. Full article
Discussion
Holistic Nursing of Forensic Patients: A Focus on Spiritual Care
Religions 2016, 7(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030031 - 17 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
Prisons are a unique context where nurses are required to have specific skills to ensure that prisoners receive the same type of holistic care as anyone else out of prison, including spiritual care. This discussion paper focuses on understanding how nurses deliver spiritual [...] Read more.
Prisons are a unique context where nurses are required to have specific skills to ensure that prisoners receive the same type of holistic care as anyone else out of prison, including spiritual care. This discussion paper focuses on understanding how nurses deliver spiritual care in Italian prisons where there are often limited resources and where organizational priorities hinder the provision of holistic nursing. This paper draws from a previous qualitative research study that we had conducted. In this study, we observed that prison nurses reported that they experienced many difficulties related to the provision of holistic care to prisoners. This was particularly true for spiritual care in vulnerable forensic patients, such as older individuals, and physically and mentally frail prisoners. Prison officers did not allow nurses to just “listen and talk” to their patients in prison, because they considered it a waste of time. The conflict between prison organizational constraints and nursing goals, along with limited resources placed barriers to the development of therapeutic relationships between nurses and prisoners, whose holistic and spiritual care needs remained totally unattended. Therefore, prison organizational needs prevailed over prisoners’ needs for spiritual care, which, while fundamental, are nevertheless often underestimated and left unattended. Educational interventions are needed to reaffirm nurses’ role as providers of spiritual care. Full article
Case Report
Developing Agreed and Accepted Understandings of Spirituality and Spiritual Care Concepts among Members of an Innovative Spirituality Interest Group in the Republic of Ireland
Religions 2016, 7(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030030 - 15 Mar 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2870
Abstract
A Spirituality Interest Group (SIG) was set up in in the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Republic of Ireland (ROI), in March 2013. This paper reports on some of the journey and requirements involved in developing the group. It highlights [...] Read more.
A Spirituality Interest Group (SIG) was set up in in the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Republic of Ireland (ROI), in March 2013. This paper reports on some of the journey and requirements involved in developing the group. It highlights the essential work of establishing agreed understandings in an objective way in order for the group to move forward with action. These agreed understandings have contributed to the group’s success. Outlining the group’s journey in arriving at agreements may be of use to others considering creating similar groups. One key action taken to determine the suitability of the group’s aims and terms of reference was the distribution of a Survey Monkey to group members (n = 28) in 2014. One early meeting of the group discussed future goals and direction using the responses of this anonymous survey. This paper reports on the results of the survey regarding the establishment of the SIG and the development of a shared understanding of spiritual care among the members. There is consensus in the group that the spiritual care required by clients receiving healthcare ought to be an integrated effort across the healthcare team. However, there is an acceptance that spirituality and spiritual care are not always clearly understood concepts in practice. By developing shared or at least accepted understandings of spirituality and spiritual care, SIG hopes to be able to underpin both research and practice with solid foundational conceptual understanding, and in the process also to meet essential prerequisites for achieving the group’s aims. Full article
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Article
The Role of Religion and Acculturation in the Consumer Ethnocentrism of Turkish Immigrants in Germany
Religions 2016, 7(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030029 - 11 Mar 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2232
Abstract
Researchers have invested much effort in the understanding of acculturation-relevant factors that influence immigrants’ psychological and socio-cultural adaptation. Factors that might have an impact on immigrants’ product consumption decisions have comparatively received scarce attention by acculturation and marketing researchers. Immigrants show different product [...] Read more.
Researchers have invested much effort in the understanding of acculturation-relevant factors that influence immigrants’ psychological and socio-cultural adaptation. Factors that might have an impact on immigrants’ product consumption decisions have comparatively received scarce attention by acculturation and marketing researchers. Immigrants show different product consumption patterns and therefore constitute big consumer groups that can have an impact on both the economy of immigrants’ culture of origin and the host society. The present study investigated Turkish immigrants’ product consumption ethnocentrism. The sample consisted of 599 youth and adult Turkish in Germany drawn from Cologne, the city with the highest ratio of Turkish people in the country. The study sample represented a very similar demographic make-up of the Turkish people in Cologne. The associations between acculturation strategies, loyalty to religion, and product consumption ethnocentrism were quantitatively analyzed based on a field survey. Research findings indicated that participants in the acculturation mode of separation scored significantly higher for consumer ethnocentrism than those showing other orientations, and those with an assimilation orientation scored the least for consumer ethnocentrism. Among the three religiosity dimensions (behavioral, emotional, cognitive) investigated in the present study, analyses controlling for a range of socio-demographic variables revealed a positive relationship between the behavior dimension of religiosity and consumer ethnocentrism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religion and Contemporary Culture(s))
Article
Creating Modern Japanese Subjects: Morning Rituals from Norito to News and Weather
Religions 2016, 7(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030028 - 11 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
This original research on Restoration Shinto Norito seeks to explain the rhetorical devices used in the composition of a morning prayer ritual text. The nativist scholar, Hirata Atsutane, crafted this ritual to create a Japanese imperial subject with a particular understanding of native [...] Read more.
This original research on Restoration Shinto Norito seeks to explain the rhetorical devices used in the composition of a morning prayer ritual text. The nativist scholar, Hirata Atsutane, crafted this ritual to create a Japanese imperial subject with a particular understanding of native identity and national unity, appropriate to the context of a Japan in the shadow of impending modernity and fear of Western domination. The conclusions drawn concerning Hirata’s rhetoric are meant to inform our understanding of the technique and power of the contemporary Japanese morning television viewing ritual used to create post-modern Japanese citizens with an identity and unity appropriate to a global secular context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religion and Contemporary Culture(s))
Article
Spiritual Care: The Nurses’ Experiences in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit
Religions 2016, 7(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030027 - 09 Mar 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3386
Abstract
Physical aspects of disease management are often more evident than those related to spirituality or spiritual care. Spirituality may appear more crucial in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) when patients are experiencing serious illness or end-of-life situations. This paper describes the meaning of [...] Read more.
Physical aspects of disease management are often more evident than those related to spirituality or spiritual care. Spirituality may appear more crucial in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) when patients are experiencing serious illness or end-of-life situations. This paper describes the meaning of spirituality according to nurses who had worked in PICUs and how they provide spiritual care to children and their families. It is an exploratory research using a qualitative approach, including interviews with eleven PICU nurses. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis; two themes were identified: meanings of spirituality and religiosity according to nurses, and the provision of spiritual care to children in the PICU and their families. The interviewed nurses recognized the importance and value of spiritual care and are aware that spiritual needs are considered to be of significantly less importance than physical treatments. Spiritual care was mainly focused on the children’s families; the nurses justified the absence of spiritual care to children, based on lack of time and children’s age and level of consciousness. These results highlight a deficiency in spiritual care in PICUs and demonstrate the need for improved knowledge and demonstrate the need to not only raise awareness of the spiritual dimension of children, adolescents, and their families, but also to enhance discussion and improve general knowledge on the importance of spirituality in the treatment regimen to provide effective holistic care. Full article
Article
Effect of the “Spiritual Support” Intervention on Spirituality and the Clinical Parameters of Women Who Have Undergone Mastectomy: A Pilot Study
Religions 2016, 7(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030026 - 08 Mar 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2512
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the spiritual support intervention on spirituality and the clinical parameters of women who have undergone mastectomy. This is a pilot study of a randomized clinical trial. The spiritual support intervention was composed of meditation, guided [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the spiritual support intervention on spirituality and the clinical parameters of women who have undergone mastectomy. This is a pilot study of a randomized clinical trial. The spiritual support intervention was composed of meditation, guided imagery, music, and respiratory relaxation. The outcomes were: spirituality, blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation. A total of 27 patients were recruited for the study (intervention group, n = 13; control group, n = 14) (Clinical Trials: NCT 01866670/CAE: 00896312.0.0000.5393). The intervention helped patients with breast cancer to increase expression of their spirituality (p = 0.040) and it also decreased heart rate on the first (p = 0.038) and third day (p = 0.017). There was a difference in oxygen saturation on the second day in the control group (p = 0.039). Patients reported that their participation in the research was positive. This intervention had an effect on the sample of women who had undergone mastectomy. Full article
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Review
Spiritual Assessment within Clinical Interventions Focused on Quality of Life Assessment in Palliative Care: A Secondary Analysis of a Systematic Review
Religions 2016, 7(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030025 - 07 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2575
Abstract
One of the most crucial palliative care challenges is in determining how patients’ needs are defined and assessed. Although physical and psychological needs are commonly documented in patient’s charts, spiritual needs are less frequently reported. The aim of this review was to determine [...] Read more.
One of the most crucial palliative care challenges is in determining how patients’ needs are defined and assessed. Although physical and psychological needs are commonly documented in patient’s charts, spiritual needs are less frequently reported. The aim of this review was to determine which explicit, longitudinal documentation of spiritual concerns would sufficiently affect clinical care to alleviate spiritual distress or promote spiritual wellbeing. A secondary analysis of a systematic review originally aimed at appraising the effectiveness of complex interventions focused on quality of life in palliative care was conducted. Five databases were searched for articles reporting interventions focused on QoL including at least two or more QoL dimensions. A narrative synthesis was performed to synthesize findings. In total, 10 studies were included. Only three studies included spiritual wellbeing assessment. Spirituality tools used to assess spiritual wellbeing were different between studies: Hospital QoL Index 14; Spiritual Needs Inventory; Missoula-Vitas QoL Index; and the Needs Assessment Tool: Progressive Disease-Cancer. Only one study reported a healthcare professional’s session training in the use of the QoL tool. Two out of three studies showed in participants an improvement in spiritual wellbeing, but changes in spiritual wellbeing scores were not significant. Overall patients receiving interventions focused on QoL assessment experienced both improvements in their QoL and in their spiritual needs. Although spiritual changes were not significant, the results provide evidence that a spiritual need exists and that spiritual care should be appropriately planned and delivered. Spiritual needs assessment precedes spiritual caring. It is essential that interventions focused on QoL assessment in palliative care include training on how to conduct a spiritual assessment and appropriate interventions to be offered to patients to address their spiritual needs. Full article
Article
Hell Hounds, Hillbillies, and Hedonists: The Evangelical Roots of Rock n’ Roll
Religions 2016, 7(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030024 - 07 Mar 2016
Viewed by 2104
Abstract
This essay contends that much of the creativity driving the formation of popular folk music, such as blues, country, and early Rock n’ Roll, in the American South during the early twentieth century grew from the religious tension between concepts of “sacred” and [...] Read more.
This essay contends that much of the creativity driving the formation of popular folk music, such as blues, country, and early Rock n’ Roll, in the American South during the early twentieth century grew from the religious tension between concepts of “sacred” and “secular” rooted in evangelical Protestantism. This essay examines the rebellious impulse of Rock n’ Roll as, in the absence of religious boundaries, tensions, and influences, it grew beyond its Southern roots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religion and Contemporary Culture(s))
Article
Utilization of Spirituality and Spiritual Care in Nursing Practice in Public Hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Religions 2016, 7(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030023 - 03 Mar 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2871
Abstract
This study explored the views of professional nurses in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa regarding the role of spirituality and spiritual care in nursing practice and investigated whether professional nurses utilize spiritually based care in nursing practice. A cross-sectional descriptive design using multistage random sampling [...] Read more.
This study explored the views of professional nurses in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa regarding the role of spirituality and spiritual care in nursing practice and investigated whether professional nurses utilize spiritually based care in nursing practice. A cross-sectional descriptive design using multistage random sampling was utilized. Five hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed to professional nurses between December 2012 and February 2013. A total of 385 participants completed the survey questionnaire, resulting in a 77% response rate. Data was analyzed using SSPS 0.20. The data revealed that nurses see spirituality and spiritual care as an important dimension of nursing practice but need greater preparedness. Nurses need to be effectively prepared to deal with the complexity of providing ethically based personalized spiritual care in an increasingly diverse society. Full article
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Article
A Qualitative Content Analysis of Spirituality and Religiosity amongst Greek COPD Patients
Religions 2016, 7(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030022 - 01 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3142
Abstract
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic and common disease throughout the world. Spiritual/religious beliefs are often central to patients with serious illnesses and could serve as a resource for coping with such illnesses. A qualitative methodology was chosen in order to [...] Read more.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic and common disease throughout the world. Spiritual/religious beliefs are often central to patients with serious illnesses and could serve as a resource for coping with such illnesses. A qualitative methodology was chosen in order to gain a thorough understanding of 75 (male n = 69, 92%, female n = 6, 8%) Greek COPD patients’ perceptions of spirituality and religiosity and explore the importance of practicing their beliefs while 25 patients refused to participate in the study. The fewer female participant patients in the study are related to the lower percentage of women suffering from COPD in Greece, which can be further linked to the low smoking habit of women. A total of four patients (5.3%) stated that they had no religious or spiritual understanding of their life; 41 (54.7%) reported a religious belief; eight (10.7%) told of a spiritual belief; and 22 (29.3%) of the participants reported both a religious and a spiritual belief. Faith in the will of God seems to be a particularly strong feature of patients’ beliefs. Praying and church attendance were more likely to confirm the importance of practicing their beliefs in their daily lives but COPD seems to prevent patients from regular churchgoing. Religion and spirituality were found to be helpful while patients did not seem to have unrealistic expectations from God when dealing with illness. When asked, participants defined spirituality as “happiness”, “love”, “our God”, “the spirit”, and as an act of altruism. Adopting a more holistic perspective for COPD patients in the clinical setting, spirituality and religiosity can offer suggestions for interventions related to their health issues. Full article
Article
Remembering to Ask the Boss: Priming and the Dynamics of Priest Reliance on Bishop Cues
Religions 2016, 7(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030021 - 26 Feb 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
Though the degree of influence that US bishops have over Catholic parishioners is inconsistent, the institutional power bishops have over parish priests suggests that bishops enjoy reliable influence over their local subordinates. However, there are an array of competing influences over parish priests [...] Read more.
Though the degree of influence that US bishops have over Catholic parishioners is inconsistent, the institutional power bishops have over parish priests suggests that bishops enjoy reliable influence over their local subordinates. However, there are an array of competing influences over parish priests that, when made salient, might make priest reliance on bishop instructions for political behavior less reliable. Using data from the first ever survey experiment on a national sample of US Catholic priests, we assess the effects of randomly priming priests with varying considerations of their professional responsibilities and relevant constituencies (including parishioner expectations). Results suggest that priests opt to rely on bishop cues when primed to consider institutional responsibilities as part of their professional identity, but that bishop influence over priest political behavior is, at best, indirect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catholic Bishops in US Politics)
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Article
Holy Dung: Comic Signs of Consubstantiality in Martin Luther Films
Religions 2016, 7(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030020 - 26 Feb 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1469
Abstract
One problem with the religious sub-genre of Hagiographic films is that they frequently romanticize, sentimentalize, or idealize the lives of saints. Our purpose is to excavate three major film biopics on the life of Protestant reformer Martin Luther and demonstrate where the use [...] Read more.
One problem with the religious sub-genre of Hagiographic films is that they frequently romanticize, sentimentalize, or idealize the lives of saints. Our purpose is to excavate three major film biopics on the life of Protestant reformer Martin Luther and demonstrate where the use of excremental humor humanizes him. Such coarse embodied humor invites a consubstantial identity of a holy man with his secular audience. Where laughter is present, saints are not elevated to being “more spiritual than God.” The use of excremental humor gives weight, or the gravity of earth, to the transcendent, bringing the holy down into the everyday. We argue that it is the comedy in the life of Luther that makes him more authentic, showing how film can communicate the presence of God in earthen vessels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Film and Lived Theology)
Article
Faith-Based International Development Work: A Review
Religions 2016, 7(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7030019 - 25 Feb 2016
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3952
Abstract
In the wake of the Faith-Based Initiative in the USA, substantial research has resulted in an increased awareness of religious congregations and faith-based organizations as welfare service providers. The next frontier appears to be the role of religious organizations in international social and [...] Read more.
In the wake of the Faith-Based Initiative in the USA, substantial research has resulted in an increased awareness of religious congregations and faith-based organizations as welfare service providers. The next frontier appears to be the role of religious organizations in international social and economic development, a topic that only recently started to attract academic interest. In this paper, we review available literature on the role that religious, or faith-based, organizations play in international social and economic development. We also provide results from our own study of USA international NGOs1 that are faith-based. We divide the paper into the positive contributions of faith-based international NGOs and the drawbacks of these NGOs. We find that faith-based nonprofits constitute almost 60 percent of USA-based international development organizations, and their contribution to international social development is quite considerable. We conclude with a call for further research and nuanced understanding of the role religion plays in international development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religion, Welfare and Social Service Provision: Common Ground)
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