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J. Clin. Med., Volume 8, Issue 11 (November 2019)

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Open AccessReview
Conversion Surgery for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1945; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111945 (registering DOI) - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
While primarily unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) used to be an indication for palliative therapy, a strategy of neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) and conversion surgery is being increasingly used after more effective chemotherapy regimens have become available for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. While high-level [...] Read more.
While primarily unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) used to be an indication for palliative therapy, a strategy of neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) and conversion surgery is being increasingly used after more effective chemotherapy regimens have become available for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. While high-level evidence from prospective studies is still sparse, several large retrospective studies have recently reported their experience with NAT and conversion surgery for LAPC. This review aims to provide a current overview about different NAT regimens, conversion rates, survival outcomes and determinants of post-resection outcomes, as well as surgical strategies in the context of conversion surgery after NAT. FOLFIRINOX is the predominant regimen used and associated with the highest reported conversion rates. Conversion rates considerably vary between less than 5% and more than half of the study population with heterogeneous long-term outcomes, owing to a lack of intention-to-treat analyses in most studies and a high heterogeneity in resectability criteria, treatment strategies, and reporting among studies. Since radiological criteria of local resectability are no longer applicable after NAT, patients without progressive disease should undergo surgical exploration. Surgery after NAT has to be aimed at local radicality around the peripancreatic vessels and should be performed in expert centers. Future studies in this rapidly evolving field need to be prospective, analyze intention-to-treat populations, report stringent and objective inclusion criteria and criteria for resection. Innovative regimens for NAT in combination with a radical surgical approach hold high promise for patients with LAPC in the future. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Exciting Opportunities in Nuclear Medicine Imaging and Therapy
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111944 (registering DOI) - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Nuclear medicine has experienced a number of unprecedented developments in recent years. Above all, the concept of “theranostics”, the combination of a predictive biomarker with a therapeutic agent, has been a central part of this success. For example, a phase III randomized, controlled [...] Read more.
Nuclear medicine has experienced a number of unprecedented developments in recent years. Above all, the concept of “theranostics”, the combination of a predictive biomarker with a therapeutic agent, has been a central part of this success. For example, a phase III randomized, controlled trial provided unequivocal evidence of the effectiveness of 177Lu-DOTATATE for treatment of neuroendocrine tumors, and there have been multiple reports of the benefits of prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted PET imaging and radio-ligand therapy in prostate cancer. Other new exciting theranostic applications include, among many others, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4, as well as cancer-associated fibroblasts. These can be specifically addressed by inhibitors of the fibroblast activation protein and represent a particularly promising target for nuclear medicine theranostics. This Special Issue presents some of the most recent advances in the field of nuclear medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nuclear Medicine Imaging and Therapy)
Open AccessArticle
Exacerbation of Hangover Symptomology Significantly Corresponds with Heavy and Chronic Alcohol Drinking: A Pilot Study
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1943; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111943 (registering DOI) - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Alcohol hangover is a combination of mental, sympathetic, and physical symptoms experienced the day after a single period of heavy drinking, starting when blood alcohol concentration approaches zero. How individual measures/domains of hangover symptomology might differ with moderate to heavy alcohol consumption and [...] Read more.
Alcohol hangover is a combination of mental, sympathetic, and physical symptoms experienced the day after a single period of heavy drinking, starting when blood alcohol concentration approaches zero. How individual measures/domains of hangover symptomology might differ with moderate to heavy alcohol consumption and how these symptoms correlate with the drinking markers is unclear. We investigated the amount/patterns of drinking and hangover symptomology by the categories of alcohol drinking. We studied males and females in three groups: 12 heavy drinkers (HD; >15 drinks/week, 34–63 years old (y.o.)); 17 moderate drinkers (MD; 5–14 drinks/week, 21–30 y.o.); and 12 healthy controls (social/light drinkers, SD; <5 drinks/week, 25–54 y.o.). Demographics, drinking measures (Timeline followback past 90 days (TLFB90), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)), and alcohol hangover scale (AHS) were analyzed. Average drinks/day was 5.1-times greater in HD compared to MD. Average AHS score showed moderate incapacity, and individual measures and domains of the AHS were significantly elevated in HD compared to MD. Symptoms of three domains of the AHS (mental, gastrointestinal, and sympathetic) showed domain-specific significant increase in HD. A domain-specific relation was present between AUDIT and specific measures of AHS scores in HD, specifically with the dependence symptoms. Exacerbation in hangover symptomology could be a marker of more severe alcohol use disorder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Alcohol Hangover: Causes, Consequences, and Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Cancer Risk in Collagenous Colitis
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111942 (registering DOI) - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
Data on malignancy in patients with collagenous colitis (CC) is scarce. We aimed to determine the incidence of cancers in patients with CC. In a two-stages, observational study, data on cancers in patients diagnosed with CC during 2000–2015, were collected from two cohorts. [...] Read more.
Data on malignancy in patients with collagenous colitis (CC) is scarce. We aimed to determine the incidence of cancers in patients with CC. In a two-stages, observational study, data on cancers in patients diagnosed with CC during 2000–2015, were collected from two cohorts. The risk was calculated according to the age-standardized rate for the first cohort and according to the standardized incidence ratio for the second cohort. The first cohort comprised 738 patients (394 from Scotland and 344 from Sweden; mean age 71 ± 11 and 66 ± 13 years, respectively). The incidence rates for lung cancer (RR 3.9, p = 0.001), bladder cancer (RR 9.2, p = 0.019), and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (RR 15, p = 0.001) were increased. As the majority of NMSC cases (15/16) came from Sweden, a second Swedish cohort, comprising 1141 patients (863 women, mean age 65 years, range 20–95 years) was collected. There were 93 cancer cases (besides NMSC). The risk for colon cancer was decreased (SIR 0.23, p= 0.0087). The risk for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was instead markedly increased (SIR 3.27, p = 0.001). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Small Bowel Disorders)
Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Postoperative Astaxanthin Administration on Nasal Mucosa Wound Healing
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1941; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111941 (registering DOI) - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
. Background: Wound healing of the nasal mucosa after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is frequently complicated by scaring and consequently recurrences are encountered. Methods of optimizing results have been sought. In the present study we evaluated the effects of a powerful antioxidant, astaxanthin, [...] Read more.
. Background: Wound healing of the nasal mucosa after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is frequently complicated by scaring and consequently recurrences are encountered. Methods of optimizing results have been sought. In the present study we evaluated the effects of a powerful antioxidant, astaxanthin, on nasal mucosa healing after surgery, comparing it to the extensively studied properties of dexamethasone. Materials and Methods: 63 Wistar rats were used. The nasal mucosa from one side was damaged employing the brushing method. They were randomly divided into three experimental groups, one treated with astaxanthin, the second treated with dexamethasone and the third one acted as the control and was given normal saline. The rats were killed on days 5, 14 and 28 following injury. We observed the temporal evolution of the wound healing process and quantified the results by assessing four parameters: the epithelial thickness index (ETI), the subepithelial thickness index (STI), the goblet cell count and the subepithelial fibrosis index (SFI). Results: At 28 days, the ETI was significantly lower in the astaxanthin group (p < 0.05) compared to the other two groups. The STI was also lower in the astaxanthin group (p < 0.05), but comparable to the dexamethasone group at 28 days. The goblet cell count was higher in the astaxanthin group. The SFI had similar results in both dexamethasone and astaxanthin groups, with lower values compared to the control group. In the astaxanthin group there was no synechia formation. Conclusion: Astaxanthin given in the post injury period significantly decreases fibrosis, inhibits synechia development and significantly decreases subepithelial fibrosis. Moreover, it has no general or local toxic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Rhinosinusitis)
Open AccessArticle
First Evaluation of an Index of Low Vagally-Mediated Heart Rate Variability as a Marker of Health Risks in Human Adults: Proof of Concept
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1940; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111940 (registering DOI) - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
Multiple studies have demonstrated low vagally-mediated heart rate variability (HRV) being associated with a range of risk factors for heart disease and stroke, including inflammation, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Yet, no cut point exists that indicates elevated risk. In the present study we [...] Read more.
Multiple studies have demonstrated low vagally-mediated heart rate variability (HRV) being associated with a range of risk factors for heart disease and stroke, including inflammation, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Yet, no cut point exists that indicates elevated risk. In the present study we sought to identify a cut point-value for HRV that is associated with elevated risk across a range of known risk factors. Methods: A total of 9550 working adults from 19 study sites took part in a health assessment that included measures of inflammation, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension and vagally-mediated HRV (Root mean square of successive differences between normal heartbeats (RMSSD)). Multiple age and sex adjusted logistic regressions were calculated per risk factor (normal versus clinical range), with RMSSD being entered in binary at different cut points ranging from 15–39 msec with a 2 msec increment. Results: For daytime RMSSD, values below 25 ± 4 indicated elevated risk (odds ratios (OR) 1.5–3.5 across risk factors). For nighttime RMSSD, values below 29 ± 4 indicated elevated risk (OR 1.2–2.0). Conclusion: These results provide the first evidence that a single value of RMSSD may be associated with elevated risk across a range of established cardiovascular risk factors and may present an easy to assess novel marker of cardiovascular risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autonomic Nervous System: From Bench to Bedside)
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Open AccessEditorial
Comments from the Editor of the Special Issue “Type 2 Diabetes: Update on Pathophysiology and Treatment”
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1939; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111939 (registering DOI) - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
The editor would like to offer the Special Issue “Type 2 Diabetes: Update on Pathophysiology and Treatment” to the community of diabetes clinicians and researchers. This Special Issue aims to update our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes and [...] Read more.
The editor would like to offer the Special Issue “Type 2 Diabetes: Update on Pathophysiology and Treatment” to the community of diabetes clinicians and researchers. This Special Issue aims to update our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes and its vascular and non-vascular complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Type 2 Diabetes: Update on Pathophysiology and Treatment)
Open AccessArticle
Circulating Endometrial Cells: A New Source of Information on Endometriosis Dynamics
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1938; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111938 (registering DOI) - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
The focus of the presented work was to isolate and characterize circulating endometrial cells (CECs) enriched from peripheral blood (PB) of patients with diagnosed endometriosis. The molecular characteristics of CECs could be supportive for an understanding of endometriosis pathogenesis and treatment decisions in [...] Read more.
The focus of the presented work was to isolate and characterize circulating endometrial cells (CECs) enriched from peripheral blood (PB) of patients with diagnosed endometriosis. The molecular characteristics of CECs could be supportive for an understanding of endometriosis pathogenesis and treatment decisions in the future. Material and Methods: Blood samples (n = 423) were tested for CECs presence. Subsequently, gene expression analysis (GEA) was carried out for CECs. In parallel, CECs presence and characteristics were tested during menstrual cycle (MC) phases in 11 patients. CECs were enriched by size-based separation. Results: CECs were present in 78.4% of the tested blood samples. In line with the revised American Fertility Society (rAFS) classification, CECs presence was confirmed in all the acknowledged endometriosis stages: minimal, mild, moderate, and severe. Surprisingly, CECs negativity rate was also reported for severe disease in 21.1% of cases. The CECs captured during MC phases displayed different cytomorphology, including epithelial, stromal, and stem cell-like characteristics. The highest CECs numbers were detected in the mid-secretory phase of MC, which corresponds to uterine lining decidualization. CECs captured during mid-secretory periods expressed genes KRT18, NANOG, and VIM in higher amounts when compared to the proliferative phase of MC, where genes KRT19 and ESR1 were mostly elevated. GEA of the super-positive CECs samples (1000 CECs/8 mL PB) revealed high expression of genes KRT18, VIM, NANOG, and FLT1. The expression of these genes was also elevated in the endometriosis tissue samples and endometrioma. Conclusion: The panel of the identified CEC genes could be tested in a prospective manner to confirm the role of CECs in endometriosis pathogenesis and diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Northern Japanese Community-Dwellers from the ORANGE Registry
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1937; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111937 (registering DOI) - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
A gradually increasing prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is recognized in the super-aging society that Japan faces, and early detection and intervention in community-dwellers with MCI are critical issues to prevent dementia. Although many previous studies have revealed MCI/non-MCI differences in older [...] Read more.
A gradually increasing prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is recognized in the super-aging society that Japan faces, and early detection and intervention in community-dwellers with MCI are critical issues to prevent dementia. Although many previous studies have revealed MCI/non-MCI differences in older individuals, information on the prevalence and characteristics of MCI in rural older adults is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate differential characteristics between older adults with and without MCI. The investigation was conducted over one year from 2018 to 2019. Participants were recruited from Akita in northern Japan. Neuropsychological assessments were applied to classify MCI, including the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology Functional Assessment Tool (NCGG-FAT) and the Touch panel-type Dementia Assessment Scale (TDAS) based on the Alzheimer’s disease assessment scale. Our samples consisted of 103 older adults divided into 54 non-MCI and 49 MCI. The MCI group had lower scores of all cognitive items. Our results showed that individuals with MCI had significantly slower walking speed (WS) and worse geriatric depression scale (GDS) compared to non-MCI. In addition, WS was significantly associated with some cognitive items in non-MCI, but not in MCI. Finally, we showed that predictive variables of MCI were WS and GDS. Our study provides important information about MCI in rural community-dwellers. We suggest that older adults living in a super-aging society should receive lower limb training, and avoiding depression in older adults through interaction of community-dwellers may contribute to preventing the onset of MCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Medicine for Healthcare and Sustainability)
Open AccessEditorial
Comment from the Editors on the Special Issue: Advanced Analytical Methods in Clinical Diagnosis and Therapy
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111936 (registering DOI) - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
With this Editorial, we want to present the Special Issue, “Advanced Analytical Methods in Clinical Diagnosis and Therapy”. The development of medicine is not possible without progress in the field of identifying different biomarkers or treatments using modern approaches, such as the analytical [...] Read more.
With this Editorial, we want to present the Special Issue, “Advanced Analytical Methods in Clinical Diagnosis and Therapy”. The development of medicine is not possible without progress in the field of identifying different biomarkers or treatments using modern approaches, such as the analytical methods presented in articles that are part of this issue. Thus, with the support of experts, both aspects of theoretical and practical interest from different fields of pathologies have been addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Analytical Methods in Clinical Diagnosis and Therapy)
Open AccessReview
Bacterial Diversity of Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Current Status and Future Prospectives
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111935 (registering DOI) - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) and diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are associated with reduced patient quality of life, lower-extremity amputation, hospitalization, and high morbidity and mortality. Diverse bacterial communities have been identified in DFUs/DFIs, playing a significant role in infection prognosis. However, due to [...] Read more.
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) and diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are associated with reduced patient quality of life, lower-extremity amputation, hospitalization, and high morbidity and mortality. Diverse bacterial communities have been identified in DFUs/DFIs, playing a significant role in infection prognosis. However, due to the high heterogeneity of bacterial communities colonized in DFUs/DFIs, culture-based methods may not isolate all of the bacterial population or unexpected microorganisms. Recently, high sensitivity and specificity of DNA (metagenomics) and RNA (metatranscriptomics) technologies have addressed limitations of culture-based methods and have taken a step beyond bacterial identification. As a consequence, new advances obtained from DNA- and RNA-based techniques for bacterial identification can improve therapeutic approaches. This review evaluated the current state of play in aetiology of DFUs/DFIs on culture and molecular approaches, and discussed the impact of metagenomic and metatranscriptomic methods in bacterial identification approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Internal Fixation of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee Leads to Good Long-Term Outcomes and High Degree of Healing without Differences between Fixation Devices
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1934; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111934 (registering DOI) - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to describe results at long-term follow-up of internal fixation of unstable Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD) achieved with three different fixation devices in skeletally mature knees. A retrospective cohort study was performed at 5 to 19 years follow-up. [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study is to describe results at long-term follow-up of internal fixation of unstable Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD) achieved with three different fixation devices in skeletally mature knees. A retrospective cohort study was performed at 5 to 19 years follow-up. Patient-reported questionnaires were collected at the final follow-up. Postoperative X-rays and MRIs were evaluated for healing of the lesion and articular degeneration. An arthroscopic second look was performed in 74.3% of the cases. Failures were reported as reintervention to address the osteochondral lesion or poor functional outcomes at the last follow-up. A total of 39 subjects with a median follow-up of 10.7 years were included. Herbert screws were used in 51.2% of the cases, bioabsorbable nails in 25.7% of the cases and cannulated screws in 23.1% of the cases. No differences were observed in terms of the clinical score (International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) p = 0.211; Lysholm p = 0.197), radiographic union (p = 0.102) or radiographic degeneration (p = 0.238) between the three different fixation devices. Arthroscopic second look found complete stability of the lesions in all 29 cases evaluated. The mean postoperative Lysholm score was 83 (range = 33–100) and IKDC score was 79 (range = 39–100). Radiographic union was seen in 74% of the cases. Lack of radiographic union was correlated with worst functional scores. A failure rate of 20.5% was found: four reinterventions were performed, and four patients had poor scores at last follow up. This study shows that internal fixation of condylar OCD in skeletally mature patients provides good long-term clinical results and a high degree of healing regardless of the dimensions of the lesion and type of fixation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of Low Dose Proton Pump Inhibitor-Based Therapy to Eradicate Helicobacter pylori in Patients with Subtotal Gastrectomy
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111933 (registering DOI) - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based therapy is standard to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Gastric acidity is lowered after gastrectomy because of bile reflux and impaired mechanism of acid secretion. Therefore, low-dose PPI may be effective for H. pylori eradication in the [...] Read more.
Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based therapy is standard to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Gastric acidity is lowered after gastrectomy because of bile reflux and impaired mechanism of acid secretion. Therefore, low-dose PPI may be effective for H. pylori eradication in the remnant stomach after gastrectomy. In this study, we compared the efficacy of low-dose PPI with standard double-dose PPI to eradicate H. pylori in patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy. A total of 145 patients who were treated for eradication after gastrectomy was analyzed. They were treated with PPI-based triple regimen (PPI, clarithromycin and amoxicillin) for 14 days. We compared the eradication rate in the low-dose PPI group (lansoprazole 15 mg once daily) with that in the standard double-dose PPI group (lansoprazole 30 mg twice daily). The H. pylori eradication rate was 79.1% in the low-dose PPI group and 85.3% in the standard double-dose group; the difference was not significant statistically (p = 0.357). In the multivariate analysis, low-dose PPI (odds ratio (OR) = 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68–4.69) was not associated with eradication failure, while Billroth II anastomosis (OR = 4.45, 85% CI, 1.23–16.2) was significantly associated with eradication failure. Low-dose PPI-based triple regimen was as effective as standard double-dose PPI-based regimen for H. pylori eradication in patients with subtotal gastrectomy. Further study is needed to confirm the effect of low-dose PPI on H. pylori eradication in patients with gastrectomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
Fracture Resistance of Partial Indirect Restorations Made With CAD/CAM Technology. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111932 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Background: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the fracture resistance and survival rate of partial indirect restorations inlays, onlays, and overlays fabricated using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology from ceramics, composite resin, resin nanoceramic, or hybrid [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the fracture resistance and survival rate of partial indirect restorations inlays, onlays, and overlays fabricated using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology from ceramics, composite resin, resin nanoceramic, or hybrid ceramic and to analyze the influence of proximal box elevation on fracture resistance. Materials and methods: This systematic review was based on guidelines proposed by the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). An electronic search was conducted in databases US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health (PubMed), Scopus, Web of Science (WOS), and Embase. In vitro trials published during the last 10 years were included in the review. Results: Applying inclusion criteria based on the review’s population, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) question, 13 articles were selected. Meta-analysis by restoration type estimated the fracture resistance of inlays to be 1923.45 Newtons (N); of onlays 1644 N and of overlays 1383.6 N. Meta-analysis by restoration material obtained an estimated fracture resistance for ceramic of 1529.5 N, for composite resin of 1600 Ne, for resin nanoceramic 2478.7 N, and hybrid ceramic 2108 N. Conclusions: Resin nanoceramic inlays present significantly higher fracture resistance values. Proximal box elevation does not exert any influence on the fracture resistance of indirect restorations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Stomatology)
Open AccessArticle
Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI)—A Novel Predictive Biomarker of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Observational Study
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111931 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most frequent complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with poor outcomes. Biomarkers of AKI are crucial for the early diagnosis of this condition. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is an alarm anti-protease that has [...] Read more.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most frequent complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with poor outcomes. Biomarkers of AKI are crucial for the early diagnosis of this condition. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is an alarm anti-protease that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of AKI but has not yet been studied as a diagnostic biomarker of AKI. Using two independent cohorts (development cohort (DC), n = 60; validation cohort (VC), n = 148), we investigated the performance of SLPI as a diagnostic marker of AKI after cardiac surgery. Serum and urinary levels of SLPI were quantified by ELISA. SLPI was significantly elevated in AKI patients compared with non-AKI patients (6 h, DC: 102.1 vs. 64.9 ng/mL, p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of serum SLPI 6 h after surgery was 0.87 ((0.76–0.97); DC). The addition of SLPI to standard clinical predictors significantly improved the predictive accuracy of AKI (24 h, VC: odds ratio (OR) = 3.91 (1.44–12.13)). In a subgroup, the increase in serum SLPI was evident before AKI was diagnosed on the basis of serum creatinine or urine output (24 h, VC: OR = 4.89 (1.54–19.92)). In this study, SLPI was identified as a novel candidate biomarker for the early diagnosis of AKI after cardiac surgery. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Parameters Affecting the Antimicrobial Properties of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Jet
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1930; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111930 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Using the Taguchi method to narrow experimental parameters, the antimicrobial efficiency of a cold atmospheric plasma jet (CAPJ) treatment was investigated. An L9 array with four parameters of CAPJ treatments, including the application voltage, CAPJ-sample distance, argon (Ar) gas flow rate, and CAPJ [...] Read more.
Using the Taguchi method to narrow experimental parameters, the antimicrobial efficiency of a cold atmospheric plasma jet (CAPJ) treatment was investigated. An L9 array with four parameters of CAPJ treatments, including the application voltage, CAPJ-sample distance, argon (Ar) gas flow rate, and CAPJ treatment time, were applied to examine the antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli). CAPJ treatment time was found to be the most influential parameter in its antimicrobial ability by evaluation of signal to noise ratios and analysis of variance. 100% bactericidal activity was achieved under the optimal bactericidal activity parameters including the application voltage of 8.5 kV, CAPJ-sample distance of 10 mm, Ar gas flow rate of 500 sccm, and CAPJ treatment time of 300 s, which confirms the efficacy of the Taguchi method in this design. In terms of the mechanism of CAPJ’s antimicrobial ability, the intensity of hydroxyl radical produced by CAPJ positively correlated to its antimicrobial efficiency. The CAPJ antimicrobial efficiency was further evaluated by both DNA double-strand breaks analysis and scanning electron microscopy examination of CAPJ treated bacteria. CAPJ destroyed the cell wall of E. coli and further damaged its DNA structure, thus leading to successful killing of bacteria. This study suggests that optimal conditions of CPAJ can provide effective antimicrobial activity and may be grounds for a novel approach for eradicating bacterial infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterial-Related Infections)
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Prostatic Urethral Stiffness Using Strain Elastography: Initial Experiences
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1929; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111929 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
We attempted to visualize the periurethral stiffness of prostatic urethras using strain elastography in the midsagittal plane of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and to evaluate periurethral stiffness patterns in relation to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). A total of 250 men were enrolled. The [...] Read more.
We attempted to visualize the periurethral stiffness of prostatic urethras using strain elastography in the midsagittal plane of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and to evaluate periurethral stiffness patterns in relation to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). A total of 250 men were enrolled. The stiffness patterns of the entire prostate and individual zones were evaluated using strain elastography during a TRUS examination. After excluding 69 men with inappropriate elastography images, subjects were divided according to periurethral stiffness into either group A (low periurethral stiffness, N = 80) or group B (high periurethral stiffness, N = 101). There were significant differences in patient age (p = 0.022), transitional zone volume (p = 0.001), transitional zone index (p = 0.33), total international prostate symptom score (IPSS) (p < 0.001), IPSS-voiding subscore (p < 0.001), IPSS-storage subscore (p < 0.001), and quality of life (QoL) score (p = 0.002) between groups A and B. After adjusting for relevant variables, significant differences in total IPSS, IPSS-voiding subscore, and QoL score were maintained. Men with high periurethral stiffness were associated with worse urinary symptoms than those with low periurethral stiffness, suggesting that periurethral stiffness might play an important role in the development of LUTS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia)
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Open AccessArticle
B4GALT1 Is a New Candidate to Maintain the Stemness of Lung Cancer Stem Cells
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1928; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111928 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Background: According to the cancer stem cells (CSCs) hypothesis, a population of cancer cells with stem cell properties is responsible for tumor propagation, drug resistance, and disease recurrence. Study of the mechanisms responsible for lung CSCs propagation is expected to provide better understanding [...] Read more.
Background: According to the cancer stem cells (CSCs) hypothesis, a population of cancer cells with stem cell properties is responsible for tumor propagation, drug resistance, and disease recurrence. Study of the mechanisms responsible for lung CSCs propagation is expected to provide better understanding of cancer biology and new opportunities for therapy. Methods: The Lung Adenocarcinoma (LUAD) NCI-H460 cell line was grown either as 2D or as 3D cultures. Transcriptomic and genome-wide chromatin accessibility studies of 2D vs. 3D cultures were carried out using RNA-sequencing and Assay for Transposase Accessible Chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq), respectively. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was also carried out on RNA extracted from primary cultures derived from malignant pleural effusions to validate RNA-seq results. Results: RNA-seq and ATAC-seq data disentangled transcriptional and genome accessibility variability of 3D vs. 2D cultures in NCI-H460 cells. The examination of genomic landscape of genes upregulated in 3D vs. 2D cultures led to the identification of 2D cultures led to the identification of Beta-1,4-galactosyltranferase 1 (B4GALT1) as the top candidate. B4GALT1 as the top candidate. B4GALT1 was validated as a stemness factor, since its silencing caused strong inhibition of 3D spheroid formation. Conclusion: Combined transcriptomic and chromatin accessibility study of 3D vs. 2D LUAD cultures led to the identification of B4GALT1 as a new factor involved in the propagation and maintenance of LUAD CSCs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Modifiers at the Crossroads of Personalised Medicine for Haemoglobinopathies
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1927; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111927 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Haemoglobinopathies are common monogenic disorders with diverse clinical manifestations, partly attributed to the influence of modifier genes. Recent years have seen enormous growth in the amount of genetic data, instigating the need for ranking methods to identify candidate genes with strong modifying effects. [...] Read more.
Haemoglobinopathies are common monogenic disorders with diverse clinical manifestations, partly attributed to the influence of modifier genes. Recent years have seen enormous growth in the amount of genetic data, instigating the need for ranking methods to identify candidate genes with strong modifying effects. Here, we present the first evidence-based gene ranking metric (IthaScore) for haemoglobinopathy-specific phenotypes by utilising curated data in the IthaGenes database. IthaScore successfully reflects current knowledge for well-established disease modifiers, while it can be dynamically updated with emerging evidence. Protein–protein interaction (PPI) network analysis and functional enrichment analysis were employed to identify new potential disease modifiers and to evaluate the biological profiles of selected phenotypes. The most relevant gene ontology (GO) and pathway gene annotations for (a) haemoglobin (Hb) F levels/Hb F response to hydroxyurea included urea cycle, arginine metabolism and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) signalling, (b) response to iron chelators included xenobiotic metabolism and glucuronidation, and (c) stroke included cytokine signalling and inflammatory reactions. Our findings demonstrate the capacity of IthaGenes, together with dynamic gene ranking, to expand knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of phenotypic variation in haemoglobinopathies and to identify additional candidate genes to potentially inform and improve diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Personalized Therapy of Thalassemia)
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Open AccessReview
Nutritional Challenges in Patients with Advanced Liver Cirrhosis
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1926; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111926 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Patients with advanced liver cirrhosis are at risk of malnutrition and nutrition-associated complications. Significant ascites, a frequent finding in these patients, has an especially negative impact on oral nutrition. A negative caloric and protein balance can further deteriorate the already impaired synthetic function [...] Read more.
Patients with advanced liver cirrhosis are at risk of malnutrition and nutrition-associated complications. Significant ascites, a frequent finding in these patients, has an especially negative impact on oral nutrition. A negative caloric and protein balance can further deteriorate the already impaired synthetic function of the cirrhotic liver. An important factor in this situation is the diminished capacity of glycogen production and storage in the cirrhotic liver and, consequently, a reduced tolerability for fasting episodes. These episodes are frequently observed in hospitalized patients, e.g., while waiting for investigations, interventions or surgery. A comprehensive work-up of patients with advanced liver cirrhosis should include not only a thorough assessment regarding nutritional deficits, but also a muscularity analysis to identify patients with sarcopenia. The overall nutritional treatment goal is to cover caloric deficits and assure a sufficiently high protein intake. Furthermore, vitamin and micronutrient deficiencies should be identified and corrective measures implemented where required. Ideally, optimal nutrition management can not only prevent the progression of malnutrition and sarcopenia in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis, but positively influence the evolution of the liver disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bevacizumab Induces Upregulation of Keratin 3 and VEGFA in Human Limbal Epithelial Cells in Vitro
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111925 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Topical application of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) inhibitors including Bevacizumab is used for antiangiogenic therapy at the ocular surface. While clinical studies have suggested that this approach is well-tolerated, the effect of the drug on limbal epithelial stem cells has not [...] Read more.
Topical application of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) inhibitors including Bevacizumab is used for antiangiogenic therapy at the ocular surface. While clinical studies have suggested that this approach is well-tolerated, the effect of the drug on limbal epithelial stem cells has not been studied. In this study, the effect of Bevacizumab on phenotype and functionality of putative limbal epithelial stem cells (SC) was investigated. The effect of Bevacizumab on human limbal epithelial cells was assessed in terms of metabolic activity and scratch wound closure. The different treatment groups featured no difference in proliferation and colony forming efficiency (CFE) of limbal epithelial cells or their putative SC marker expression. A significant delay in scratch closure of all the Bevacizumab-treated groups was detected at 4 h. RNA and protein quantification indicated a dose-responsive increase of keratin 3. VEGFA RNA expression also increased while VEGFC and D as well as VEGFR1, 2 and 3 were unchanged. This study highlights previously unknown effects of Bevacizumab on cultured putative limbal epithelial SC: a dose-related increase of keratin 3, an increase in VEGFA as well as a delay in scratch wound closure. These in vitro data should be considered when using Bevacizumab in the context of limbal epithelial SC transplantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corneal Transplant Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle
Perinatal Outcome and Long-Term Gastrointestinal Morbidity of Offspring of Women with Celiac Disease
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1924; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111924 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate perinatal outcome and long-term offspring gastrointestinal morbidity of women with celiac disease. Perinatal outcomes, as well as long-term gastrointestinal morbidity of offspring of mothers with and without celiac disease were assessed. The study groups were [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate perinatal outcome and long-term offspring gastrointestinal morbidity of women with celiac disease. Perinatal outcomes, as well as long-term gastrointestinal morbidity of offspring of mothers with and without celiac disease were assessed. The study groups were followed until 18 years of age for gastrointestinal-related morbidity. For perinatal outcomes, generalized estimation equation (GEE) models were used. A Kaplan–Meier survival curve was used to compare cumulative incidence of long-term gastrointestinal morbidity, and Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to control for confounders. During the study period, 243,682 deliveries met the inclusion criteria, of which 212 (0.08%) were to mothers with celiac disease. Using GEE models, maternal celiac disease was noted as an independent risk factor for low birth weight and cesarean delivery. Offspring born to mothers with celiac disease had higher rates of gastrointestinal related morbidity (Kaplan–Meier log rank test P < 0.001). Using a Cox proportional hazards model, being born to a mother with celiac disease was found to be an independent risk factor for long-term gastrointestinal morbidity of the offspring. Pregnancy of women with celiac disease is independently associated with adverse perinatal outcome as well as higher risk for long-term gastrointestinal morbidity of offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
Open AccessReview
Management of Dehydration in Patients Suffering Swallowing Difficulties
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1923; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111923 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Swallowing difficulties, also called dysphagia, can have various causes and may occur at many points in the swallowing process. The treatment and rehabilitation of dysphagia represent a major interdisciplinary and multiprofessional challenge. In dysphagic patients, dehydration is frequent and often accelerated as a [...] Read more.
Swallowing difficulties, also called dysphagia, can have various causes and may occur at many points in the swallowing process. The treatment and rehabilitation of dysphagia represent a major interdisciplinary and multiprofessional challenge. In dysphagic patients, dehydration is frequent and often accelerated as a result of limited fluid intake. This condition results from loss of water from the intracellular space, disturbing the normal levels of electrolytes and fluid interfering with metabolic processes and body functions. Dehydration is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. Dysphagic patients at risk of dehydration thus require close monitoring of their hydration state, and existing imbalances should be addressed quickly. This review gives an overview on dehydration, as well as its pathophysiology, risk factors, and clinical signs/symptoms in general. Available management strategies of dehydration are presented for oral, enteral, and parenteral fluid replacement. Full article
Open AccessReview
Are We Sure that Adjuvant Chemotherapy is the Best Approach for Resectable Pancreatic Cancer? Are We in the Era of Neoadjuvant Treatment? A Review of Current Literature
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1922; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111922 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
The outcome of pancreatic cancer is poor, with a 9% 5-year survival rate. Current treatment recommendations in the 10%–20% of patients who present with resectable disease support upfront resection followed by adjuvant therapy. Until now, only early complete surgical (R0) resection and adjuvant [...] Read more.
The outcome of pancreatic cancer is poor, with a 9% 5-year survival rate. Current treatment recommendations in the 10%–20% of patients who present with resectable disease support upfront resection followed by adjuvant therapy. Until now, only early complete surgical (R0) resection and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) with either FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) or nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine have been shown to prolong the survival. However, up to 30% of patients do not receive adjuvant therapy because of the development of early recurrence, postoperative complications, comorbidities, and reduced performance status. The aims of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) are to identify rapidly progressing patients to avoid futile surgery, eliminate micrometastases, increase the feasibility of R0 resection, and ensure the completion of multimodal treatment. Neoadjuvant treatments are effective, but there is no consensus on their use in resectable pancreatic cancer (RPC) because of its lack of a survival benefit over adjuvant therapy. In this review, we analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the two therapeutic approaches in RPC. We need studies that compare the two approaches and can identify the appropriate sequence of adjuvant therapy after neoadjuvant treatment and surgery. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Post-Concussion Symptoms in Complicated vs. Uncomplicated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Patients at Three and Six Months Post-Injury: Results from the CENTER-TBI Study
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1921; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111921 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of post-concussion symptoms and post-concussion syndrome (PCS) in a large cohort of patients after complicated and uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) at three and six months post-injury. Patients were included through the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of post-concussion symptoms and post-concussion syndrome (PCS) in a large cohort of patients after complicated and uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) at three and six months post-injury. Patients were included through the prospective cohort study: Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research (CENTER-TBI). Patients enrolled with mTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale 13–15) were further differentiated into complicated and uncomplicated mTBI based on the presence or absence of computed tomography abnormalities, respectively. The Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) assessed post-concussion symptoms and PCS according to the mapped ICD-10 classification method. The occurrence of post-concussion symptoms and syndrome at both time points was calculated. Chi square tests were used to test for differences between and within groups. Logistic regression was performed to analyse the association between complicated versus uncomplicated mTBI and the prevalence of PCS. Patients after complicated mTBI reported slightly more post-concussion symptoms compared to those after uncomplicated mTBI. A higher percentage of patients after complicated mTBI were classified as having PCS at three (complicated: 46% vs. uncomplicated: 35%) and six months (complicated: 43% vs. uncomplicated 34%). After adjusting for baseline covariates, the effect of complicated versus uncomplicated mTBI at three months appeared minimal: odds ratio 1.25 (95% confidence interval: 0.95–1.66). Although patients after complicated mTBI report slightly more post-concussion symptoms and show higher PCS rates compared to those after uncomplicated mTBI at three and six months, complicated mTBI was only found a weak indicator for these problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
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Open AccessArticle
Real-World Experience of Olaparib Maintenance in High-Grade Serous Recurrent Ovarian Cancer Patients with BRCA1/2 Mutation: A Korean Multicenter Study
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1920; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111920 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Background: Olaparib maintenance therapy has shown efficacy and tolerability in patients with platinum-sensitive, high-grade serous recurrent ovarian cancer (HSROC) with BRCA1/2 mutation (BRCAm). Our aim was to present real-world experience with olaparib in Korea. Method: We included HSROC patients with BRCAm treated with [...] Read more.
Background: Olaparib maintenance therapy has shown efficacy and tolerability in patients with platinum-sensitive, high-grade serous recurrent ovarian cancer (HSROC) with BRCA1/2 mutation (BRCAm). Our aim was to present real-world experience with olaparib in Korea. Method: We included HSROC patients with BRCAm treated with olaparib maintenance at four institutions in Korea between 2016 and 2018. Medical records were reviewed for clinico-pathologic characteristics, objective response, survival outcomes, and safety. Results: One hundred HSROC patients with BRCAm were included. BRCA1 mutation was present in 71 patients (71.0%), and BRCA2 mutation was present in 23 patients (23.0%). In terms of the best objective response with olaparib maintenance in 53 patients with partial remission from most recent chemotherapy, complete remission occurred in 12 (22.6%) and partial remission in four (7.5%), while 33 patients (62.3%) had stable disease. The 24 month progression-free survival was 42.4%, and 24 month overall survival was 82.1%. Grade 3 or more adverse events were as follows: anemia in 14 patients (14.0%), neutropenia in seven patients (7.0%), thrombocytopenia in two patients (2.0%), oral mucositis in one patient (1.0%), and soft tissue infection in one patient (1.0%). Conclusions: The safety and effectiveness of olaparib maintenance treatment in a real-world study were consistent with those reported in previous clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of a Prescription Support Tool to Improve Adherence to the Guidelines for the Prescription of Oral Antithrombotics: The Combi-AT Randomized Controlled Trial Using Clinical Vignettes
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1919; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111919 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Ensuring the appropriateness of prescriptions of oral antithrombotics (ATs, including antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents) is a crucial safety issue, particularly for patients with multiple chronic conditions. Our main objective was to assess the impact of a prescription support tool, synthesized from international guidelines [...] Read more.
Ensuring the appropriateness of prescriptions of oral antithrombotics (ATs, including antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents) is a crucial safety issue, particularly for patients with multiple chronic conditions. Our main objective was to assess the impact of a prescription support tool, synthesized from international guidelines on oral ATs in adult outpatients, on improving physician adherence to the guidelines for prescription of oral ATs. A web-based, open randomized controlled trial using clinical vignettes was conducted in France from November 2018 to February 2019. General practitioners and cardiologists with outpatient practice were contacted to participate in a web-based survey involving three clinical vignettes illustrating cases of adult outpatients with common neuro-cardiovascular diseases. They were asked to answer four multiple-choice questions related to the number of oral AT(s), drug class, dosage and duration of the prescription. Physicians assigned to the experimental arm had access to the prescription support tool. Physicians assigned to the control arm had no access to the tool. The primary outcome measure was the appropriate prescription of oral ATs (i.e., complied with guidelines in terms of the number, drug class, dosage and duration of prescription). An intent-to-treat analysis was performed using a logistic mixed model with a clinical vignette effect and a physician effect nested in the arm of the trial. Four hundred and forty-one general practitioners and 37 cardiologists were randomized to the experimental (n = 238) and to the control arm (n = 240), respectively. In the experimental arm, 55.0% of the prescriptions were appropriate versus 29.4% in the control arm (Odds Ratio (OR): 3.61 (2.60 to 5.02)). Access to the first prescription support tool synthesizing the use of oral ATs for outpatients significantly improved the rate of appropriate oral AT prescriptions according to the guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
Open AccessArticle
Human Red Blood Cells as Oxygen Carriers to Improve Ex-Situ Liver Perfusion in a Rat Model
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1918; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111918 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Ex-situ machine perfusion (MP) has been increasingly used to enhance liver quality in different settings. Small animal models can help to implement this procedure. As most normothermic MP (NMP) models employ sub-physiological levels of oxygen delivery (DO2), the aim of this [...] Read more.
Ex-situ machine perfusion (MP) has been increasingly used to enhance liver quality in different settings. Small animal models can help to implement this procedure. As most normothermic MP (NMP) models employ sub-physiological levels of oxygen delivery (DO2), the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of different DO2, using human red blood cells (RBCs) as oxygen carriers on metabolic recovery in a rat model of NMP. Four experimental groups (n = 5 each) consisted of (1) native (untreated/control), (2) liver static cold storage (SCS) 30 min without NMP, (3) SCS followed by 120 min of NMP with Dulbecco-Modified-Eagle-Medium as perfusate (DMEM), and (4) similar to group 3, but perfusion fluid was added with human RBCs (hematocrit 15%) (BLOOD). Compared to DMEM, the BLOOD group showed increased liver DO2 (p = 0.008) and oxygen consumption ( V O ˙ 2) (p < 0.001); lactate clearance (p < 0.001), potassium (p < 0.001), and glucose (p = 0.029) uptake were enhanced. ATP levels were likewise higher in BLOOD relative to DMEM (p = 0.031). V O ˙ 2 and DO2 were highly correlated (p < 0.001). Consistently, the main metabolic parameters were directly correlated with DO2 and V O ˙ 2. No human RBC related damage was detected. In conclusion, an optimized DO2 significantly reduces hypoxic damage-related effects occurring during NMP. Human RBCs can be safely used as oxygen carriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cutting Edge Preclinical Models in Translational Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Visualization of Accessory Lymphatic Pathways, before and after Manual Drainage, in Secondary Upper Limb Lymphedema Using Indocyanine Green Lymphography
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1917; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111917 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Manual Lymphatic Drainage (MLD) appears to stimulate lymphatic contraction, aid in the development of secondary derivation pathways, and stimulate the appearance of collateral pathways that could function as the main drainage routes of the limb in case of lymphedema. Through stretching, call up [...] Read more.
Manual Lymphatic Drainage (MLD) appears to stimulate lymphatic contraction, aid in the development of secondary derivation pathways, and stimulate the appearance of collateral pathways that could function as the main drainage routes of the limb in case of lymphedema. Through stretching, call up maneuvers are used to stimulate lymphangion reflex contraction and, therefore, lymphatic function. The aim was to describe the presence of areas and pathways of collateral lymphatic drainage under basal conditions and to determine, using Indocyanine Green (ICG) lymphography, whether an increase in these pathways occurs after 30 min of manual lymphatic stimulation with only call up maneuvers according to the Leduc Method®®. In this prospective analytical study (pretest–posttest), the frequency of presentation of areas and collateral lymphatic pathways was analyzed in 19 patients with secondary lymphedema of the upper limb after breast cancer using an infrared camera. Analyses were completed at three time points: after ICG injection, at baseline (pretest), and after the application of MLD (post-test). The Leduc Method maneuvers were applied to the supraclavicular and axillary nodes, chest, back, Mascagni, and Caplan pathways. The areas visualized in the pretest continued to be visible in the posttest. Additional pathways and fluorescent areas were observed after the maneuvers. The McNemar test showed statistical significance (p = 0.008), the odds ratio was infinite, and the Cohen’s g value was equal to 0.5. Manual stimulation by call up maneuvers increased the observation frequency of areas and collateral lymphatic pathways. Therefore, ICG lymphography appears to be a useful tool for bringing out the routes of collateral bypass in secondary lymphoedema after cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nuclear Medicine & Radiology)
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Open AccessReview
Correlations between Molecular Landscape and Sonographic Image of Different Variants of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111916 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common thyroid cancer, is predominantly driven by mutations in BRAF (primarily p. V600E) and RAS oncogenes. Ultrasound (US) examination provides significant diagnostic data in the management of thyroid nodules, as many sonographic features of thyroid lesions [...] Read more.
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common thyroid cancer, is predominantly driven by mutations in BRAF (primarily p. V600E) and RAS oncogenes. Ultrasound (US) examination provides significant diagnostic data in the management of thyroid nodules, as many sonographic features of thyroid lesions are correlated with the potential risk of thyroid carcinoma. The aim of the study was to analyze the current literature in regard to the potential associations between genetic landscape and sonographic features of PTC. Based on the current literature, sonographic features of PTCs correlate with their molecular drivers, particularly between tumors harboring BRAFV600E versus activating RAS mutations, although many of these findings appear to be dependent on the tumor variant. Suspicious US findings, such as hypoechogenicity, spiculated/microlobulated margins, non-parallel orientation/taller-than-wide shape, and the presence of microcalcifications, are typical for PTC positive for BRAFV600E mutations. On the contrary, tumors with RAS mutations are most frequently hypo- or isoechoic and ovoid-to-round in shape, with smooth margins and without calcifications. There are also some US features typical for PTCs harboring other mutations, including BRAFK601E, RET/PTC rearrangements, PAX8-PPARγ, CTNNB1, and APC. However, further research is necessary, as some rare PTC variants still cannot be reliably analyzed due to the scarce published data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging and Imaging-Based Management of Thyroid Nodules)
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