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J. Clin. Med., Volume 5, Issue 6 (June 2016) – 5 articles

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Review
The Role of microRNAs in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(6), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5060059 - 16 Jun 2016
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2553
Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a very challenging malignancy. Disease is diagnosed in an advanced stage in the vast majority of patients, and PDAC cells are often resistant to conventional cytotoxic drugs. Targeted therapies have made no progress in the management of this [...] Read more.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a very challenging malignancy. Disease is diagnosed in an advanced stage in the vast majority of patients, and PDAC cells are often resistant to conventional cytotoxic drugs. Targeted therapies have made no progress in the management of this disease, unlike other cancers. microRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of multitude number of genes by targeting their 3′-UTR mRNA region. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been linked to the development of various malignancies, including PDAC. In PDAC, a series of miRs have been defined as holding promise for early diagnostics, as indicators of therapy resistance, and even as markers for therapeutic response in patients. In this mini-review, we present an update on the various different miRs that have been defined in PDAC biology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNAs: Novel Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Human Cancers)
Article
Tele-Operated Echography and Remote Guidance for Performing Tele-Echography on Geographically Isolated Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(6), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5060058 - 13 Jun 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the performance of three tele-echography systems for routine use in isolated medical centers. Methods: Three systems were used for deep (abdomen, pelvis, fetal) and superficial (muscle, thyroid, carotid artery) examinations: (a) a robotic arm (RA) holding an echographic probe; (b) [...] Read more.
Objective: To evaluate the performance of three tele-echography systems for routine use in isolated medical centers. Methods: Three systems were used for deep (abdomen, pelvis, fetal) and superficial (muscle, thyroid, carotid artery) examinations: (a) a robotic arm (RA) holding an echographic probe; (b) an echograph with a motorized probe (MP); and (c) remote guidance (RG) where the patient site operator performed the examination assisted by an expert via videoconference. All systems were tested in the same medical center located 60 km away from the university hospital. Results: A total of 340 remote echography examinations were performed (41% RA and MP, 59% RG). MP and RA allowed full control of the probe orientation by the expert, and provided diagnoses in 97% of cases. The use of RG was sufficient for superficial vessel examinations and provided diagnoses in 98% of cases but was not suited for deep or superficial organs. Assessment of superficial organs was best accomplished using the MP. Discussion: Both teleoperated systems provided control of the probe orientation by the expert necessary for obtaining appropriate views of deep organs but the MP was much more ergonomic and easier to use than the RA. RG was appropriate for superficial vessels while the MP was better for superficial volumic organs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Telemedicine - Technical Developments and Clinical Practice)
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Review
Molecular Imaging of Angiogenesis and Vascular Remodeling in Cardiovascular Pathology
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(6), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5060057 - 06 Jun 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2868
Abstract
Angiogenesis and vascular remodeling are involved in a wide array of cardiovascular diseases, from myocardial ischemia and peripheral arterial disease, to atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm. Molecular imaging techniques to detect and quantify key molecular and cellular players in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling (e.g., [...] Read more.
Angiogenesis and vascular remodeling are involved in a wide array of cardiovascular diseases, from myocardial ischemia and peripheral arterial disease, to atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm. Molecular imaging techniques to detect and quantify key molecular and cellular players in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors, αvβ3 integrin, and matrix metalloproteinases) can advance vascular biology research and serve as clinical tools for early diagnosis, risk stratification, and selection of patients who would benefit most from therapeutic interventions. To target these key mediators, a number of molecular imaging techniques have been developed and evaluated in animal models of angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. This review of the state of the art molecular imaging of angiogenesis and vascular (and valvular) remodeling, will focus mostly on nuclear imaging techniques (positron emission tomography and single photon emission tomography) that offer high potential for clinical translation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Vascular Medicine and Angiogenesis)
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Review
Angiogenesis in Ischemic Stroke and Angiogenic Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(6), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5060056 - 06 Jun 2016
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 3512
Abstract
Stroke is one of the major causes of death and adult disability worldwide. The underlying pathophysiology of stroke is highly complicated, consisting of impairments of multiple signalling pathways, and numerous pathological processes such as acidosis, glutamate excitotoxicity, calcium overload, cerebral inflammation and reactive [...] Read more.
Stroke is one of the major causes of death and adult disability worldwide. The underlying pathophysiology of stroke is highly complicated, consisting of impairments of multiple signalling pathways, and numerous pathological processes such as acidosis, glutamate excitotoxicity, calcium overload, cerebral inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The current treatment for ischemic stroke is limited to thromolytics such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). tPA has a very narrow therapeutic window, making it suitable to only a minority of stroke patients. Hence, there is great urgency to develop new therapies that can protect brain tissue from ischemic damage. Recent studies have shown that new vessel formation after stroke not only replenishes blood flow to the ischemic area of the brain, but also promotes neurogenesis and improves neurological functions in both animal models and patients. Therefore, drugs that can promote angiogenesis after ischemic stroke can provide therapeutic benefits in stroke management. In this regard, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has a long history in treating stroke and the associated diseases. A number of studies have demonstrated the pro-angiogenic effects of various Chinese herbs and herbal formulations in both in vitro and in vivo settings. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of the current knowledge on angiogenesis in the context of ischemic stroke and discuss the potential use of CHM in stroke management through modulation of angiogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Vascular Medicine and Angiogenesis)
Review
A Role for the Intestinal Microbiota and Virome in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)?
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(6), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5060055 - 06 Jun 2016
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 10817
Abstract
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a heterogeneous disorder of significant societal impact that is proposed to involve both host and environmentally derived aetiologies that may be autoimmune in nature. Immune-related symptoms of at least moderate severity persisting for prolonged periods of time [...] Read more.
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a heterogeneous disorder of significant societal impact that is proposed to involve both host and environmentally derived aetiologies that may be autoimmune in nature. Immune-related symptoms of at least moderate severity persisting for prolonged periods of time are common in ME/CFS patients and B cell depletion therapy is of significant therapeutic benefit. The origin of these symptoms and whether it is infectious or inflammatory in nature is not clear, with seeking evidence of acute or chronic virus infections contributing to the induction of autoimmune processes in ME/CFS being an area of recent interest. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence supporting an infectious aetiology for ME/CFS leading us to propose the novel concept that the intestinal microbiota and in particular members of the virome are a source of the “infectious” trigger of the disease. Such an approach has the potential to identify disease biomarkers and influence therapeutics, providing much-needed approaches in preventing and managing a disease desperately in need of confronting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Human Microbiome)
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