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J. Clin. Med., Volume 10, Issue 18 (September-2 2021) – 255 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Adaptive splice regulators, such as RNA-binding motif protein 20 (RBM20) determine the physiological mRNA landscape formation, and rare variants in the RBM20 gene explain up to 6% of genetic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases. With ample knowledge from RBM20-deficient mice, rats, swine and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), the downstream targets and quantitative effects on splicing are now well-defined and the prerequisites for corrective therapeutic approaches are set. This review article highlights some of the recent advances in the field, ranging from aspects of granule formation to 3D genome architectures underlying RBM20-related cardiomyopathy. Promising therapeutic strategies are presented and put into context with the pathophysiological characteristics of RBM20-related diseases. View this paper
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Review
Less Known Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) Syndrome: A Systematic Review of the Literature
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4287; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184287 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 787
Abstract
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a potentially life threatening severe cutaneous drug reaction. Most patients develop eosinophilia, a rash, a fever, lymphadenopathy and variable visceral organ involvement 2–6 weeks following exposure to the inciting medication. Unlike other severe [...] Read more.
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a potentially life threatening severe cutaneous drug reaction. Most patients develop eosinophilia, a rash, a fever, lymphadenopathy and variable visceral organ involvement 2–6 weeks following exposure to the inciting medication. Unlike other severe cutaneous drug reactions, internal organ involvement that leads to high mortality is a unique feature of DRESS syndrome. While the liver is the most common internal organ involved, literally every other visceral organ can be affected in this syndrome. The lesser-known gastrointestinal manifestations of this syndrome include esophagitis, gastritis, enteritis, colitis, pancreatitis and a late autoimmune sequela due to pancreatic injury such as fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. While these entities are less common, they are associated with equally severe complications and adverse patient outcomes. In this review, we synthetize data on these rare manifestations using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The liver, the most common visceral organ involved, has been described as part of DRESS elsewhere and is not included in the scope of this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
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Article
Do Women Have a Higher Mortality Risk Than Men following ICU Admission after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest? A Retrospective Cohort Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4286; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184286 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Purpose: previous studies showed that women have a higher mortality risk than men after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). This sex difference may disappear after adjustment for cardiac arrest characteristics. Most studies also included patients who were not admitted to the intensive care unit [...] Read more.
Purpose: previous studies showed that women have a higher mortality risk than men after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). This sex difference may disappear after adjustment for cardiac arrest characteristics. Most studies also included patients who were not admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). We analyzed whether sex impacts the mortality of ICU-admitted OHCA patients. Methods: a retrospective cohort analysis of 1240 OHCA patients admitted to the ICU (310 women, 25%, AgeMedian 64.0 (IQR 53.8–73.0)) at an academic hospital in the Netherlands between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2018. The primary outcome was 90-day mortality; the secondary outcome was a favorable cerebral performance category (CPC) score at ICU discharge and ICU length of stay (ICU LOS). Results: we found no association between sex and 90-day mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 0.867; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.678–1.108) after adjusting for relevant cardiac arrest characteristics. Similarly, we found no difference for favorable CPC score (OR 1.117; 95% CI 0.777–1.608) or ICU LOS between sexes (Beta 0.428; 95% CI −0.442 to 1.298). Conclusions: after adjusting for cardiac arrest characteristics, we found no difference between women and men with respect to 90-day mortality, ICU LOS, and CPC score. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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Article
Symptom Prevalence of Anxiety and Depression in Older Cardiac Arrest Survivors: A Comparative Nationwide Register Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4285; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184285 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Knowledge about psychological distress in older cardiac arrest (CA) survivors is sparse, and the lack of comparisons with general populations make it difficult to draw any strong conclusions about prevalence and potential changes caused by CA. Our aim was to compare psychological distress [...] Read more.
Knowledge about psychological distress in older cardiac arrest (CA) survivors is sparse, and the lack of comparisons with general populations make it difficult to draw any strong conclusions about prevalence and potential changes caused by CA. Our aim was to compare psychological distress between older CA survivors and a general population. This study included survivors 65–80 years old and an age- and sex-matched general population. Data on survivors was collected from the Swedish Register of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure psychological distress. Data were analyzed with non-parametric statistics. The final sample included 1027 CA survivors and 1018 persons from the general population. In both groups, the mean age was 72 years (SD = 4) and 28% were women. The prevalence of anxiety was 9.9% for survivors and 9.5% for the general population, while the corresponding prevalence for depression was 11.3% and 11.5% respectively. Using the cut-off scores, no significant differences between the groups were detected. However, CA survivors reported significantly lower symptom levels using the subscale scores (ΔMdn = 1, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the CA survivors did not report higher symptom levels of anxiety and depression than the general population. However, since psychological distress is related to poor quality-of-life and recovery, screening for psychological distress remains important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emergency Medicine)
Article
Using MRI Measurement to Improve Accuracy of Femoral Component Sizing in Oxford Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4284; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184284 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 330
Abstract
Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) can achieve better kinematics and faster recovery than total knee arthroplasty. The Phase III Oxford UKA system has five sizes of femoral components to approximate the normal knee geometry. However, these different sizes may also induce problems, such as [...] Read more.
Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) can achieve better kinematics and faster recovery than total knee arthroplasty. The Phase III Oxford UKA system has five sizes of femoral components to approximate the normal knee geometry. However, these different sizes may also induce problems, such as the misselection of component size. Different criteria have been proposed to predict the ideal size preoperatively. However, no single method can be applied universally. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a preoperative measurement using knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict femoral component size. A total of 68 patients who underwent UKA were investigated from June 2019 to April 2020. 16 knees using a different MRI protocol were excluded. We developed an MRI measurement method to determine femoral size instead of gender- and height-based methods. The accuracy of different methods was compared using postoperative true lateral view radiographs. Three different kinds of gender- and height-based criteria, preoperative templating and intraoperative spoon measurement were compared. The accuracy of MRI measurement was 90.3%. Therefore, a significant difference was found between MRI measurements and all other methods, such as templating or gender- and height-based methods. In conclusion, the MRI measurement method can be concluded to accurately predict femoral component size in UKA. This method could be used regardless of different ethnic groups, individual knee geometry, or soft tissue tension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Arthroplasty - Part I)
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Article
Implicit and Explicit Memory in Youths with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case-Control Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4283; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184283 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) usually manifest heterogeneous impairments in their higher cognitive functions, including their implicit memory (IM) and explicit memory (EM). However, the findings on IM and EM in youths with ASD remain debated. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) usually manifest heterogeneous impairments in their higher cognitive functions, including their implicit memory (IM) and explicit memory (EM). However, the findings on IM and EM in youths with ASD remain debated. The aim of this study was to clarify such conflicting results by examining IM and EM using two comparable versions of the Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT) in the same group of children and adolescents with ASD. Twenty-five youths with high-functioning ASD and 29 age-matched and IQ-matched typically developing youths undertook both tasks. The ability to implicitly learn the temporal sequence of events across the blocks in the SRTT was intact in the youths with ASD. When they were tested for EM, the participants with ASD did not experience a significant reduction in their reaction times during the blocks with the previously learned sequence, suggesting an impairment in EM. Moreover, the participants with ASD were less accurate and made more omissions than the controls in the EM task. The implications of these findings for the establishment of tailored educational programs for children with high-functioning ASD are discussed. Full article
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Article
Prevalence and Incidence of Osteoarthritis: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4282; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184282 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 364
Abstract
While trends data of osteoarthritis (OA) are accumulating, primarily from Western Europe and the US, a gap persists in the knowledge of OA epidemiology in Middle Eastern populations. This study aimed to explore the prevalence, incidence, correlations, and temporal trends of OA in [...] Read more.
While trends data of osteoarthritis (OA) are accumulating, primarily from Western Europe and the US, a gap persists in the knowledge of OA epidemiology in Middle Eastern populations. This study aimed to explore the prevalence, incidence, correlations, and temporal trends of OA in Israel during 2013–2018, using a nationally representative primary care database. On 31 December 2018, a total of 180,126 OA patients were identified, representing a point prevalence of 115.3 per 1000 persons (95% CI, 114.8–115.8 per 1000 persons). Geographically, OA prevalence was not uniformly distributed, with the Southern and Northern peripheral districts having a higher prevalence than the rest of the Israeli regions. OA incidence increased over time from 7.36 per 1000 persons (95% CI 6.21–7.50 per 1000 persons) in 2013 to 8.23 per 1000 persons (95% CI 8.09–8.38 per 1000 persons) in 2017 (p-value for trend = 0.02). The incidence was lowest in patients under 60 years (in both sexes) and peaked at 60–70 years. In older ages, the incidence leveled off in men and declined in women. The growing risk of OA warrants a greater attention to timely preventive and therapeutic interventions. Further population-based studies in the Middle East are needed to identify modifiable risk factors for timely preventive and therapeutic interventions. Full article
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Article
Diagnosis of Subclinical Keratoconus Based on Machine Learning Techniques
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4281; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184281 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 352
Abstract
(1) Background: Keratoconus is a non-inflammatory corneal disease characterized by gradual thinning of the stroma, resulting in irreversible visual quality and quantity decline. Early detection of keratoconus and subsequent prevention of possible risks are crucial factors in its progression. Random forest is a [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Keratoconus is a non-inflammatory corneal disease characterized by gradual thinning of the stroma, resulting in irreversible visual quality and quantity decline. Early detection of keratoconus and subsequent prevention of possible risks are crucial factors in its progression. Random forest is a machine learning technique for classification based on the construction of thousands of decision trees. The aim of this study was to use the random forest technique in the classification and prediction of subclinical keratoconus, considering the metrics proposed by Pentacam and Corvis. (2) Methods: The design was a retrospective cross-sectional study. A total of 81 eyes of 81 patients were enrolled: sixty-one eyes with healthy corneas and twenty patients with subclinical keratoconus (SCKC): This initial stage includes patients with the following conditions: (1) minor topographic signs of keratoconus and suspicious topographic findings (mild asymmetric bow tie, with or without deviation; (2) average K (mean corneal curvature) < 46, 5 D; (3) minimum corneal thickness (ECM) > 490 μm; (4) no slit lamp found; and (5) contralateral clinical keratoconus of the eye. Pentacam topographic and Corvis biomechanical variables were collected. Decision tree and random forest were used as machine learning techniques for classifications. Random forest performed a ranking of the most critical variables in classification. (3) Results: The essential variable was SP A1 (stiffness parameter A1), followed by A2 time, posterior coma 0°, A2 velocity and peak distance. The model efficiently predicted all patients with subclinical keratoconus (Sp = 93%) and was also a good model for classifying healthy cases (Sen = 86%). The overall accuracy rate of the model was 89%. (4) Conclusions: The random forest model was a good model for classifying subclinical keratoconus. The SP A1 variable was the most critical determinant in classifying and identifying subclinical keratoconus, followed by A2 time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Keratoconus Diagnosis and Management)
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Article
Outbreaks of COVID-19 in Nursing Homes: A Cross-Sectional Survey of 74 Nursing Homes in a French Area
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4280; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184280 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 426
Abstract
In this multi-centric cross-sectional survey conducted in nursing homes of the French Alps, from 1 March to 31 May 2020, we analyze the relationship between the occurrence of an outbreak of COVID 19 among residents and staff members. Out of 225 eligible nursing [...] Read more.
In this multi-centric cross-sectional survey conducted in nursing homes of the French Alps, from 1 March to 31 May 2020, we analyze the relationship between the occurrence of an outbreak of COVID 19 among residents and staff members. Out of 225 eligible nursing homes, 74 (32.8%) completed the survey. Among 5891 residents, the incidence of confirmed or probable COVID-19 was 8.2% (95CI, 7.5% to 8.9%), and 22 (29.7%) facilities had an outbreak with at least 3 cases. Among the 4652 staff members, the incidence of confirmed or probable COVID-19 was 6.3% (95CI, 5.6% to 7.1%). A strong positive correlation existed between residents and staff members for both numbers of cases (r2 = 0.77, p < 0.001) and the incidence (r2 = 0.76, p < 0.001). In univariate analyses, cases among the staff were the only factor associated with the occurrence of an outbreak among residents (OR = 11.2 (95CI, 2.25 to 53.6)). In bivariate analysis, this relationship was not influenced by any nursing home characteristics, nor the action they implemented to mitigate the COVID-19 crisis. Staff members were, therefore, likely to be a source of contamination and spread of COVID-19 among nursing home residents during the first wave of the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Special Populations and Risk Factors)
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Article
Early Improvements in Disease Activity Indices Predict Long-Term Clinical Remission Suggested by the Treat-to-Target Strategy in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis Receiving TNF-α Inhibitor Treatment
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4279; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184279 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 326
Abstract
This study evaluated the possibility of clinical remission suggested by the treat-to-target strategy and identified predictors of clinical remission in 139 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) receiving tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors (TNFi). Clinical remission criteria selected were AS Disease Activity Score Inactive Disease [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the possibility of clinical remission suggested by the treat-to-target strategy and identified predictors of clinical remission in 139 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) receiving tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors (TNFi). Clinical remission criteria selected were AS Disease Activity Score Inactive Disease (ASDAS-ID) and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) < 2 with normal C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (BASDAI-CRP). The longitudinal relationship between clinical parameters and clinical remission was assessed using generalized estimating equations (GEEs). Responders to ASDAS-ID and BASDAI-CRP increased from 32.4% to 68.9% and from 39.9% to 75.2% at months 3 and 33, respectively. Responders to ASDAS-ID and BASDAI-CRP almost overlapped. In the univariable GEE model, age and 3-month improvement in BASDAI, ASDAS-CRP, physician and patient global assessments, and spinal pain predicted clinical remission achievement, while the presence of syndesmophytes predicted ASDAS-CRP achievement, and normalized CRP at 3 months was associated with BASDAI-CRP achievement. Multivariable GEE analysis revealed age (odds ratio (OR): 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.49–0.93) and 3-month BASDAI improvement (OR: 1.70; CI, 1.19–2.41) as independent predictors of ASDAS-ID achievement and age (OR: 0.69; CI, 0.54–0.89), 3-month BASDAI improvement (OR: 2.00; CI, 1.45–2.76), and normalized CRP at 3 months (OR: 3.72; CI, 1.39–9.95) as independent predictors of BASDAI-CRP achievement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
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Article
Frailty Scales for Prognosis Assessment of Older Adult Patients after Acute Myocardial Infarction
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4278; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184278 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 333
Abstract
We aimed to compare the prognostic value of two different measures, the Fried’s Frailty Scale (FFS) and the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), following myocardial infarction (MI). We included 150 patients ≥ 70 years admitted from AMI. Frailty was evaluated on the day before [...] Read more.
We aimed to compare the prognostic value of two different measures, the Fried’s Frailty Scale (FFS) and the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), following myocardial infarction (MI). We included 150 patients ≥ 70 years admitted from AMI. Frailty was evaluated on the day before discharge. The primary endpoint was number of days alive and out of hospital (DAOH) during the first 800 days. Secondary endpoints were mortality and a composite of mortality and reinfarction. Frailty was diagnosed in 58% and 34% of patients using the FFS and CFS scales, respectively. During the first 800 days 34 deaths and 137 admissions occurred. The number of DAOH decreased significantly with increasing scores of both FFS (p < 0.001) and CFS (p = 0.049). In multivariate analysis, only the highest scores (FFS = 5, CFS ≥ 6) were independently associated with fewer DAOH. At a median follow-up of 946 days, frailty assessed both by FFS and CFS was independently associated with death and MI (HR = 2.70 95%CI = 1.32–5.51 p = 0.001; HR = 2.01 95%CI = 1.1–3.66 p = 0.023, respectively), whereas all-cause mortality was only associated with FFS (HR = 1.51 95%CI = 1.08–2.10 p = 0.015). Frailty by FFS or CFS is independently associated with shorter number DAOH post-MI. Likewise, frailty assessed by either scale is associated with a higher rate of death and reinfarction, whereas FFS outperforms CFS for mortality prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances in Acute Coronary Syndrome)
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Article
Early Diagnosis of Neutropenic Enterocolitis by Bedside Ultrasound in Hematological Malignancies: A Prospective Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4277; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184277 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 344
Abstract
(1) Background: Neutropenic enterocolitis (NEC) is a life-threatening complication following chemotherapy with high mortality rates. Early diagnosis is crucial to improve outcomes. We designed a large prospective study employing bedside ultrasonography (US) as a novel approach to allow early diagnosis and prompt treatment [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Neutropenic enterocolitis (NEC) is a life-threatening complication following chemotherapy with high mortality rates. Early diagnosis is crucial to improve outcomes. We designed a large prospective study employing bedside ultrasonography (US) as a novel approach to allow early diagnosis and prompt treatment to reduce mortality. (2) Methods: NEC was defined as US or computed tomography (CT)-proven bowel wall thickness ≥ 4 mm at the onset of at least one of the following symptoms: fever and/or abdominal pain and/or diarrhea during neutropenia. From 2007 to 2018, 1754 consecutive patients underwent baseline bedside US that was invariably repeated within 12 h from the onset of symptom(s) suggestive of NEC. (3) Results: Overall, 117 episodes of NEC were observed, and overall mortality was 9.4%. Bowel wall thickening was invariably absent in the negative control group. Abdominal pain associated with one or more symptoms correlated with the highest relative risk (17.33), sensitivity (89.7%), specificity (100%), and accuracy (96.2%) for diagnosis. The combination of abdominal pain and fever at onset significantly correlated with worse survival (p < 0.0001, OR 13.85). BWT (p = 0.046), type of therapy (p = 0.049) and blood culture positivity (p = 0.003) correlated with worse survival. (4) Conclusions: Bedside ultrasound is a non-invasive and radiation free imaging technique for early diagnosis of NEC and its prompt treatment significantly reduced mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hematology)
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Article
Ambulatory COVID-19 Patients Treated with Lactoferrin as a Supplementary Antiviral Agent: A Preliminary Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4276; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184276 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2, an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus causing COVID-19, exerts morbidity and mortality especially in elderly, obese individuals and those suffering from chronic conditions. In addition to the availability of vaccines and the limited efficacy of the first dose of vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variants, [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2, an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus causing COVID-19, exerts morbidity and mortality especially in elderly, obese individuals and those suffering from chronic conditions. In addition to the availability of vaccines and the limited efficacy of the first dose of vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variants, there is an urgent requirement for the discovery and development of supplementary antiviral agents. Lactoferrin (Lf), a pleiotropic cationic glycoprotein of innate immunity, has been proposed as a safe treatment combined with other therapies in COVID-19 patients. Here, we present a small retrospective study on asymptomatic, paucisymptomatic, and moderate symptomatic COVID-19 Lf-treated versus Lf-untreated patients. The time required to achieve SARS-CoV-2 RNA negativization in Lf-treated patients (n = 82) was significantly lower (p < 0.001) compared to that observed in Lf-untreated ones (n = 39) (15 versus 24 days). A link among reduction in symptoms, age, and Lf treatment was found. The Lf antiviral activity could be explained through the interaction with SARS-CoV-2 spike, the binding with heparan sulfate proteoglycans of cells, and the anti-inflammatory activity associated with the restoration of iron homeostasis disorders, which favor viral infection/replication. Lf could be an important supplementary treatment in counteracting SARS-CoV-2 infection, as it is also safe and well-tolerated by all treated patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Diseases)
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Review
Review: Influence of the CYP450 Genetic Variation on the Treatment of Psychotic Disorders
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4275; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184275 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Second-generation antipsychotic metabolism is mainly carried out by the CYP450 superfamily, which is highly polymorphic. Therefore, knowing the influence of the different known CYP450 polymorphisms on antipsychotic plasmatic levels and, consequently, the biological effect could contribute to a deeper knowledge of interindividual antipsychotic [...] Read more.
Second-generation antipsychotic metabolism is mainly carried out by the CYP450 superfamily, which is highly polymorphic. Therefore, knowing the influence of the different known CYP450 polymorphisms on antipsychotic plasmatic levels and, consequently, the biological effect could contribute to a deeper knowledge of interindividual antipsychotic treatment variability, prompting possible solutions. Considering this, this state of the art review aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the influence of the diverse characterized phenotypes on the metabolism of the most used second-generation antipsychotics. Forty studies describing different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the genes CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 and their influence on pharmacokinetics of olanzapine, clozapine, aripiprazole, risperidone, and quetiapine. Most of the authors concluded that although significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters between the different phenotypes could be observed, more thorough studies describing pharmacokinetic interactions and environmental conditions, among other variables, are needed to fully comprehend these pharmacogenetic interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatry)
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Review
Brain Correlates of Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness: A Review of Neuroimaging Studies
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4274; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184274 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD), defined in 2017, is a vestibular disorder characterized by chronic dizziness that is exacerbated by upright posture and exposure to complex visual stimuli. This review focused on recent neuroimaging studies that explored the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PPPD and three [...] Read more.
Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD), defined in 2017, is a vestibular disorder characterized by chronic dizziness that is exacerbated by upright posture and exposure to complex visual stimuli. This review focused on recent neuroimaging studies that explored the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PPPD and three conditions that predated it. The emerging picture is that local activity and functional connectivity in multimodal vestibular cortical areas are decreased in PPPD, which is potentially related to structural abnormalities (e.g., reductions in cortical folding and grey-matter volume). Additionally, connectivity between the prefrontal cortex, which regulates attentional and emotional responses, and primary visual and motor regions appears to be increased in PPPD. These results complement physiological and psychological data identifying hypervigilant postural control and visual dependence in patients with PPPD, supporting the hypothesis that PPPD arises from shifts in interactions among visuo-vestibular, sensorimotor, and emotional networks that overweigh visual over vestibular inputs and increase the effects of anxiety-related mechanisms on locomotor control and spatial orientation. Full article
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Article
Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Lower Limb Blood Flow in Children with Myelomeningocele—A Randomized Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4273; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184273 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 529
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a three-week Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) training on the vascular blood flow of the lower limbs in children with myelomeningocele. The secondary goal was to evaluate the effect of WBV on the [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a three-week Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) training on the vascular blood flow of the lower limbs in children with myelomeningocele. The secondary goal was to evaluate the effect of WBV on the ROM of lower limb joints in this population. A total of 30 children with MMC (7–16 years old) were enrolled in the study. Children were randomly allocated to two groups of equal numbers, using an envelope code. The experimental group underwent a 3-week WBV training, while the control group received a 3-week conventional physiotherapy (PT) program. The examination consisted of two parts: (1) Doppler USG examination of the lower limb vascular blood flow; (2) evaluation of ROM. The results obtained revealed three main findings. First, WBV training effectively improved blood flow by increasing flow velocities in all tested arteries, while the impact of the PT program was limited to a single parameter. Second, WBV training effectively improved vascular resistance in arteries of the lower legs, while the PT program did not achieve any significant differences. Third, both types of treatment intervention significantly improved ROM in all joints of the lower limbs in MMC participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
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Article
Effect of the Osteotomy Inclination Angle in the Sagittal Plane on the Posterior Tibial Slope of the Tibiofemoral Joint in Medial Open-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4272; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184272 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 475
Abstract
The posterior tibial slope of the tibiofemoral joint changes after medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO), but little is known about the effect of the sagittal osteotomy inclination angle on the change in the posterior tibial slope of the tibiofemoral joint. The [...] Read more.
The posterior tibial slope of the tibiofemoral joint changes after medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO), but little is known about the effect of the sagittal osteotomy inclination angle on the change in the posterior tibial slope of the tibiofemoral joint. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the osteotomy inclination angle in the sagittal plane on changes in the posterior tibial slope after MOWHTO by comparing how anterior and posterior inclination affect the posterior tibial slope of the tibiofemoral joint. The correlation between the osteotomy inclination angle and the postoperative posterior tibial slope angle was also assessed. Between May 2011 and November 2017, 80 patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis who underwent MOWHTO were included. The patients were divided into two groups according to the sagittal osteotomy inclination angle on the 3D reconstructed model. Patients with an osteotomy line inclined anteriorly to the medial tibial plateau line were classified into group A (58 patients). Patients with posteriorly inclined osteotomy line were classified as group P (22 patients). In the 3D reconstructed model, the preoperative and postoperative posterior tibial slope, osteotomy inclination angle relative to medial tibial plateau line in sagittal plane, and gap distance and ratio of the anterior and posterior osteotomy openings were measured. The preoperative and postoperative hip-knee-ankle angle, weight-bearing line ratio, and posterior tibial slope were also measured using plain radiographs. In the 3D reconstructed model, the postoperative posterior tibial slope significantly increased in group A (preoperative value = 9.7 ± 2.9°, postoperative value = 10.7 ± 3.0°, p < 0.001) and decreased in group P (preoperative value = 8.7 ± 2.7°, postoperative value = 7.7 ± 2.7°, p < 0.001). The postoperative posterior tibial slope (group A = 10.7 ± 3.0°, group P = 7.7 ± 2.7°, p < 0.001) and posterior tibial slope change before and after surgery (group A = 1.0 ± 0.8°, group P = −0.9 ± 0.8°, p < 0.001) also differed significantly between the groups. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.875 (p < 0.001) for the osteotomy inclination angle, and multivariate regression analysis showed that the only significant factor among the variables was the sagittal osteotomy inclination angle (β coefficient = 0.216, p < 0.001). The posterior tibial slope changed according to the osteotomy inclination angle in the sagittal plane after MOWHTO. The postoperative posterior tibial slope tended to increase when the osteotomy line was inclined anteriorly with respect to the medial tibial plateau line but decreased when the osteotomy line was inclined posteriorly. To avoid inadvertent change of posterior tibial slope, close attention needs to be paid to maintaining the sagittal osteotomy line parallel to the medial joint line during MOWHTO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
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Article
Treatment of Pathologic Peritrochanteric Fractures Using Sliding Hip Screws Augmented with Cerclage Reconstruction Plates
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4271; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184271 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 343
Abstract
We proposed a new method to augment the traditional sliding hip screw (SHS) with cerclage reconstruction plates to treat pathologically impending and actual peritrochanteric fractures as well as to revise open reductions and internal fixations to increase the construct strength against the shearing [...] Read more.
We proposed a new method to augment the traditional sliding hip screw (SHS) with cerclage reconstruction plates to treat pathologically impending and actual peritrochanteric fractures as well as to revise open reductions and internal fixations to increase the construct strength against the shearing force, thus reducing the implant failure rate. In this retrospective study, patients with peritrochanteric pathology with at least two years of follow-up who underwent augmentation with cerclage reconstruction plates (modified SHS) and conventional SHS between 1 May 2015 and 31 May 2017 were divided into groups A (n = 12) and B (n = 28), respectively. Demographic data, surgery duration, blood loss, complications, and local radiotherapy were analyzed. The average surgery duration was significantly longer in group A (p = 0.013). The estimated intraoperative and perioperative blood losses were not significantly different between the groups. The implant survival rates were not significantly different under competing risk analysis. The success rate of a revision surgery with modified SHS was excellent, and implant survival time was >2 years, as observed with the previous SHS constructs. Subtrochanteric region involvement and a postoperative visual analog scale ≥4 could be risk factors of implant failure and revision surgery. This technique can be an alternative treatment for difficult pathologic peritrochanteric fractures, especially those with previous plating failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
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Review
Current Evidence on Long-Term Prognostic Factors in Vasospastic Angina
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4270; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184270 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 366
Abstract
Vasospastic angina (VSA) is characterized by a reversible spasm of the coronary arteries and is more prevalent in Asians. Vasodilators, such as calcium channel blockers, are effective in relieving coronary spasms and preventing clinical events. Therefore, the prognosis of VSA is generally known [...] Read more.
Vasospastic angina (VSA) is characterized by a reversible spasm of the coronary arteries and is more prevalent in Asians. Vasodilators, such as calcium channel blockers, are effective in relieving coronary spasms and preventing clinical events. Therefore, the prognosis of VSA is generally known to be better than for significant organic stenosis caused by atherosclerosis. However, coronary vasospasm is sometimes associated with fatal complications such as sudden death, ventricular arrhythmia, and myocardial infarction. Thus, it is very important to identify and actively treat high-risk patients to prevent VSA complications. Here, we will review clinical factors associated with long-term prognosis in patients with VSA. Full article
Review
Sepsis and Cognitive Assessment
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4269; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184269 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Sepsis disproportionally affects people over the age of 65, and with an exponentially increasing older population, sepsis poses additional risks for cognitive decline. This review summarizes published literature for (1) authorship qualification; (2) the type of cognitive domains most often assessed; (3) timelines [...] Read more.
Sepsis disproportionally affects people over the age of 65, and with an exponentially increasing older population, sepsis poses additional risks for cognitive decline. This review summarizes published literature for (1) authorship qualification; (2) the type of cognitive domains most often assessed; (3) timelines for cognitive assessment; (4) the control group and analysis approach, and (5) sociodemographic reporting. Using key terms, a PubMed database review from January 2000 to January 2021 identified 3050 articles, and 234 qualified as full text reviews with 18 ultimately retained as summaries. More than half (61%) included an author with an expert in cognitive assessment. Seven (39%) relied on cognitive screening tools for assessment with the remaining using a combination of standard neuropsychological measures. Cognitive domains typically assessed were declarative memory, attention and working memory, processing speed, and executive function. Analytically, 35% reported on education, and 17% included baseline (pre-sepsis) data. Eight (44%) included a non-sepsis peer group. No study considered sex or race/diversity in the statistical model, and only five studies reported on race/ethnicity, with Caucasians making up the majority (74%). Of the articles with neuropsychological measures, researchers report acute with cognitive improvement over time for sepsis survivors. The findings suggest avenues for future study designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Chronic Critical Illness after Sepsis—Part II)
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Review
How Close Are We toward an Optimal Balance in Safety and Efficacy in Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation? Lessons from the CLOSE Protocol
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4268; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184268 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common treatment strategy in patients with drug-resistant, symptomatic AF. In patients with paroxysmal and short-standing persistent AF, pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is often enough to prevent recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmia (ATA). Point-by-point encircling of the [...] Read more.
Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common treatment strategy in patients with drug-resistant, symptomatic AF. In patients with paroxysmal and short-standing persistent AF, pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is often enough to prevent recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmia (ATA). Point-by-point encircling of the PVs with radiofrequency (RF) applications, together with cryoballoon ablation, have been the mainstay strategies for the last 10 to 20 years. Each of these strategies, however, suffers from the delicate balance between preventing PV reconnection, on the one hand (toward more energy), and preventing (mainly esophageal) complications (toward less energy), on the other. The CLOSE protocol was developed as an RF ablation strategy that would result in the safe creation of durable isolation leading to improved outcomes. Basically, the aim of the protocol is to enclose the pulmonary veins with stable, contiguous (intertag distance, ITD ≤ 6 mm) and optimized lesions (35 Watts, W, RF applications up to ablation index targets of ≥400 and ≥550 at the posterior and anterior wall). In this review, we describe the background of the CLOSE protocol and the studies from the St Jan Bruges research group on procedural performance, efficacy, and safety of the CLOSE protocol in (a) single-center prospective PILOT study (CLOSE-PILOT), (b) a single-center prospective study with continuous rhythm monitoring (CLOSE to CURE), (c) a database of systematic esophageal endoscopic studies, (d) a multicenter prospective study (VISTAX), and (e) the CLOSE database (comprising > 400 patients). We also discuss the results of the randomized POWER-AF study comparing conventional CLOSE to high power CLOSE (up to 50 W). Finally, we discuss the performance, safety, and efficacy of the CLOSE protocol in light of the emerging changes in the field of catheter ablation being ultra-short high-power ablation and electroporation. Full article
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Article
Importance of Translabial Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Its Correlation with the POP-Q Examination: Analysis of 363 Cases
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4267; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184267 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 300
Abstract
The incidence of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is increasing in our aging society. We aimed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of translabial ultrasound (TLUS) by comparing the findings of POP-Q examination and TLUS in advanced POP patients and we also aimed to evaluate [...] Read more.
The incidence of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is increasing in our aging society. We aimed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of translabial ultrasound (TLUS) by comparing the findings of POP-Q examination and TLUS in advanced POP patients and we also aimed to evaluate the prevalence of rectocele and enterocele on the TLUS. We analyzed the TLUS and POP-Q exam findings of 363 symptomatic POP patients who visited our clinic from March 2019 to April 2021. We excluded three patients who had conditions mimicking POP, as revealed by the TLUS. The most common POP type was anterior compartment POP (68.61%), followed by apical compartment (38.61%) and posterior compartment (16.11%) POP. Agreement between the POP-Q exam and TLUS was tested using Cohen’s kappa (κ). p values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The incidence of rectocele or enterocele was only 1.67% (6/360) and there was no rectocele or enterocele in most patients (246/252, 96.63%) when the POP-Q exam revealed posterior compartment POP, suggesting that they only had posterior vaginal wall relaxation. The positive predictive value of the POP-Q exam for detecting rectocele or enterocele (as revealed by TLUS) was only 2.38%, whereas the negative predictive value was 100%. In conclusion, the application of TLUS is useful in the diagnosis of POP, especially for differentiation of true POP from conditions mimicking POP. The correlation between the POP-Q exam and TLUS is low, especially in posterior compartment POP, and therefore, patients with POP-Q exam findings suggesting posterior compartment POP should undergo TLUS to check for rectocele or enterocele. The use of TLUS in the diagnosis of POP patients can improve the accuracy of the diagnosis of POP patients in conjunction with a POP-Q exam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
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Article
Acute Recanalization of Large Vessel Occlusion in the Anterior Circulation Stroke: Is Mechanical Thrombectomy Alone Better in Patients over 80 Years of Age? Findings from a Retrospective Observational Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4266; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184266 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Real-world data report worse 3-month clinical outcomes in elderly patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with mechanical thrombectomy (MT). The aim was to identify factors influencing clinical outcome in elderly patients with anterior circulation AIS treated with MT (±intravenous thrombolysis (IVT)). In [...] Read more.
Real-world data report worse 3-month clinical outcomes in elderly patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with mechanical thrombectomy (MT). The aim was to identify factors influencing clinical outcome in elderly patients with anterior circulation AIS treated with MT (±intravenous thrombolysis (IVT)). In a retrospective, monocentric study, analysis of prospectively collected data of 138 patients (≥80 years) was performed. IVT was an independent negative predictor (OR 0.356; 95% CI: 0.134–0.942) and female sex an independent positive predictor (OR 4.179, 95% CI: 1.300–13.438) of 3-month good clinical outcome (modified Rankin scale 0–2). Female sex was also an independent negative predictor of 3-month mortality (OR 0.244, 95% CI: 0.100–0.599). Other independent negative predictors of 3-month good clinical outcome were older age, lower pre-stroke self-sufficiency, more severe neurological deficit and longer procedural intervals. Mortality was also independently predicted by longer procedural interval and by the occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (p < 0.05 in all cases). Our results demonstrated, that in patients aged ≥80 years with anterior circulation AIS undergoing MT (±IVT), IVT reduced the chance of 3-month good clinical outcome and female sex was associated with a greater likelihood of 3-month good clinical outcome and lower probability of 3-month mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thrombolysis and Thrombectomy in Acute Ischemic Stroke)
Article
Association of Infliximab and Vedolizumab Trough Levels with Reported Rates of Adverse Events: A Cross-Sectional Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4265; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184265 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Infliximab and vedolizumab are effective treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), although associated with adverse events (AE). While low or non-existent drug levels and positive antidrug antibodies have been associated with therapeutic failure, there is no clear association between higher drug levels and [...] Read more.
Infliximab and vedolizumab are effective treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), although associated with adverse events (AE). While low or non-existent drug levels and positive antidrug antibodies have been associated with therapeutic failure, there is no clear association between higher drug levels and AE. A cross-sectional study consisting of Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) patients receiving infliximab or vedolizumab at the Sheba Medical Center was performed. Patients completed a questionnaire regarding AEs related to biological therapy. Serum trough levels obtained on the same day were analyzed. Objective measures of outcomes were retrieved from medical records. Questionnaires were completed by infliximab (n = 169) and vedolizumab (n = 88)-treated therapy patients. Higher infliximab levels were only numerically associated with the occurrence of at least one AE (p = 0.08). When excluding fatigue and abdominal pain, higher infliximab levels were statistically associated with the occurrence of at least one AE (p = 0.03). Vedolizumab drug levels > 18 μg/mL were also linked with the occurrence of more AEs. No specific association was observed between the increased levels of either infliximab or vedolizumab and specific AEs (neurological symptoms, upper GI symptoms, infectious complications, and musculoskeletal symptoms). As significant AEs are very rare, additional multi-center studies are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Insight into the Diagnosis and Management of Crohn’s Disease)
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Review
Body Image in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Emerging Empirical Literature
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4264; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184264 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 363
Abstract
As an element of distorted self-image, body image disturbances may be relevant to borderline personality disorder (BPD). Therefore, this systematic review aims to critically discuss and summarize empirical findings in this matter. Based on the available theoretical models, three body image components were [...] Read more.
As an element of distorted self-image, body image disturbances may be relevant to borderline personality disorder (BPD). Therefore, this systematic review aims to critically discuss and summarize empirical findings in this matter. Based on the available theoretical models, three body image components were identified: (a) perception, (b) affect and cognition, and (c) general body dissatisfaction. We conducted a systematic search of the empirical literature published in English in the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases until June 2021 using a priori eligibility criteria (BPD; BPD symptoms or features in nonclinical groups; quasipsychotic or psychotic symptoms were not considered). We included k = 10 records meeting the criteria. Compared with other analyzed groups, individuals diagnosed with BPD obtained higher scores in the three components of body image disturbances. The issue of body image in BPD is relatively understudied, although current research findings clearly indicate disturbances in all of the abovementioned body image components in individuals with BPD or significant relationships of these components with BPD traits or symptoms both in clinical and nonclinical samples. Eventually, possible practical implications and future research directions are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Disorders)
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Article
Intravesical Prostatic Protrusion and Prognosis of Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: Analysis of Long-Term Data over 5 Years with Machine-Learning Algorithms
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4263; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184263 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 342
Abstract
We aim to investigate the significance of intravesical prostate protrusion (IPP) on the prognosis of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) after the transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). For newly diagnosed NMIBC, we retrospectively analyzed the association between prognosis and IPP for at [...] Read more.
We aim to investigate the significance of intravesical prostate protrusion (IPP) on the prognosis of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) after the transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). For newly diagnosed NMIBC, we retrospectively analyzed the association between prognosis and IPP for at least a 5-year follow-up. A degree of IPP over 5 mm in a preoperative CT scan was classified as severe. The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival, and the secondary endpoint was progression-free survival. The machine learning (ML) algorithm of a support vector machine was used for predictive model development. Of a total of 122 patients, ultimately, severe IPP was observed in 33 patients (27.0%). IPP correlated positively with age, BPH, recurrence, and prognosis. Severe IPP was significantly higher in the recurrence group and reduced in the recurrence-free survival group (p = 0.038, p = 0.032). Severe IPP independently increased the risk of intravesical recurrence by 2.6 times. The addition of IPP to the known oncological risk factors in the prediction model using the ML algorithm improved the predictability of cancer recurrence by approximately 6%, to 0.803. IPP was analyzed as a potential independent risk factor for NMIBC recurrence and progression after TURBT. This anatomical feature of the prostate could affect the recurrence of bladder tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Management of Bladder Cancer)
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Article
Resilience, Emotional Intelligence, and Occupational Performance in Family Members Who Are the Caretakers of Patients with Dementia in Spain: A Cross-Sectional, Analytical, and Descriptive Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4262; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184262 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Background: The concern in the scientific community for the study of people with dementia and their families is comprehensible, especially the importance of knowing the effects that caring for the patient has on their family dynamic, paying special attention to the main caregiver. [...] Read more.
Background: The concern in the scientific community for the study of people with dementia and their families is comprehensible, especially the importance of knowing the effects that caring for the patient has on their family dynamic, paying special attention to the main caregiver. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship of resilience and emotional intelligence with functional performance in the main caregivers of people with dementia in Spain according to the phase of the disease. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was carried out. A total of 144 primary family caregivers of patients with dementia in Spain were included in the study. The following variables were measured: sociodemographic, psychosocial, and occupational, as well as resilience and emotional intelligence. Results: The caregivers obtained a low moderate resilience (mean = 64.01 ± 14.5), an emotional intelligence bordering between moderate and high (mean = 78.48 ± 14.82), and a 61.8% self-care categorized as somewhat and quite a bit. The presence of higher levels of resilience in family caregivers of people with dementia were positively related to the time spent on self-care (r = 0.227; p = 0.033) and leisure (r = 0.262; p = 0.014), especially in the moderate phase of the disease, while in the severe phase, this relationship appeared with productivity (r = 0.355; p = 0.034). The higher levels of emotional intelligence were positively related to a greater time dedicated to self-care (r = 0.233, p = 0.005), as well as the data observed in the moderate and severe phase (r = 0.214; p = 0.046 and r = 0.398; p = 0.016 respectively). Conclusions: The primary caregivers of relatives with dementia who have higher levels of resilience and emotional intelligence spend more time on self-care and leisure activities, especially in the moderate phase of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Treatment for Older Adults and Their Caregivers)
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Article
Epidermal-Derived Hedgehog Signaling Drives Mesenchymal Proliferation during Digit Tip Regeneration
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4261; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184261 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Hand injuries often result in significant functional impairments and are rarely completely restored. The spontaneous regeneration of injured appendages, which occurs in salamanders and newts, for example, has been reported in human fingertips after distal amputation, but this type of regeneration is rare [...] Read more.
Hand injuries often result in significant functional impairments and are rarely completely restored. The spontaneous regeneration of injured appendages, which occurs in salamanders and newts, for example, has been reported in human fingertips after distal amputation, but this type of regeneration is rare in mammals and is incompletely understood. Here, we study fingertip regeneration by amputating murine digit tips, either distally to initiate regeneration, or proximally, causing fibrosis. Using an unbiased microarray analysis, we found that digit tip regeneration is significantly associated with hair follicle differentiation, Wnt, and sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathways. Viral over-expression and genetic knockouts showed the functional significance of these pathways during regeneration. Using transgenic reporter mice, we demonstrated that, while both canonical Wnt and HH signaling were limited to epidermal tissues, downstream hedgehog signaling (through Gli) occurred in mesenchymal tissues. These findings reveal a mechanism for epidermal/mesenchyme interactions, governed by canonical hedgehog signaling, during digit regeneration. Further research into these pathways could lead to improved therapeutic outcomes after hand injuries in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Trends in Regenerative Medicine)
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Article
Effects of Dry Needling in Teres Major Muscle in Elite Handball Athletes. A Randomised Controlled Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4260; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184260 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 569
Abstract
Objective: To determine the effects of dry needling (DN) in active myofascial trigger points in the teres major muscle compared to an untreated control group in pain during throwing actions, shoulder range of motion (ROM), strength, and extensibility of the tissues in [...] Read more.
Objective: To determine the effects of dry needling (DN) in active myofascial trigger points in the teres major muscle compared to an untreated control group in pain during throwing actions, shoulder range of motion (ROM), strength, and extensibility of the tissues in professional handball (HB) athletes. Methods: A randomised, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial was designed. Thirty HB athletes with shoulder pain were randomly assigned to the DN group (n = 15) or control group (n = 15). The DN group received a single session of ultrasound-guided DN technique in the teres major muscle. The control group received no intervention. Pain intensity during throwing actions (Numeric Pain Rating Score), shoulder ROM (inclinometer), isometric strength (hand-held dynamometer), and extensibility (inclinometer) were measured before and after treatment. Results: DN group showed statistically significant improvements with large effect sizes for pain intensity (p < 0.001; E.S: 1.3), internal rotation ROM (p < 0.001; E.S: 3.0) and extensibility (p < 0.001; E.S: 2.9) compared to the control group. No statistically significant differences were found for isometric strength (p > 0.05). Conclusion: A single session of DN in the teres major muscle was effective for improving pain intensity during throwing actions, internal rotation ROM and extensibility in HB athletes with shoulder pain. Full article
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Review
Technological Advancements in Male Infertility Microsurgery
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4259; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184259 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 444
Abstract
There have been significant advancements in male infertility microsurgery over time, and there continues to be significant promise for new and emerging techniques, technologies, and methodologies. In this review, we discuss the history of male infertility and the evolution of microsurgery, the essential [...] Read more.
There have been significant advancements in male infertility microsurgery over time, and there continues to be significant promise for new and emerging techniques, technologies, and methodologies. In this review, we discuss the history of male infertility and the evolution of microsurgery, the essential role of education and training in male infertility microsurgery, and new technologies in this space. We also review the potentially important role of artificial intelligence (AI) in male infertility and microsurgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Male Reproductive Medicine and Surgery)
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Article
Trends in the Incidence and Survival Rates of Colorectal Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma in the South Korean Population: Analysis of the Korea Central Cancer Registry Database
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4258; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184258 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Objective: Signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a rare histopathological subtype of colorectal cancer (CRC) constituting approximately 1% of CRC cases. This study analyzed the incidence and survival rates of colorectal SRCC. Methods: We analyzed the incidence and survival rates of colorectal SRCCs based [...] Read more.
Objective: Signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a rare histopathological subtype of colorectal cancer (CRC) constituting approximately 1% of CRC cases. This study analyzed the incidence and survival rates of colorectal SRCC. Methods: We analyzed the incidence and survival rates of colorectal SRCCs based on patients’ data of the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Results: The age-standardized incidence rates of colon and rectum SRCC in 2017 were 0.17 and 0.07 individuals per 100,000, respectively. Between 1993 and 2017, the 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year relative survival rates of patients with colon SRCC were 65.6%, 49.0%, 38.9%, 34.9%, and 33.0%, respectively, while those of patients with rectum SRCC were 69.6%, 47.8%, 38.5%, 32.8%, and 29.4%, respectively. According to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results summary stages, the 5-year relative survival rates of colon SRCC between 1993 and 2017 were 70.4% for the localized stage, 41.0% for the regional stage, and 7.0% for the distant stage, while those for rectum SRCC were 60.7%, 34.4, and 3.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Although the incidence of colorectal SRCC is extremely low in South Korea, it has been increasing in recent decades. As the prognosis of colorectal SRCC is extremely poor; clinicians should be aware of the differential diagnosis of SRCC in colorectal cancer cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
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