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Gut Microbiota Interaction with the Central Nervous System throughout Life
 
 
Review

The Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis and Alzheimer Disease. From Dysbiosis to Neurodegeneration: Focus on the Central Nervous System Glial Cells

1
Department of Health Sciences, Section of Clinical Pharmacology and Oncology, University of Florence, Viale G. Pieraccini, 6, 50139 Florence, Italy
2
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Research Unit of Histology and Embryology, University of Florence, Viale G. Pieraccini, 6, 50139 Florence, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Silvia Di Angelantonio
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2358; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112358
Received: 22 April 2021 / Revised: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 24 May 2021 / Published: 27 May 2021
The microbiota–gut system can be thought of as a single unit that interacts with the brain via the “two-way” microbiota–gut–brain axis. Through this axis, a constant interplay mediated by the several products originating from the microbiota guarantees the physiological development and shaping of the gut and the brain. In the present review will be described the modalities through which the microbiota and gut control each other, and the main microbiota products conditioning both local and brain homeostasis. Much evidence has accumulated over the past decade in favor of a significant association between dysbiosis, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Presently, the pathogenetic mechanisms triggered by molecules produced by the altered microbiota, also responsible for the onset and evolution of Alzheimer disease, will be described. Our attention will be focused on the role of astrocytes and microglia. Numerous studies have progressively demonstrated how these glial cells are important to ensure an adequate environment for neuronal activity in healthy conditions. Furthermore, it is becoming evident how both cell types can mediate the onset of neuroinflammation and lead to neurodegeneration when subjected to pathological stimuli. Based on this information, the role of the major microbiota products in shifting the activation profiles of astrocytes and microglia from a healthy to a diseased state will be discussed, focusing on Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: amyloid-β; endotoxin; short chain fatty acids; clasmatodendrosis; cytokines; neurovascular unit; vagus nerve; Toll-like receptor 4 amyloid-β; endotoxin; short chain fatty acids; clasmatodendrosis; cytokines; neurovascular unit; vagus nerve; Toll-like receptor 4
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giovannini, M.G.; Lana, D.; Traini, C.; Vannucchi, M.G. The Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis and Alzheimer Disease. From Dysbiosis to Neurodegeneration: Focus on the Central Nervous System Glial Cells. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 2358. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112358

AMA Style

Giovannini MG, Lana D, Traini C, Vannucchi MG. The Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis and Alzheimer Disease. From Dysbiosis to Neurodegeneration: Focus on the Central Nervous System Glial Cells. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(11):2358. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112358

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giovannini, Maria Grazia, Daniele Lana, Chiara Traini, and Maria Giuliana Vannucchi. 2021. "The Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis and Alzheimer Disease. From Dysbiosis to Neurodegeneration: Focus on the Central Nervous System Glial Cells" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 11: 2358. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112358

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