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Vaccines, Volume 12, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 103 articles

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13 pages, 1221 KiB  
Article
SARS-CoV-2 Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in People Living with HIV
by Simona Ruta, Corneliu Petru Popescu, Lilia Matei, Camelia Grancea, Adrian Marius Paun, Cristiana Oprea and Camelia Sultana
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060663 (registering DOI) - 16 Jun 2024
Abstract
Immunosuppressed individuals, such as people living with HIV (PLWH), remain vulnerable to severe COVID-19. We analyzed the persistence of specific SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular immune responses in a retrospective, cross-sectional study in PLWH on antiretroviral therapy. Among 104 participants, 70.2% had anti-S IgG [...] Read more.
Immunosuppressed individuals, such as people living with HIV (PLWH), remain vulnerable to severe COVID-19. We analyzed the persistence of specific SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular immune responses in a retrospective, cross-sectional study in PLWH on antiretroviral therapy. Among 104 participants, 70.2% had anti-S IgG antibodies, and 55.8% had significant neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant in a surrogate virus neutralization test. Only 38.5% were vaccinated (8.76 ± 4.1 months prior), all displaying anti-S IgG, 75% with neutralizing antibodies and anti-S IgA. Overall, 29.8% of PLWH had no SARS-CoV-2 serologic markers; they displayed significantly lower CD4 counts and higher HIV viral load. Severe immunosuppression (present in 12.5% of participants) was linked to lower levels of detectable anti-S IgG (p = 0.0003), anti-S IgA (p < 0.0001) and lack of neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant (p < 0.0001). T-cell responses were present in 86.7% of tested participants, even in those lacking serological markers. In PLWH without severe immunosuppression, neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses persisted for up to 9 months post-infection or vaccination. Advanced immunosuppression led to diminished humoral immune responses but retained specific cellular immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Immune Response in Patients after COVID-19 Vaccination)
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16 pages, 745 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance, Hesitancy, and Uptake in People with Diabetes in Australia
by Holly Wang, Lisa Grech, Jennifer Wong, David Hoffman, Barbora de Courten, Brett Sillars, Mark Savage, Alastair Kwok, Mike Nguyen, Nathan Bain, Daphne Day, Eva Segelov and on behalf of the DIABVACCS Investigators
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060662 (registering DOI) - 16 Jun 2024
Abstract
Background: This study explored vaccination hesitancy, diabetes-specific COVID-19 vaccination concerns, and whether they predicted vaccination uptake in people with diabetes. Methods: Quantitative, cross-sectional, and predictive approaches were used. An online survey was conducted with people with diabetes attending four Australian health services, using [...] Read more.
Background: This study explored vaccination hesitancy, diabetes-specific COVID-19 vaccination concerns, and whether they predicted vaccination uptake in people with diabetes. Methods: Quantitative, cross-sectional, and predictive approaches were used. An online survey was conducted with people with diabetes attending four Australian health services, using convenience sampling (n = 842). The survey data collected included clinico-demographic characteristics, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, and attitudes around COVID-19 vaccine confidence and complacency. Clinico-demographic characteristics that predicted vaccination status, vaccine hesitancy, and vaccine-related attitudes were identified using regression analyses. Results: Most participants received at least one COVID-19 vaccine dose. Younger age and type 1 diabetes were associated with lower vaccination status, and they were partially mediated through higher vaccine hesitancy. Younger age and English as a dominant language were associated with higher negative attitudes towards speed of vaccine development. Conclusions: Despite an overall high vaccination rate, general and diabetes-specific COVID-19 vaccine concerns are a barrier to uptake for some people with diabetes, particularly in those who are younger or have type 1 diabetes. A detailed understanding of concerns for particular subgroups can help tailor information to increase vaccine acceptance, particularly in the context of requiring booster doses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Factors Associated with Vaccine Hesitancy)
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36 pages, 4580 KiB  
Article
Identifying Key Drivers of Efficient B Cell Responses: On the Role of T Help, Antigen-Organization, and Toll-like Receptor Stimulation for Generating a Neutralizing Anti-Dengue Virus Response
by Jan M. Sobczak, Irena Barkovska, Ina Balke, Dominik A. Rothen, Mona O. Mohsen, Dace Skrastina, Anete Ogrina, Byron Martina, Juris Jansons, Janis Bogans, Monique Vogel, Martin F. Bachmann and Andris Zeltins
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060661 - 14 Jun 2024
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Abstract
T help (Th), stimulation of toll-like receptors (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs), and antigen organization and repetitiveness (pathogen-associated structural patterns, PASPs) were shown numerous times to be important in driving B-cell and antibody responses. In this study, we dissected the individual contributions of these [...] Read more.
T help (Th), stimulation of toll-like receptors (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs), and antigen organization and repetitiveness (pathogen-associated structural patterns, PASPs) were shown numerous times to be important in driving B-cell and antibody responses. In this study, we dissected the individual contributions of these parameters using newly developed “Immune-tag” technology. As model antigens, we used eGFP and the third domain of the dengue virus 1 envelope protein (DV1 EDIII), the major target of virus-neutralizing antibodies. The respective proteins were expressed alone or genetically fused to the N-terminal fragment of the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) capsid protein—nCMV, rendering the antigens oligomeric. In a step-by-step manner, RNA was attached as a PAMP, and/or a universal Th-cell epitope was genetically added for additional Th. Finally, a PASP was added to the constructs by displaying the antigens highly organized and repetitively on the surface of CMV-derived virus-like particles (CuMV VLPs). Sera from immunized mice demonstrated that each component contributed stepwise to the immunogenicity of both proteins. All components combined in the CuMV VLP platform induced by far the highest antibody responses. In addition, the DV1 EDIII induced high levels of DENV-1-neutralizing antibodies only if displayed on VLPs. Thus, combining multiple cues typically associated with viruses results in optimal antibody responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle Based Vaccines)
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16 pages, 1045 KiB  
Review
A Narrative Review on the Promising Potential of Graphene in Vaccine Design: Evaluating the Benefits and Drawbacks of Carbon Nanoplates in Nanovaccine Production
by Hadi Zare-Zardini, Elham Saberian, Andrej Jenča, Andrej Jenča, Adriána Petrášová and Janka Jenčová
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060660 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 214
Abstract
Graphene, a two-dimensional material consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, has shown great potential in various fields, including biomedicine. When it comes to vaccine development, graphene can offer several advantages due to its unique properties. Potential [...] Read more.
Graphene, a two-dimensional material consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, has shown great potential in various fields, including biomedicine. When it comes to vaccine development, graphene can offer several advantages due to its unique properties. Potential applications of graphene in vaccine development include improved vaccine delivery, adjuvant properties, improved vaccine stability, improved immune response, and biosensing capabilities. Although graphene offers many potential benefits in vaccine development, there are also some drawbacks and challenges associated with its use. Although graphene shows promising potential for vaccine development, overcoming the challenges and limitations associated with its use is critical to realizing its full potential in the field of immunization. Further research and development efforts are needed to overcome these drawbacks and take advantage of graphene for improved vaccine formulations. In this review, we focus on the advantages and disadvantages of graphene for vaccine development. Full article
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15 pages, 5690 KiB  
Article
mRNA Vaccine for Alzheimer’s Disease: Pilot Study
by Armine Hovakimyan, Garri Chilingaryan, Olga King, Joia Kai Capocchi, Jean Paul Chadarevian, Hayk Davtyan, Roman Kniazev, Michael G. Agadjanyan and Anahit Ghochikyan
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060659 - 14 Jun 2024
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Abstract
The escalating global healthcare challenge posed by Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and compounded by the lack of effective treatments emphasizes the urgent need for innovative approaches to combat this devastating disease. Currently, passive and active immunotherapies remain the most promising strategy for AD. FDA-approved [...] Read more.
The escalating global healthcare challenge posed by Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and compounded by the lack of effective treatments emphasizes the urgent need for innovative approaches to combat this devastating disease. Currently, passive and active immunotherapies remain the most promising strategy for AD. FDA-approved lecanemab significantly reduces Aβ aggregates from the brains of early AD patients administered biweekly with this humanized monoclonal antibody. Although the clinical benefits noted in these trials have been modest, researchers have emphasized the importance of preventive immunotherapy. Importantly, data from immunotherapy studies have shown that antibody concentrations in the periphery of vaccinated people should be sufficient for targeting Aβ in the CNS. To generate relatively high concentrations of antibodies in vaccinated people at risk of AD, we generated a universal vaccine platform, MultiTEP, and, based on it, developed a DNA vaccine, AV-1959D, targeting pathological Aβ, completed IND enabling studies, and initiated a Phase I clinical trial with early AD volunteers. Our current pilot study combined our advanced MultiTEP technology with a novel mRNA approach to develop an mRNA vaccine encapsulated in lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs), AV-1959LR. Here, we report our initial findings on the immunogenicity of 1959LR in mice and non-human primates, comparing it with the immunogenicity of its DNA counterpart, AV-1959D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of DNA and mRNA Vaccines)
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24 pages, 9238 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccination in Pregnancy: Pilot Study of Plasma MicroRNAs Associated with Inflammatory Cytokines after COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination
by Ching-Ju Shen, Yen-Pin Lin, Wei-Chun Chen, Mei-Hsiu Cheng, Jun-Jie Hong, Shu-Yu Hu, Ching-Fen Shen and Chao-Min Cheng
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060658 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Background: The impact of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines on the immunological profiles of pregnant women remains a crucial area of study. This research aims to explore the specific immunological changes triggered by these vaccines in this demographic. Methods: In a focused investigation, we examined [...] Read more.
Background: The impact of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines on the immunological profiles of pregnant women remains a crucial area of study. This research aims to explore the specific immunological changes triggered by these vaccines in this demographic. Methods: In a focused investigation, we examined the effects of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination on microRNA expression in pregnant women. Key microRNAs, including miR-451a, miR-23a-3p, and miR-21-5p, were analyzed for expression changes post-vaccination. Additionally, we assessed variations in S1RBD IgG levels and specific cytokines to gauge the broader immunological response. Results: Post-vaccination, significant expression shifts in the targeted microRNAs were observed. Alongside these changes, we noted alterations in S1RBD IgG and various cytokines, indicating an adapted inflammatory response. Notably, these immunological markers displayed no direct correlation with S1RBD IgG concentrations, suggesting a complex interaction between the vaccine and the immune system in pregnant women. Conclusions: Our pilot study provides valuable insights into the nuanced effects of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine on immune dynamics in pregnant women, particularly emphasizing the role of microRNAs. The findings illuminate the intricate interplay between vaccines, microRNAs, and immune responses, enhancing our understanding of these relationships in the context of pregnancy. This research contributes significantly to the growing body of knowledge regarding mRNA COVID-19 vaccines and their specific impact on maternal immunology, offering a foundation for further studies in this vital area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacoepidemiology in Vaccine Safety and Efficacy)
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15 pages, 492 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of BNT162b2 Vaccine for Preventing COVID-19-Related Hospitalizations: A Test-Negative Case–Control Study
by Amy Keane, Ashley Tippett, Elizabeth Grace Taylor, Olivia Reese, Luis Salazar, Khalel De Castro, Chris Choi, Caroline Ciric, Meg Taylor, Anna Mitchell, Theda Gibson, Laura Puzniak, Robin Hubler, Srinivas Rao Valluri, Timothy L. Wiemken, Ben A. Lopman, Satoshi Kamidani, Larry J. Anderson, John M. McLaughlin, Christina A. Rostad and Evan J. Andersonadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060657 - 13 Jun 2024
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Abstract
It is important to understand real-world BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE), especially among racial and ethnic minority groups. We performed a test-negative case-control study to measure BNT162b2 COVID-19 VE in the prevention of COVID-19-associated acute respiratory illness (ARI) hospitalizations at two Atlanta hospitals [...] Read more.
It is important to understand real-world BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE), especially among racial and ethnic minority groups. We performed a test-negative case-control study to measure BNT162b2 COVID-19 VE in the prevention of COVID-19-associated acute respiratory illness (ARI) hospitalizations at two Atlanta hospitals from May 2021–January 2023 and adjusted for potential confounders by multivariate analysis. Among 5139 eligible adults with ARI, 2763 (53.8%) were enrolled, and 1571 (64.5%) were included in the BNT162b2 analysis. The median age was 58 years (IQR, 44–68), 889 (56.6%) were female, 1034 (65.8%) were African American, 359 (22.9%) were White, 56 (3.6%) were Hispanic ethnicity, 645 (41.1%) were SARS-CoV-2-positive, 412 (26.2%) were vaccinated with a primary series, and 273 (17.4%) had received ≥1 booster of BNT162b2. The overall adjusted VE of the BNT162b2 primary series was 58.5% (95% CI 46.0, 68.1), while the adjusted VE of ≥1 booster was 78.9% (95% CI 70.0, 85.1). The adjusted overall VE of primary series for African American/Black individuals was 64.0% (95% CI 49.9, 74.1) and 82.7% (95% CI 71.9, 89.4) in those who received ≥1 booster. When analysis was limited to the period of Omicron predominance, overall VE of the primary series decreased with widened confidence intervals (24.5%, 95% CI −4.5, 45.4%), while VE of ≥1 booster was maintained at 60.9% (95% CI 42.0, 73.6). BNT162b2 primary series and booster vaccination provided protection against COVID-19-associated ARI hospitalization among a predominantly African American population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vaccine Efficacy and Safety)
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18 pages, 628 KiB  
Systematic Review
ANCA-Positive Small-Vessel Vasculitis Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination—A Systematic Review
by Kinga Łysak, Agata Walulik, Michał Błaszkiewicz and Krzysztof Gomułka
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060656 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 397
Abstract
As vaccinations against the SARS-CoV-2 virus have become a crucial tool in controlling the spread of the disease, reports of rare health complications have emerged, including new-onset antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). We systematically reviewed new-onset AAV following COVID-19 vaccination case reports [...] Read more.
As vaccinations against the SARS-CoV-2 virus have become a crucial tool in controlling the spread of the disease, reports of rare health complications have emerged, including new-onset antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). We systematically reviewed new-onset AAV following COVID-19 vaccination case reports and case series published in three databases before January 2024 following PRISMA guidelines to understand the characteristics of possible causal relationships or coincidences. In total, 404 articles were screened respectively by title, abstracts, and full-texts. Thirty-four papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria and have been analyzed, covering 44 patients with new-onset AAV after COVID-19 vaccination with no prior history of COVID-19 infection. Data regarding patients’ metrics, comorbidities, vaccination characteristics, symptoms, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes were investigated and summarized. The cohort consisted predominantly of females. AAV diagnosis was confirmed via biopsy, with renal dysfunction as a prevailing manifestation. In most cases, the first symptoms of AAV developed after the second dose; moreover, Pfizer-BioNTech was the most frequently administered vaccine among the analyzed cohort. Primary treatment involved glucocorticoid therapy, with a mostly favourable response. This systematic review aims to raise awareness among clinicians in the field regarding this rare but possible complication, to promote the prompt recognition and diagnosis of de novo ANCA-positive small-vessel vasculitis in timely association with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccine-Associated Autoimmune Diseases and Disorders)
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27 pages, 716 KiB  
Review
Glioblastoma Vaccines as Promising Immune-Therapeutics: Challenges and Current Status
by Asmae Squalli Houssaini, Salma Lamrabet, Jean Paul Nshizirungu, Nadia Senhaji, Mohammed Sekal, Mehdi Karkouri and Sanae Bennis
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060655 - 12 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor. Standard treatments including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have failed to significantly improve the prognosis of glioblastoma patients. Currently, immunotherapeutic approaches based on vaccines, chimeric antigen-receptor T-cells, checkpoint inhibitors, and oncolytic virotherapy [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor. Standard treatments including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have failed to significantly improve the prognosis of glioblastoma patients. Currently, immunotherapeutic approaches based on vaccines, chimeric antigen-receptor T-cells, checkpoint inhibitors, and oncolytic virotherapy are showing promising results in clinical trials. The combination of different immunotherapeutic approaches is proving satisfactory and promising. In view of the challenges of immunotherapy and the resistance of glioblastomas, the treatment of these tumors requires further efforts. In this review, we explore the obstacles that potentially influence the efficacy of the response to immunotherapy and that should be taken into account in clinical trials. This article provides a comprehensive review of vaccine therapy for glioblastoma. In addition, we identify the main biomarkers, including isocitrate dehydrogenase, epidermal growth factor receptor, and telomerase reverse transcriptase, known as potential immunotherapeutic targets in glioblastoma, as well as the current status of clinical trials. This paper also lists proposed solutions to overcome the obstacles facing immunotherapy in glioblastomas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Combination Immunotherapies)
19 pages, 3284 KiB  
Article
Understanding COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance among Healthcare Workers in Indonesia: Lessons from Multi-Site Survey
by Madan Khatiwada, Ryan Rachmad Nugraha, Carine Dochez, Harapan Harapan, Kuswandewi Mutyara, Laili Rahayuwati, Maimun Syukri, Eustachius Hagni Wardoyo, Dewi Suryani, Bertha J. Que and Cissy Kartasasmita
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060654 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 342
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic presented an unprecedented challenge to public health as well as an extraordinary burden on health systems worldwide. COVID-19 vaccines were attributed as a key tool to control the pandemic, with healthcare workers (HCWs) as a priority group to receive the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic presented an unprecedented challenge to public health as well as an extraordinary burden on health systems worldwide. COVID-19 vaccines were attributed as a key tool to control the pandemic, with healthcare workers (HCWs) as a priority group to receive the vaccine. Healthcare workers are considered one of the most trusted sources of information on vaccines and vaccination. This study was conducted to evaluate the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine among HCWs in four different provinces of Indonesia. An anonymous cross-sectional study was conducted online among HCWs between December 2020 and February 2021. Out of 2732 participants, 80.39% stated that they would accept the COVID-19 vaccine, while 19.61% were hesitant to receive the vaccine. Concerns about the safety profile of COVID-19 vaccines and potential side-effects after vaccination were the main reasons among the participants to refuse the vaccine. Male gender, single status, higher education level, and higher risk perception increased the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine. Other motivators of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance include a high level of trust in the government and increased confidence in vaccine safety and efficacy studies. Dissemination of information in a timely manner as well as training programs for HCWs are crucial to increasing confidence in the COVID-19 vaccination program. Full article
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26 pages, 980 KiB  
Systematic Review
Message Effectiveness of Fear Appeals in Vaccination Communication Campaigns: A Systematic Review
by Yam B. Limbu and Bruce A. Huhmann
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060653 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 380
Abstract
This systematic review of 54 cross-disciplinary peer-reviewed causal empirical studies helps public health officials, researchers, and healthcare professionals better comprehend the effects of fear appeals in vaccine promotional campaigns on message processing, persuasion, vaccination attitudes, and vaccination intentions. This review documents inconsistent findings [...] Read more.
This systematic review of 54 cross-disciplinary peer-reviewed causal empirical studies helps public health officials, researchers, and healthcare professionals better comprehend the effects of fear appeals in vaccine promotional campaigns on message processing, persuasion, vaccination attitudes, and vaccination intentions. This review documents inconsistent findings across studies, which it attempts to clarify by considering differences in research designs, sample populations, and outcomes measured. In general, we find that fear appeals increase risk perceptions, message involvement, and vaccination attitudes. However, fear appeals have less influence on vaccination intentions, especially among female and general adult populations or populations from the U.S. and other Western cultures. On the other hand, the effect of fear appeals on vaccination intentions is stronger among student populations and those from China (People’s Republic of China and Hong Kong) and other non-Western cultures. Also, fear appeals are less persuasive when promoting COVID-19 vaccines and boosters than they are for other vaccines (e.g., HPV, influenza, MMR). Future research should compare fear appeal effectiveness in messages across vaccines or when combined with other executional elements, such as the endorser or type of evidence provided. Finally, future studies should explore other methodological approaches and measure underexplored message outcomes, such as vaccine uptake behavior, in more naturalistic settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Attitudes, Perceptions, and Behaviors)
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16 pages, 1374 KiB  
Article
Synthetic Peptides Elicit Humoral Response against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Swine
by Francisco Perez-Duran, Fernando Calderon-Rico, Luis Enrique Franco-Correa, Alicia Gabriela Zamora-Aviles, Roberto Ortega-Flores, Daniel Durand-Herrera, Alejandro Bravo-Patiño, Ricarda Cortes-Vieyra, Ilane Hernandez-Morales and Rosa Elvira Nuñez-Anita
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060652 - 11 Jun 2024
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the immunogenic response elicited in swine by two synthetic peptides derived from GP5 to understand the role of lineal B epitopes in the humoral and B-cell-mediated response against the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the immunogenic response elicited in swine by two synthetic peptides derived from GP5 to understand the role of lineal B epitopes in the humoral and B-cell-mediated response against the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). For inoculation, twenty-one-day-old pigs were allocated into six groups: control, vehicle, vaccinated (Ingelvac-PRRSV, MLV®), non-vaccinated and naturally infected, GP5-B and GP5-B3. At 2 days post-immunization (dpi), the GP5-B3 peptide increased the serum concentrations of cytokines associated with activate adaptive cellular immunity, IL-1β (1.15 ± 1.15 to 10.17 ± 0.94 pg/mL) and IL-12 (323.8 ± 23.3 to 778.5 ± 58.11 pg/mL), compared to the control group. The concentration of IgGs anti-GP5-B increased in both cases at 21 and 42 dpi compared to that at 0 days (128.3 ± 8.34 ng/mL to 231.9 ± 17.82 and 331 ± 14.86 ng/mL), while IgGs anti-GP5-B3 increased at 21 dpi (105.1 ± 19.06 to 178 ± 15.09 ng/mL) and remained at the same level until 42 dpi. Also, antibody-forming/Plasma B cells (CD2+/CD21−) increased in both cases (9.85 ± 0.7% to 13.67 ± 0.44 for GP5-B and 15.72 ± 1.27% for GP5-B3). Furthermore, primed B cells (CD2−/CD21+) from immunized pigs showed an increase in both cases (9.62 ± 1.5% to 24.51 ± 1.3 for GP5-B and 34 ± 2.39% for GP5-B3) at 42 dpi. Conversely the naïve B cells from immunized pigs decreased compared with the control group (8.84 ± 0.63% to 6.25 ± 0.66 for GP5-B and 5.78 ± 0.48% for GP5-B3). Importantly, both GP5-B and GP5-B3 peptides exhibited immunoreactivity against serum antibodies from the vaccinated group, as well as the non-vaccinated and naturally infected group. In conclusion, GP5-B and GP5-B3 peptides elicited immunogenicity mediated by antigen-specific IgGs and B cell activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Vaccines)
16 pages, 353 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness and Safety of the MVA–BN Vaccine against Mpox in At-Risk Individuals in the United States (USMVAc)
by Soowoo Back, Bethany Knox, Ciara Coakley, Nicolas Deltour, Emmanuelle Jacquot, Hanaya Raad and Elizabeth M. Garry
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060651 - 11 Jun 2024
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Abstract
The mpox 2022 outbreak was declared a public health emergency in July 2022. In August 2022, the MVA–BN vaccine received emergency use authorization in the United States (US) to target at-risk groups. This study (EUPAS104386) used HealthVerity’s administrative US healthcare data to generate [...] Read more.
The mpox 2022 outbreak was declared a public health emergency in July 2022. In August 2022, the MVA–BN vaccine received emergency use authorization in the United States (US) to target at-risk groups. This study (EUPAS104386) used HealthVerity’s administrative US healthcare data to generate real-world evidence for MVA–BN vaccine effectiveness and safety to prevent mpox disease in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women, the most affected population during the 2022 mpox outbreak. Fully vaccinated subjects (two doses ≥ 28 days apart) were initially matched with five unvaccinated subjects on calendar date, age, US region, and insurance type. Subjects were followed from index date (14 days after the second dose) until death or data end to ascertain mpox occurrence. After propensity score adjustment, the MVA–BN vaccine effectiveness against mpox disease was 89% (95% CI: 12%, 99%) among those fully vaccinated; attenuated to 64% (95% CI: 40%, 78%) among those with any dose and 70% (95% CI: 44%, 84%) for those with only a single dose. One pericarditis adverse event of special interest was observed when the risk window was extended to 28 days. These results contribute to the totality of evidence supporting the favorable benefit/risk profile of the MVA–BN vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vaccine Efficacy and Safety)
18 pages, 594 KiB  
Article
Multiple Messaging Strategies for Increasing HPV Vaccination Intentions among English- and Spanish-Speaking Parents in the United States and Mexico
by Matthew S. McGlone, Keri K. Stephens, Mian Jia, Carolyn Montagnolo and Yifan Xu
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060650 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 316
Abstract
The reported study compared the impact of four influence strategies (agency assignment, enhanced active choice, deviance regulation marking, and temporal framing) on English- and Spanish-speaking parents’ reported intention to vaccinate their children for HPV. An online experiment was conducted to examine the impact [...] Read more.
The reported study compared the impact of four influence strategies (agency assignment, enhanced active choice, deviance regulation marking, and temporal framing) on English- and Spanish-speaking parents’ reported intention to vaccinate their children for HPV. An online experiment was conducted to examine the impact of the strategies. In a fractional factorial design, participating parents (N = 1663) were exposed to combinations of influence strategies in text messages presented as reminders they might receive from a healthcare provider about their child’s eligibility for the vaccine series. The results indicated small but significant impacts of agency assignment, enhanced active choice, and deviance regulation marking on parents’ reported vaccination intentions. The study adds to the research literature on HPV vaccination communication in two important respects. First, it demonstrated how incorporating evidence-based influence strategies into reminder messages can increase parents’ vaccination intentions, an important precursor and predictor of actual vaccine uptake. Second, it sets an important precedent by examining the effects of influence strategies on vaccination intentions across different languages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Strategies for HPV-Related Cancers)
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14 pages, 5245 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Effects of Metal–Organic Nanoplatform and Guanine Quadruplex-Based CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides in Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines with Different Tumor Antigens
by Xia Li, Mitsuhiro Ebara, Naoto Shirahata, Tomohiko Yamazaki and Nobutaka Hanagata
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060649 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated cytosine–phosphate–guanosine (CpG) motifs are readily recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 on immune cells, trigger an immunomodulatory cascade, induce a Th1 -biased immune milieu, and have great potential as an adjuvant in cancer vaccines. In this study, a green one-step [...] Read more.
Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated cytosine–phosphate–guanosine (CpG) motifs are readily recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 on immune cells, trigger an immunomodulatory cascade, induce a Th1 -biased immune milieu, and have great potential as an adjuvant in cancer vaccines. In this study, a green one-step synthesis process was adopted to prepare an amino-rich metal–organic nanoplatform (FN). The synthesized FN nanoplatform can simultaneously and effectively load model tumor antigens (OVA)/autologous tumor antigens (dLLC) and immunostimulatory CpG ODNs with an unmodified PD backbone and a guanine quadruplex structure to obtain various cancer vaccines. The FN nanoplatform and immunostimulatory CpG ODNs generate synergistic effects to enhance the immunogenicity of different antigens and inhibit the growth of established and distant tumors in both the murine E.G7-OVA lymphoma model and the murine Lewis lung carcinoma model. In the E.G7-OVA lymphoma model, vaccination efficiently increases the CD4+, CD8+, and tetramer+CD8+ T cell populations in the spleens. In the Lewis lung carcinoma model, vaccination efficiently increases the CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cell populations in the spleens and CD3+CD8+, CD3CD8+, and CD11b+CD80+ cell populations in the tumors, suggesting the alteration of tumor microenvironments from cold to hot tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cutting-Edge Cancer Vaccines Enhanced by Nanotechnology)
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13 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
Healthcare and Epidemiological Surveillance Costs of Hepatitis A Outbreaks in Spain in Regions with and without Universal Hepatitis A Vaccination of Children during 2010-2018
by Pedro Plans-Rubió, Carles Pericas, Ana Maria Avellon, Concepción Izquierdo, Ana Martínez, Núria Torner, Alejandro Martínez, Eva Borrás, Francisco Roig, Pere Godoy and Cristina Rius
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060648 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 365
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare hepatitis A outbreak-associated healthcare and epidemiological surveillance costs in Spain in two types of autonomous regions during 2010–2018: (1) regions with a prevention strategy based on universal hepatitis A vaccination of children and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare hepatitis A outbreak-associated healthcare and epidemiological surveillance costs in Spain in two types of autonomous regions during 2010–2018: (1) regions with a prevention strategy based on universal hepatitis A vaccination of children and vaccination of high-risk population groups (Catalonia) and (2) regions with a prevention strategy based on vaccinating high-risk population groups (Castile and Leon, Murcia, Navarra, Community of Madrid, Community of Valencia). Healthcare costs were determined based on the resources used to treat hepatitis A outbreak-associated cases and hospitalizations. Epidemiological surveillance costs were calculated from the resources used during surveillance activities. The ratios for total, healthcare and epidemiological surveillance costs (regions without universal hepatitis A vaccination of children vs. Catalonia) were used to compare the two hepatitis A prevention strategies. From 2010 to 2018, the total, healthcare and epidemiological surveillance costs per million population were 1.75 times (EUR 101,671 vs. EUR 58,032), 1.96 times (EUR 75,500 vs. EUR 38,516) and 1.34 times greater (EUR 26,171 vs. EUR 19,515) in regions without universal hepatitis A vaccination of children than in Catalonia, respectively. The ratios tended to increase over time during 2010–2018. In 2015–2018, total, healthcare and epidemiological surveillance costs per million population were 2.68 times (EUR 69,993 vs. EUR 26,158), 2.86 times (EUR 53,807 vs. EUR 18,825) and 2.21 times greater (EUR 16,186 vs. EUR 7333) in regions without universal hepatitis A vaccination of children than in Catalonia, respectively. These findings suggest that universal hepatitis A vaccination of children could reduce hepatitis A outbreak-associated costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hepatitis Virus Vaccines)
25 pages, 2058 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Efficacy of Surface Coated versus Encapsulated Influenza Antigens in Mannose–Chitosan Nanoparticle-Based Intranasal Vaccine in Swine
by Dina Bugybayeva, Ekachai Dumkliang, Veerupaxagouda Patil, Ganesh Yadagiri, Raksha Suresh, Mithilesh Singh, Jennifer Schrock, Sara Dolatyabi, Olaitan C. Shekoni, Hadi M. Yassine, Praneet Opanasopit, Harm HogenEsch and Gourapura J. Renukaradhya
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060647 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 336
Abstract
This study focuses on the development and characterization of an intranasal vaccine platform using adjuvanted nanoparticulate delivery of swine influenza A virus (SwIAV). The vaccine employed whole inactivated H1N2 SwIAV as an antigen and STING-agonist ADU-S100 as an adjuvant, with both surface adsorbed [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the development and characterization of an intranasal vaccine platform using adjuvanted nanoparticulate delivery of swine influenza A virus (SwIAV). The vaccine employed whole inactivated H1N2 SwIAV as an antigen and STING-agonist ADU-S100 as an adjuvant, with both surface adsorbed or encapsulated in mannose–chitosan nanoparticles (mChit-NPs). Optimization of mChit-NPs included evaluating size, zeta potential, and cytotoxicity, with a 1:9 mass ratio of antigen to NP demonstrating high loading efficacy and non-cytotoxic properties suitable for intranasal vaccination. In a heterologous H1N1 pig challenge trial, the mChit-NP intranasal vaccine induced cross-reactive sIgA antibodies in the respiratory tract, surpassing those of a commercial SwIAV vaccine. The encapsulated mChit-NP vaccine induced high virus-specific neutralizing antibody and robust cellular immune responses, while the adsorbed vaccine elicited specific high IgG and hemagglutinin inhibition antibodies. Importantly, both the mChit-NP vaccines reduced challenge heterologous viral replication in the nasal cavity higher than commercial swine influenza vaccine. In summary, a novel intranasal mChit-NP vaccine platform activated both the arms of the immune system and is a significant advancement in swine influenza vaccine design, demonstrating its potential effectiveness for pig immunization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Virus and Vaccines)
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17 pages, 2168 KiB  
Project Report
Building Data Triangulation Capacity for Routine Immunization and Vaccine Preventable Disease Surveillance Programs to Identify Immunization Coverage Inequities
by Audrey Rachlin, Oluwasegun Joel Adegoke, Rajendra Bohara, Edson Rwagasore, Hassan Sibomana, Adeline Kabeja, Ines Itanga, Samuel Rwunganira, Blaise Mafende Mario, Nahimana Marie Rosette, Ramatu Usman Obansa, Angela Ukpojo Abah, Olorunsogo Bidemi Adeoye, Ester Sikare, Eugene Lam, Christopher S. Murrill and Angela Montesanti Porter
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060646 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 511
Abstract
The Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) and Vaccine Preventable Disease (VPD) Surveillance (VPDS) programs generate multiple data sources (e.g., routine administrative data, VPD case data, and coverage surveys). However, there are challenges with the use of these siloed data for programmatic decision-making, including [...] Read more.
The Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) and Vaccine Preventable Disease (VPD) Surveillance (VPDS) programs generate multiple data sources (e.g., routine administrative data, VPD case data, and coverage surveys). However, there are challenges with the use of these siloed data for programmatic decision-making, including poor data accessibility and lack of timely analysis, contributing to missed vaccinations, immunity gaps, and, consequently, VPD outbreaks in populations with limited access to immunization and basic healthcare services. Data triangulation, or the integration of multiple data sources, can be used to improve the availability of key indicators for identifying immunization coverage gaps, under-immunized (UI) and un-immunized (zero-dose (ZD)) children, and for assessing program performance at all levels of the healthcare system. Here, we describe the data triangulation processes, prioritization of indicators, and capacity building efforts in Bangladesh, Nigeria, and Rwanda. We also describe the analyses used to generate meaningful data, key indicators used to identify immunization coverage inequities and performance gaps, and key lessons learned. Triangulation processes and lessons learned may be leveraged by other countries, potentially leading to programmatic changes that promote improved access and utilization of vaccination services through the identification of UI and ZD children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequality in Immunization 2024)
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10 pages, 757 KiB  
Article
Single-Facility Analysis of COVID-19 Status of Healthcare Employees during the Eighth and Ninth Pandemic Waves in Japan after Introducing Regular Rapid Antigen Testing
by Masayuki Nagasawa, Tomoyuki Kato, Hayato Sakaguchi, Ippei Tanaka, Mami Watanabe, Yoko Hiroshima and Mie Sakurai
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060645 - 9 Jun 2024
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Background: Community infections of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have increased rapidly since the emergence of the Omicron strain. During the eighth and ninth pandemic waves—when movement restrictions in the community were eased—the all-case registration system was changed, and the actual [...] Read more.
Background: Community infections of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have increased rapidly since the emergence of the Omicron strain. During the eighth and ninth pandemic waves—when movement restrictions in the community were eased—the all-case registration system was changed, and the actual status of infection became uncertain. Methods: We conducted regular rapid antigen tests (R-RATs) once or twice a week as self-testing to examine the actual state of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) diagnosis among healthcare employees. Results: Overall, 320 (1.42/day) and 299 (1.76/day) employees were infected in the eighth and ninth pandemic waves. During both periods, 59/263 doctors (22.4%), 335/806 nurses (41.6%), 92/194 administrative employees (47.4%), and 129/218 clinical laboratory technicians (59.2%) were infected. In the eighth wave, 56 of 195 employees were infected through close contact; in the ninth wave, 26 of 62 employees were infected. No significant difference was observed in the number of vaccinations between infected and non-infected employees. The positivity rate of R-RATs was 0.41% and 0.45% in the eighth and ninth waves. R-RATs detected infection in 212 and 229 employees during the eighth and ninth waves, respectively; the ratio of R-RAT-detected positive employees to those who reported infection was significantly higher during the ninth wave (odds ratio: 1.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.17–2.37, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The number of infected healthcare employees remained high during the eighth and ninth pandemic waves in Japan. The R-RAT is considered effective for detecting mild or asymptomatic COVID-19 at an early stage and at a high rate in healthcare employees. Full article
14 pages, 4681 KiB  
Article
Effect of Prior ChAdOx1 COVID-19 Immunisation on T-Cell Responses to ChAdOx1-HBV
by Charlotte Davis, Dave Singh, Katie Anderson, Antonella Vardeu, Jakub Kopycinski, Alice Bridges-Webb, Alice Trickett, Susanne O’Brien, Matthew Downs, Randip Kaur, Radka Kolenovska, Louise Bussey, Kathryn Rutkowski, Sarah Sebastian, Tamsin Cargill, Eleanor Barnes, Thomas G. Evans and Paola Cicconi
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060644 - 9 Jun 2024
Viewed by 507
Abstract
There are varying data concerning the effect of prior anti-vector immunity on the T-cell response induced by immunisation with an identical vectored vaccine containing a heterologous antigen insert. To determine whether prior exposure to ChAdOx1-SARS-CoV2 immunisation (Vaxzevria®) impacts magnitudes of antigen-specific [...] Read more.
There are varying data concerning the effect of prior anti-vector immunity on the T-cell response induced by immunisation with an identical vectored vaccine containing a heterologous antigen insert. To determine whether prior exposure to ChAdOx1-SARS-CoV2 immunisation (Vaxzevria®) impacts magnitudes of antigen-specific T-cell responses elicited by subsequent administration of the same viral vector (encoding HBV antigens, ChAdOx1-HBV), healthy volunteers that had received Vaxzevria® (n = 15) or the Pfizer or Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (n = 11) between 10 and 18 weeks prior were recruited to receive a single intramuscular injection of ChAdOx1-HBV. Anti-ChAdOx1-neutralising antibody titers were determined, and vector or insert-specific T-cell responses were measured by a gamma-interferon ELISpot and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay using multiparameter flow cytometry. Participants were followed for three months after the ChAdOx1-HBV injection, which was well-tolerated, and no dropouts occurred. The baseline ChAdOx1 neutralisation titers were higher in the Vaxzevria® cohort (median of 848) than in the mRNA cohort (median of 25). T-cell responses to HBV antigens, measured by ELISpot, were higher on day 28 in the mRNA group (p = 0.013) but were similar between groups on day 84 (p = 0.441). By ICS, these differences persisted at the last time point. There was no clear correlation between the baseline responses to the adenoviral hexon and the subsequent ELISpot responses. As vaccination within 3 months using the same viral vector backbone affected the insert-specific T-cell responses, a greater interval after prior adenoviral immunisation using heterologous antigens may be warranted in settings in which these cells play critical roles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vaccine Efficacy and Safety)
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16 pages, 2931 KiB  
Article
Molecular Events in Immune Responses to Sublingual Influenza Vaccine with Hemagglutinin Antigen and Poly(I:C) Adjuvant in Nonhuman Primates, Cynomolgus Macaques
by Tetsuro Yamamoto, Makoto Hirano, Fusako Mitsunaga, Kunihiko Wasaki, Atsushi Kotani, Kazuki Tajima and Shin Nakamura
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060643 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Sublingual vaccines offer the benefits of inducing mucosal immunity to protect against respiratory viruses, including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza, while also enabling needle-free self-administration. In a previous study, a sublingual SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was created by combining a recombinafigureCoV-2 [...] Read more.
Sublingual vaccines offer the benefits of inducing mucosal immunity to protect against respiratory viruses, including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza, while also enabling needle-free self-administration. In a previous study, a sublingual SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was created by combining a recombinafigureCoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain antigen with a double strand RNA Poly(I:C) adjuvant. This vaccine was tested on nonhuman primates, Cynomolgus macaques. This study examined the immune and inflammatory responses elicited by the sublingual influenza vaccine containing hemagglutinin (HA) antigen and Poly(I:C) adjuvants, and assessed the safety of this vaccine in nonhuman primates. The Poly(I:C)-adjuvanted sublingual vaccine induced both mucosal and systemic immunities. Specifically, the sublingual vaccine produced HA-specific secretory IgA antibodies in saliva and nasal washings, and HA-specific IgA and IgG were detected in the blood. This vaccine appeared to be safe, as judged from the results of blood tests and plasma C-reactive protein levels. Notably, sublingual vaccination neither increased the production of inflammation-associated cytokines—IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-17—in the blood, nor upregulated the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines—IL12A, IL12B, IFNA1, IFNB1, CD69, and granzyme B—in white blood cells. Moreover, DNA microarray analyses revealed that sublingual vaccination evoked both enhancing and suppressing expression changes in genes associated with immune-related responses in cynomolgus monkeys. Therefore, the sublingual vaccine with the Poly(I:C) adjuvant is safe, and creates a balanced state of enhancing and suppressing the immune-related response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Vaccine Adjuvants and Formulation)
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11 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
Hospital-Based Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination for Cancer Patients on Active Treatment and Their Family Members during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy: A Single-Center Experience
by Davide Dalu, Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Lorenzo Ruggieri, Maria Silvia Cona, Agostino Riva, Davide De Francesco, Chiara Tricella, Cinzia Fasola, Sabrina Ferrario, Anna Gambaro, Benedetta Lombardi Stocchetti, Valeria Smiroldo, Gaia Rebecchi, Sheila Piva, Giorgia Carrozzo, Spinello Antinori and Nicla La Verde
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060642 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 341
Abstract
In patients with cancer, tumor- and treatment-induced immunosuppression are responsible for a four-fold increase in morbidity and mortality caused by influenza and invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections compared to the general population. The main oncology societies strongly recommend vaccination in patients with cancer to [...] Read more.
In patients with cancer, tumor- and treatment-induced immunosuppression are responsible for a four-fold increase in morbidity and mortality caused by influenza and invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections compared to the general population. The main oncology societies strongly recommend vaccination in patients with cancer to prevent these infections. However, vaccine hesitancy is a main concern in this population. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of in-hospital vaccination for patients under anticancer treatment and their family members (FMs) against influenza and pneumococcal infections during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to increase vaccine coverage. This was a single-center, prospective, observational study conducted at the Department of Oncology of Luigi Sacco University Hospital (Milan, Italy) between October 2020 and April 2021. The main primary outcome was the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) and pneumococcal infections. The main secondary outcome was safety. A total of 341 subjects were enrolled, including 194 patients with cancer and 147 FMs. The incidence of ILI was higher among patients than among FMs (9% vs. 2.7%, OR 3.92, p = 0.02). Moreover, two subjects were diagnosed with pneumococcal pneumonia. The most frequent vaccine-related AEs were pain in the injection site (31%) and fatigue (8.7%). In conclusion, this hospital-based vaccination strategy was feasible during the COVID-19 pandemic, representing a potential model to maximize vaccine coverage during a public health emergency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza Virus Vaccines and Vaccination)
28 pages, 3744 KiB  
Article
Adjuvant Effects of a CC Chemokine for Enhancing the Efficacy of an Inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae Vaccine in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
by Chayanit Soontara, Anurak Uchuwittayakul, Pattanapon Kayansamruaj, Piti Amparyup, Ratree Wongpanya and Prapansak Srisapoome
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060641 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 261
Abstract
In this study, the ability of a CC chemokine (On-CC1) adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of a formalin-killed Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine (WC) in inducing immune responses against S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia was investigated through immune-related gene expression analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent [...] Read more.
In this study, the ability of a CC chemokine (On-CC1) adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of a formalin-killed Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine (WC) in inducing immune responses against S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia was investigated through immune-related gene expression analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), transcriptome sequencing, and challenge tests. Significantly higher S. agalactiae-specific IgM levels were detected in fish in the WC+CC group than in the WC alone or control groups at 8 days postvaccination (dpv). The WC vaccine group exhibited increased specific IgM levels at 15 dpv, comparable to those of the WC+CC group, with sustained higher levels observed in the latter group at 29 dpv and after challenge with S. agalactiae for 14 days. Immune-related gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of all target genes in the control group compared to those in the vaccinated groups, with notable differences between the WC and WC+CC groups at various time intervals. Additionally, transcriptome analysis revealed differential gene expression profiles between the vaccinated (24 and 96 hpv) and control groups, with notable upregulation of immune-related genes in the vaccinated fish. Differential gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed significant upregulation of immunoglobulin and other immune-related genes in the control group compared to those in the vaccinated groups (24 and 96 hpv), with distinct patterns observed between the WC and WC+CC vaccine groups. Finally, challenge with a virulent strain of S. agalactiae resulted in significantly higher survival rates for fish in the WC and WC+CC groups compared to fish in the control group, with a notable increase in survival observed in fish in the WC+CC group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial and Viral Immunity and Vaccination)
31 pages, 3647 KiB  
Systematic Review
Impact of Nirsevimab Immunization on Pediatric Hospitalization rates: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (2024)
by Matteo Riccò, Antonio Cascio, Silvia Corrado, Marco Bottazzoli, Federico Marchesi, Renata Gili, Pasquale Gianluca Giuri, Davide Gori and Paolo Manzoni
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060640 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 614
Abstract
A systematic review with a meta-analysis was performed to gather available evidence on the effectiveness of monoclonal antibody nirsevimab in the prevention of lower respiratory tract diseases (LRTDs) due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children and newborns (CRD42024540669). Studies reporting on real-world [...] Read more.
A systematic review with a meta-analysis was performed to gather available evidence on the effectiveness of monoclonal antibody nirsevimab in the prevention of lower respiratory tract diseases (LRTDs) due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children and newborns (CRD42024540669). Studies reporting on real-world experience and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched for in three databases (PubMed, Embase, and Scopus) until 1 May 2024. Our analysis included five RCTs, seven real-world reports, and one official report from the health authorities. Due to the cross-reporting of RCTs and the inclusion of multiple series in a single study, the meta-analysis was performed on 45,238 infants from 19 series. The meta-analysis documented a pooled immunization efficacy of 88.40% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) from 84.70 to 91.21) on the occurrence of hospital admission due to RSV, with moderate heterogeneity (I2 24.3%, 95% CI 0.0 to 56.6). Immunization efficacy decreased with the overall length of the observation time (Spearman’s r = −0.546, p = 0.016), and the risk of breakthrough infections was substantially greater in studies with observation times ≥150 days compared to studies lasting <150 days (risk ratio 2.170, 95% CI 1.860 to 2.532). However, the effect of observation time in meta-regression analysis was conflicting (β = 0.001, 95% CI −0.001 to 0.002; p = 0.092). In conclusion, the delivery of nirsevimab was quite effective in preventing hospital admissions due to LRTDs. However, further analyses of the whole RSV season are required before tailoring specific public health interventions. Full article
14 pages, 255 KiB  
Article
Influenza Vaccine Hesitancy among Cancer Survivors in China: A Multicenter Survey
by Xin Guo, Qi Han, Yuqin Wang, Rui Zhang, Yuenan Huang and Botang Guo
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060639 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 338
Abstract
Background: Cancer survivors are at higher risk of developing severe complications from influenza due to their compromised immune systems. Despite their increased vulnerability to influenza and the availability of vaccines, vaccine hesitancy among cancer survivors remains a significant public health concern in China. [...] Read more.
Background: Cancer survivors are at higher risk of developing severe complications from influenza due to their compromised immune systems. Despite their increased vulnerability to influenza and the availability of vaccines, vaccine hesitancy among cancer survivors remains a significant public health concern in China. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted among cancer survivors in China from January to December 2023. A total of 500 participants were recruited from the oncology departments of five tertiary hospitals. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, cancer-related information, medical history, lifestyle factors, and influenza vaccine hesitancy. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with influenza vaccine hesitancy. Results: The response rate was 97.0% (485/500). Among all participants, 204 (42.06%) reported vaccine hesitancy. The results of multiple logistic regression showed that the longer the end of anti-cancer treatment, without a history of adverse vaccine reactions, and the level of family support played a protective role in vaccine hesitancy. Current rehabilitation status, frequent colds, not being informed by doctors about vaccination, exercising, lack of community vaccination education programs, and concerns about vaccine safety were risk factors that increase vaccine hesitancy. Conclusions: A high proportion of cancer survivors in our study reported influenza vaccine hesitancy. Addressing concerns about vaccine safety, improving access to vaccination services, and enhancing doctor–patient communication are crucial for increasing influenza vaccine uptake in this vulnerable population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Uptake and Public Health)
14 pages, 1738 KiB  
Article
Evolution of the Antigenic Landscape in Children and Young Adults with COVID-19 and MIS-C
by Lorenza Bellusci, Gabrielle Grubbs, Shaimaa Sait, Katherine W. Herbst, Juan C. Salazar, Surender Khurana and The Connecticut Children’s COVID Collaborative
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060638 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 411
Abstract
There is minimal knowledge regarding the durability of neutralization capacity and level of binding antibody generated against the highly transmissible circulating Omicron subvariants following SARS-CoV-2 infection in children with acute COVID-19 and those diagnosed with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) in the [...] Read more.
There is minimal knowledge regarding the durability of neutralization capacity and level of binding antibody generated against the highly transmissible circulating Omicron subvariants following SARS-CoV-2 infection in children with acute COVID-19 and those diagnosed with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) in the absence of vaccination. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers against the ancestral strain (WA1) and Omicron sublineages were evaluated in unvaccinated children admitted for COVID-19 (n = 32) and MIS-C (n = 32) at the time of hospitalization (baseline) and at six to eight weeks post-discharge (follow-up) between 1 April 2020, and 1 September 2022. In addition, antibody binding to the spike receptor binding domain (RBD) from WA1, BA.1, BA.2.75, and BA.4/BA.5 was determined using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). At baseline, the children with MIS-C demonstrated two-fold to three-fold higher binding and neutralizing antibodies against ancestral WA1 compared to those with COVID-19. Importantly, in children with COVID-19, the virus neutralization titers against the Omicron subvariants at six to eight weeks post-discharge reached the same level as those with MIS-C had at baseline but were higher than titers at 6–8 weeks post-discharge for MIS-C cases. Cross-neutralization capacity against recently emerged Omicron BQ.1, BQ.1.1, and XBB.1 variants was very low in children with either COVID-19 or MIS-C at all time points. These findings about post-infection immunity in children with either COVID-19 or MIS-C suggest the need for vaccinations in children with prior COVID-19 or MIS-C to provide effective protection from emerging and circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pathogens-host Immune Interface)
16 pages, 2869 KiB  
Article
Immuno-Microbial Signature of Vaccine-Induced Immunity against SARS-CoV-2
by Lesley Umeda, Amada Torres, Braden P. Kunihiro, Noelle C. Rubas, Riley K. Wells, Krit Phankitnirundorn, Rafael Peres, Ruben Juarez and Alika K. Maunakea
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060637 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 325
Abstract
Although vaccines address critical public health needs, inter-individual differences in responses are not always considered in their development. Understanding the underlying basis for these differences is needed to optimize vaccine effectiveness and ultimately improve disease control. In this pilot study, pre- and post-antiviral [...] Read more.
Although vaccines address critical public health needs, inter-individual differences in responses are not always considered in their development. Understanding the underlying basis for these differences is needed to optimize vaccine effectiveness and ultimately improve disease control. In this pilot study, pre- and post-antiviral immunological and gut microbiota features were characterized to examine inter-individual differences in SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine response. Blood and stool samples were collected before administration of the vaccine and at 2-to-4-week intervals after the first dose. A cohort of 14 adults was separated post hoc into two groups based on neutralizing antibody levels (high [HN] or low [LN]) at 10 weeks following vaccination. Bivariate correlation analysis was performed to examine associations between gut microbiota, inflammation, and neutralization capacity at that timepoint. These analyses revealed significant differences in gut microbiome composition and inflammation states pre-vaccination, which predicted later viral neutralization capacity, with certain bacterial taxa, such as those in the genus Prevotella, found at higher abundance in the LN vs HN group that were also negatively correlated with a panel of inflammatory factors such as IL-17, yet positively correlated with plasma levels of the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) protein at pre-vaccination. In particular, we observed a significant inverse relationship (Pearson = −0.54, p = 0.03) between HMGB-1 pre-vaccination and neutralization capacity at 10 weeks post-vaccination. Consistent with known roles as mediators of inflammation, our results altogether implicate HMGB-1 and related gut microbial signatures as potential biomarkers in predicting SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine effectiveness measured by the production of viral neutralization antibodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccines and Immune Response)
35 pages, 2243 KiB  
Review
Precision in Action: The Role of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas in Gene Therapies
by Amrutha Banda, Olivia Impomeni, Aparana Singh, Abdul Rasheed Baloch, Wenhui Hu and Dabbu Kumar Jaijyan
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060636 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 686
Abstract
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)-associated enzyme-CAS holds great promise for treating many uncured human diseases and illnesses by precisely correcting harmful point mutations and disrupting disease-causing genes. The recent Food and Drug Association (FDA) approval of the first CRISPR-based gene therapy [...] Read more.
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)-associated enzyme-CAS holds great promise for treating many uncured human diseases and illnesses by precisely correcting harmful point mutations and disrupting disease-causing genes. The recent Food and Drug Association (FDA) approval of the first CRISPR-based gene therapy for sickle cell anemia marks the beginning of a new era in gene editing. However, delivering CRISPR specifically into diseased cells in vivo is a significant challenge and an area of intense research. The identification of new CRISPR/Cas variants, particularly ultra-compact CAS systems with robust gene editing activities, paves the way for the low-capacity delivery vectors to be used in gene therapies. CRISPR/Cas technology has evolved beyond editing DNA to cover a wide spectrum of functionalities, including RNA targeting, disease diagnosis, transcriptional/epigenetic regulation, chromatin imaging, high-throughput screening, and new disease modeling. CRISPR/Cas can be used to engineer B-cells to produce potent antibodies for more effective vaccines and enhance CAR T-cells for the more precise and efficient targeting of tumor cells. However, CRISPR/Cas technology has challenges, including off-target effects, toxicity, immune responses, and inadequate tissue-specific delivery. Overcoming these challenges necessitates the development of a more effective and specific CRISPR/Cas delivery system. This entails strategically utilizing specific gRNAs in conjunction with robust CRISPR/Cas variants to mitigate off-target effects. This review seeks to delve into the intricacies of the CRISPR/Cas mechanism, explore progress in gene therapies, evaluate gene delivery systems, highlight limitations, outline necessary precautions, and scrutinize the ethical considerations associated with its application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of DNA and mRNA Vaccines)
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20 pages, 2445 KiB  
Article
Heterogenous Induction of Blocking Antibodies against Ragweed Allergen Molecules by Allergen Extract-Based Immunotherapy Vaccines
by Lauriana-Eunice Zbîrcea, Maria-Roxana Buzan, Manuela Grijincu, Monica-Daniela Cotarcă, Tudor-Paul Tamaș, Laura Haidar, Gabriela Tănasie, Ioan Huțu, Elijahu Babaev, Frank Stolz, Rudolf Valenta, Virgil Păunescu, Carmen Panaitescu and Kuan-Wei Chen
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060635 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Currently, allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) for ragweed allergy is still based on natural allergen extracts. This study aimed to analyse the ability of four commercially available AIT vaccines (CLUSTOID, TYRO-SIT, POLLINEX Quattro Plus and Diater Depot) regarding their ability to induce IgG antibodies against [...] Read more.
Currently, allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) for ragweed allergy is still based on natural allergen extracts. This study aimed to analyse the ability of four commercially available AIT vaccines (CLUSTOID, TYRO-SIT, POLLINEX Quattro Plus and Diater Depot) regarding their ability to induce IgG antibodies against ragweed pollen allergens in rabbits. Accordingly, the IgG reactivity of AIT-induced rabbit sera was tested for ten different ragweed pollen allergens (Amb a 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12) by an ELISA. Furthermore, the ability of rabbit AIT-specific sera to block allergic patients’ IgE binding to relevant ragweed allergens (Amb a 1, 4, 6, 8 and 11) and to inhibit allergen-induced basophil activation was evaluated by an IgE inhibition ELISA and a mediator release assay. Only two AIT vaccines (Diater Depot > CLUSTOID) induced relevant IgG antibody levels to the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. The IgG responses induced by the AIT vaccines against the other ragweed allergens were low and highly heterogeneous. Interestingly, the kinetics of IgG responses were different among the AIT vaccines and even within one AIT vaccine (Diater Depot) for Amb a 1 (long-lasting) versus Amb a 8 and Amb a 11 (short-lived). This could be due to variations in allergen contents, the immunogenicity of the allergens, and different immunization protocols. The IgE inhibition experiments showed that rabbit AIT-specific sera containing high allergen-specific IgG levels were able to inhibit patients’ IgE binding and prevent the mediator release with Diater Depot. The high levels of allergen-specific IgG levels were associated with their ability to prevent the recognition of allergens by patients’ IgE and allergen-induced basophil activation, indicating that the measurement of allergen-induced IgG could be a useful surrogate marker for the immunological efficacy of vaccines. Accordingly, the results of our study may be helpful for the selection of personalized AIT vaccination strategies for ragweed-allergic patients. Full article
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Article
Retrospective, Observational Analysis on the Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Variant Omicron in Hospitalized Immunocompromised Patients in a German Hospital Network—The VISAGE Study
by Irit Nachtigall, Stefan Kwast, Sven Hohenstein, Sebastian König, Phi Long Dang, Johannes Leiner, Nicola Giesen, Benjamin Thomas Schleenvoigt, Marzia Bonsignore, Andreas Bollmann, Ralf Kuhlen and Fungwe Jah
Vaccines 2024, 12(6), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12060634 - 7 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Aims: Endemic SARS-CoV-2 infections still burden the healthcare system and represent a considerable threat to vulnerable patient cohorts, in particular immunocompromised (IC) patients. This study aimed to analyze the in-hospital outcome of IC patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in Germany. Methods: This retrospective, [...] Read more.
Aims: Endemic SARS-CoV-2 infections still burden the healthcare system and represent a considerable threat to vulnerable patient cohorts, in particular immunocompromised (IC) patients. This study aimed to analyze the in-hospital outcome of IC patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in Germany. Methods: This retrospective, observational study, analyzed administrative data from inpatient cases (n = 146,324) in 84 German Helios hospitals between 1 January 2022 and 31 December 2022 with regard to in-hospital outcome and health care burden in IC patients during the first 12 months of Omicron dominance. As the primary objective, in-hospital outcomes of patients with COVID-19-related severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were analyzed by comparing patients with (n = 2037) and without IC diagnoses (n = 14,772). Secondary analyses were conducted on IC patients with (n = 2037) and without COVID-19-related SARI (n = 129,515). A severe in-hospital outcome as a composite endpoint was defined per the WHO definition if one of the following criteria were met: intensive care unit (ICU) treatment, mechanical ventilation (MV), or in-hospital death. Results: In total, 12% of COVID-related SARI cases were IC patients, accounting for 15% of ICU admissions, 15% of MV use, and 16% of deaths, resulting in a higher prevalence of severe in-hospital courses in IC patients developing COVID-19-related SARI compared to non-IC patients (Odds Ratio, OR = 1.4, p < 0.001), based on higher in-hospital mortality (OR = 1.4, p < 0.001), increased need for ICU treatment (OR = 1.3, p < 0.001) and mechanical ventilation (OR = 1.2, p < 0.001). Among IC patients, COVID-19-related SARI profoundly increased the risk for severe courses (OR = 4.0, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings highlight the vulnerability of IC patients to severe COVID-19. The persistently high prevalence of severe outcomes in these patients in the Omicron era emphasizes the necessity for continuous in-hospital risk assessment and monitoring of IC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
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