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From the third issue of 2017, Microarrays has changed its name to High-Throughput.

Open AccessReview

Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
Faculty of Frontiers of Innovative Research in Science and Technology (FIRST), Konan University, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan
Department of Materials Chemistry, Ryukoku University, Seta, Otsu 520-2194, Japan
Department of Electronics and Applied Physics, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502, Japan
Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8501, Japan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Ulrich Certa
Microarrays 2015, 4(2), 228-244;
Received: 28 February 2015 / Revised: 10 April 2015 / Accepted: 17 April 2015 / Published: 24 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Old Technologies for Generation of Microarrays)
PDF [752 KB, uploaded 24 April 2015]


Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano‑biological events. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein microarray; protein chip; detection method; label technique; label-free technique protein microarray; protein chip; detection method; label technique; label-free technique

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Syahir, A.; Usui, K.; Tomizaki, K.-Y.; Kajikawa, K.; Mihara, H. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays. Microarrays 2015, 4, 228-244.

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