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Brain Sci., Volume 7, Issue 12 (December 2017)

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Open AccessArticle EEG Dynamics of a Go/Nogo Task in Children with ADHD
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(12), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7120167
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Background: Studies investigating event-related potential (ERP) evoked in a Cue-Go/NoGo paradigm have shown lower frontal N1, N2 and central P3 in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to typically developing children (TDC). However, the electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics underlying these ERPs remain largely unexplored
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Background: Studies investigating event-related potential (ERP) evoked in a Cue-Go/NoGo paradigm have shown lower frontal N1, N2 and central P3 in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to typically developing children (TDC). However, the electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics underlying these ERPs remain largely unexplored in ADHD. Methods: We investigate the event-related spectral perturbation and inter-trial coherence linked to the ERP triggered by visual Cue-Go/NoGo stimuli, in 14 children (7 ADHD and 7 TDC) aged 8 to 12 years. Results: Compared to TDC, the EEG dynamics of children with ADHD showed a lower theta-alpha ITC concomitant to lower occipito-parietal P1-N2 and frontal N1-P2 potentials in response to Cue, Go and Nogo stimuli; an upper alpha power preceding lower central Go-P3; a lower theta-alpha power and ITC were coupled to a lower frontal Nogo-N3; a lower low-gamma power overall scalp at 300 ms after Go and Nogo stimuli. Conclusion: These findings suggest impaired ability in children with ADHD to conserve the brain oscillations phase associated with stimulus processing. This physiological trait might serve as a target for therapeutic intervention or be used as monitoring of their effects. Full article
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Open AccessReview Advances in Brain Tumor Surgery for Glioblastoma in Adults
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(12), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7120166
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary intracranial neoplasia, and is characterized by its extremely poor prognosis. Despite maximum surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, the histological heterogeneity of GBM makes total eradication impossible, due to residual cancer cells invading the parenchyma, which is not
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Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary intracranial neoplasia, and is characterized by its extremely poor prognosis. Despite maximum surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, the histological heterogeneity of GBM makes total eradication impossible, due to residual cancer cells invading the parenchyma, which is not otherwise seen in radiographic images. Even with gross total resection, the heterogeneity and the dormant nature of brain tumor initiating cells allow for therapeutic evasion, contributing to its recurrence and malignant progression, and severely impacting survival. Visual delimitation of the tumor’s margins with common surgical techniques is a challenge faced by many surgeons. In an attempt to achieve optimal safe resection, advances in approaches allowing intraoperative analysis of cancer and non-cancer tissue have been developed and applied in humans resulting in improved outcomes. In addition, functional paradigms based on stimulation techniques to map the brain’s electrical activity have optimized glioma resection in eloquent areas such as the Broca’s, Wernike’s and perirolandic areas. In this review, we will elaborate on the current standard therapy for newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma with a focus on surgical approaches. We will describe current technologies used for glioma resection, such as awake craniotomy, fluorescence guided surgery, laser interstitial thermal therapy and intraoperative mass spectrometry. Additionally, we will describe a newly developed tool that has shown promising results in preclinical experiments for brain cancer: optical coherence tomography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Adult and Pediatric Brain Tumor Management)
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Open AccessArticle Investigating Methodological Differences in the Assessment of Dendritic Morphology of Basolateral Amygdala Principal Neurons—A Comparison of Golgi–Cox and Neurobiotin Electroporation Techniques
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(12), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7120165
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
Quantitative assessments of neuronal subtypes in numerous brain regions show large variations in dendritic arbor size. A critical experimental factor is the method used to visualize neurons. We chose to investigate quantitative differences in basolateral amygdala (BLA) principal neuron morphology using two of
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Quantitative assessments of neuronal subtypes in numerous brain regions show large variations in dendritic arbor size. A critical experimental factor is the method used to visualize neurons. We chose to investigate quantitative differences in basolateral amygdala (BLA) principal neuron morphology using two of the most common visualization methods: Golgi–Cox staining and neurobiotin (NB) filling. We show in 8-week-old Wistar rats that NB-filling reveals significantly larger dendritic arbors and different spine densities, compared to Golgi–Cox-stained BLA neurons. Our results demonstrate important differences and provide methodological insights into quantitative disparities of BLA principal neuron morphology reported in the literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Proposed Mechanism for Development of CTE Following Concussive Events: Head Impact, Water Hammer Injury, Neurofilament Release, and Autoimmune Processes
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(12), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7120164
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in early diagnosis and treatment of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) that lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The subjects involved range from soldiers exposed to concussive injuries from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) to
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During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in early diagnosis and treatment of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) that lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The subjects involved range from soldiers exposed to concussive injuries from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) to a significant number of athletes involved in repetitive high force impacts. Although the forces from IEDs are much greater by a magnitude than those from contact sports, the higher frequency associated with contact sports allows for more controlled assessment of the mechanism of action. In our study, we report findings in university-level women soccer athletes followed over a period of four and a half years from accession to graduation. Parameters investigated included T1-, T2-, and susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance images (SWI), IMPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing), and C3 Logix behavioral and physiological assessment measures. The MRI Studies show several significant findings: first, a marked increase in the width of sulci in the frontal to occipital cortices; second, an appearance of subtle hemorrhagic changes at the base of the sulci; third was a sustained reduction in total brain volume in several soccer players at a developmental time when brain growth is generally seen. Although all of the athletes successfully completed their college degree and none exhibited long term clinical deficits at the time of graduation, the changes documented by MRI represent a clue to the pathological mechanism following an injury paradigm. The authors propose that our findings and those of prior publications support a mechanism of injury in CTE caused by an autoimmune process associated with the release of neural proteins from nerve cells at the base of the sulcus from a water hammer injury effect. As evidence accumulates to support this hypothesis, there are pharmacological treatment strategies that may be able to mitigate the development of long-term disability from TBI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Mechanisms and Strategies for Neural Repair)
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Open AccessReview Stereotactically Standard Areas: Applied Mathematics in the Service of Brain Targeting in Deep Brain Stimulation
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(12), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7120163
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract
The concept of stereotactically standard areas (SSAs) within human brain nuclei belongs to the knowledge of the modern field of stereotactic brain microanatomy. These are areas resisting the individual variability of the nuclear location in stereotactic space. This paper summarizes the current knowledge
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The concept of stereotactically standard areas (SSAs) within human brain nuclei belongs to the knowledge of the modern field of stereotactic brain microanatomy. These are areas resisting the individual variability of the nuclear location in stereotactic space. This paper summarizes the current knowledge regarding SSAs. A mathematical formula of SSAs was recently invented, allowing for their robust, reproducible, and accurate application to laboratory studies and clinical practice. Thus, SSAs open new doors for the application of stereotactic microanatomy to highly accurate brain targeting, which is mainly useful for minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures, such as deep brain stimulation. Full article
Open AccessReview Spasticity Management in Disorders of Consciousness
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(12), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7120162
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 9 December 2017
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Abstract
Background: Spasticity is a motor disorder frequently encountered after a lesion involving the central nervous system. It is hypothesized to arise from an anarchic reorganization of the pyramidal and parapyramidal fibers and leads to hypertonia and hyperreflexia of the affected muscular groups. While
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Background: Spasticity is a motor disorder frequently encountered after a lesion involving the central nervous system. It is hypothesized to arise from an anarchic reorganization of the pyramidal and parapyramidal fibers and leads to hypertonia and hyperreflexia of the affected muscular groups. While this symptom and its management is well-known in patients suffering from stroke, multiple sclerosis or spinal cord lesion, little is known regarding its appropriate management in patients presenting disorders of consciousness after brain damage. Objectives: Our aim was to review the occurrence of spasticity in patients with disorders of consciousness and the therapeutic interventions used to treat it. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using the PubMed online database. It returned 157 articles. After applying our inclusion criteria (i.e., studies about patients in coma, unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or minimally conscious state, with spasticity objectively reported as a primary or secondary outcome), 18 studies were fully reviewed. Results: The prevalence of spasticity in patients with disorders of consciousness ranged from 59% to 89%. Current treatment options include intrathecal baclofen and soft splints. Several treatment options still need further investigation; including acupuncture, botulin toxin or cortical activation by thalamic stimulation. Conclusion: The small number of articles available in the current literature highlights that spasticity is poorly studied in patients with disorders of consciousness although it is one of the most common motor disorders. While treatments such as intrathecal baclofen and soft splints seem effective, large randomized controlled trials have to be done and new therapeutic options should be explored. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Tourette Syndrome: A Review and Preliminary Findings
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(12), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7120161
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
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Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is being investigated for a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions. Preliminary evidence suggests that tDCS may be useful in the treatment of Tourette Syndrome (TS). This paper reviews the literature
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Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is being investigated for a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions. Preliminary evidence suggests that tDCS may be useful in the treatment of Tourette Syndrome (TS). This paper reviews the literature on the use of tDCS in commonly occurring comorbid conditions that are relevant to its proposed use in TS. We describe the protocol for a double-blind, crossover, sham-controlled trial of tDCS (Trial ID: ACTRN12615000592549, registered at www.anzctr.org.au) investigating the efficacy, feasibility, safety, and tolerability of tDCS in patients with TS aged 12 years and over. The intervention consists of cathodal tDCS positioned over the Supplementary Motor Area. Patients receive either sham tDCS for three weeks followed by six weeks of active tDCS (1.4 mA, 18 sessions over six weeks), or six weeks of active sessions followed by three weeks of sham sessions, with follow-up at three and six months. Pilot findings from two patients are presented. There was a reduction in the frequency and intensity of patients’ tics and premonitory urges, as well as evidence of improvements in inhibitory function, over the course of treatment. Larger scale studies are indicated to ascertain the maintenance of symptom improvement over time, as well as the long-term consequences of the repetitions of sessions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cerebral Etiology and Treatment of the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome)
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Open AccessReview A Review of Chronic Pain and Cognitive, Mood, and Motor Dysfunction Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Complex, Comorbid, and/or Overlapping Conditions?
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(12), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7120160
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 25 November 2017 / Accepted: 2 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly encountered in clinical practice. While the cognitive ramifications of mTBI are frequently described in the literature, the impact of mTBI on emotional, sensory, and motor function is not as commonly discussed. Chronic pain is a phenomenon
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Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly encountered in clinical practice. While the cognitive ramifications of mTBI are frequently described in the literature, the impact of mTBI on emotional, sensory, and motor function is not as commonly discussed. Chronic pain is a phenomenon more prevalent among patients with mTBI compared to those with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury. Chronic pain can become a primary disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) expressed as widespread pain, and cognitive, mood, and movement dysfunction. Shared mechanisms across chronic pain conditions can account for how pain is generated and maintained in the CNS, irrespective of the underlying structural pathology. Herein, we review the impact of mTBI on cognitive, emotional, sensory, and motor domains, and the role of pain as an important confounding variable in patient recovery and dysfunction following mTBI. Full article
Open AccessArticle Early Detection and Intervention of ASD: A European Overview
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(12), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7120159
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
Over the last several years there has been an increasing focus on early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), not only from the scientific field but also from professional associations and public health systems all across Europe. Not surprisingly, in order to offer
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Over the last several years there has been an increasing focus on early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), not only from the scientific field but also from professional associations and public health systems all across Europe. Not surprisingly, in order to offer better services and quality of life for both children with ASD and their families, different screening procedures and tools have been developed for early assessment and intervention. However, current evidence is needed for healthcare providers and policy makers to be able to implement specific measures and increase autism awareness in European communities. The general aim of this review is to address the latest and most relevant issues related to early detection and treatments. The specific objectives are (1) analyse the impact, describing advantages and drawbacks, of screening procedures based on standardized tests, surveillance programmes, or other observational measures; and (2) provide a European framework of early intervention programmes and practices and what has been learnt from implementing them in public or private settings. This analysis is then discussed and best practices are suggested to help professionals, health systems and policy makers to improve their local procedures or to develop new proposals for early detection and intervention programmes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autism Spectrum Disorder: From Etio-Pathology to Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Binge Alcohol Exposure Transiently Changes the Endocannabinoid System: A Potential Target to Prevent Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(12), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7120158
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
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Abstract
Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the
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Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Male rats were administered alcohol according to a binge model, which resulted in a transient decrease in [3H]-CP-55,940 binding in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus following two days, but not four days, of treatment. Furthermore, binge alcohol treatment did not change the tissue content of the three NAEs quantified, including the endocannabinoid and anandamide. In a separate study, the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 was administered to rats during alcohol treatment and neuroprotection was assessed by FluoroJade B (FJB) staining. The administration of URB597 during binge treatment did not significantly reduce FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, however, a follow up “target engagement” study found that NAE augmentation by URB597 was impaired in alcohol intoxicated rats. Thus, potential alcohol induced alterations in URB597 pharmacodynamics may have contributed to the lack of neuroprotection by FAAH inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol Induced Central Nervous System Damage)
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Open AccessReview Long Term Depression in Rat Hippocampus and the Effect of Ethanol during Fetal Life
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(12), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7120157
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract
Alcohol (ethanol) disturbs cognitive functions including learning and memory in humans, non-human primates, and laboratory animals such as rodents. As studied in animals, cellular mechanisms for learning and memory include bidirectional synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP), and long-term depression (LTD), primarily in the
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Alcohol (ethanol) disturbs cognitive functions including learning and memory in humans, non-human primates, and laboratory animals such as rodents. As studied in animals, cellular mechanisms for learning and memory include bidirectional synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP), and long-term depression (LTD), primarily in the hippocampus. Most of the research in the field of alcohol has analyzed the effects of ethanol on LTP; however, with recent advances in the understanding of the physiological role of LTD in learning and memory, some authors have examined the effects of ethanol exposure on this particular signal. In the present review, I will focus on hippocampal LTD recorded in rodents and the effects of fetal alcohol exposure on this signal. A synthesis of the findings indicates that prenatal ethanol exposure disturbs LTD concurrently with LTP in offspring and that both glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmissions are altered and contribute to LTD disturbances. Although the ultimate mode of action of ethanol on these two transmitter systems is not yet clear, novel suggestions have recently appeared in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol Induced Central Nervous System Damage)
Open AccessArticle Social Determinants of Depression: The Intersections of Race, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(12), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7120156
Received: 29 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Despite the wealth of literature on social determinants of mental health, less is known about the intersection of these determinants. Using a nationally representative sample, this study aimed to study separate, additive, and multiplicative effects of race, gender, and SES on the
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Background: Despite the wealth of literature on social determinants of mental health, less is known about the intersection of these determinants. Using a nationally representative sample, this study aimed to study separate, additive, and multiplicative effects of race, gender, and SES on the risk of major depressive episode (MDE) among American adults. Methods: National Survey of American Life (NSAL) included 3570 African Americans and 891 Whites. Race, gender, socioeconomic status (SES, household income, education, employment, and marital status) were independent variables. Twelve-month MDE was measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). A series of logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: In the pooled sample, race and household income, but not gender, education, employment, and marital status were associated with 12-month MDE. Gender interacted with the effects of income on MDE, suggesting that the association between household income and MDE is larger for women than men. In race by gender specific models that controlled for other SES indicators, high income was protective for White women, education was protective for African American women, and high income became a risk factor for African American men. High income did not show a risk effect for African American men in the absence of other SES indicators. Conclusions: Findings suggest that race, gender, and class interact on how SES indicators, such as education or income, become a protective or a risk factor for MDE among American Adults. When the outcome is MDE, White women benefit more from income, African American women gain from education, however, the residual effect of high income (above and beyond education, employment, and marital status) may become a risk factor for African American men. Full article
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