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Open AccessArticle

Urinary Levels of Free 2,5-Hexanedione in Italian Subjects Non-Occupationally Exposed to n-Hexane

Department of Cardiac, Thoracic, Vascular Sciences and Public Health, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani, 2, 35128 Padova, Italy
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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5277; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245277
Received: 18 October 2019 / Revised: 27 November 2019 / Accepted: 2 December 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers and Human Biomonitoring in Occupational Medicine)
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the urinary levels of free 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) in Italian subjects non-occupationally exposed to n-hexane, in order to define background values in non-occupational settings. The study was carried out on 99 subjects of the general population. The analysis of free 2,5-HD was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Personal information about the subjects was ascertained by means of a self-administered questionnaire. The urinary levels of free 2,5-HD were in the range of <12.0–77.9 µg/L (5th–95th percentiles). The urinary excretion of the metabolite did not seem to be influenced by gender, age, smoking habit or area of residence. Statistically significant differences (p = 0.03) were found between the free 2,5-HD urinary levels according to the vehicular traffic intensity within the area of residence and to body mass index of subjects. The background levels of free 2,5-HD found in this study could contribute to the definition of reference values of general population non-occupationally exposed and could be useful to the toxicologists and industrial hygienists to determine whether workers have been exposed to higher levels of n-hexane than the general population. View Full-Text
Keywords: n-hexane; free 2,5-hexanedione; biological monitoring; non-occupationally exposed population n-hexane; free 2,5-hexanedione; biological monitoring; non-occupationally exposed population
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Salamon, F.; Martinelli, A.; Trevisan, A.; Scapellato, M.L.; Bartolucci, G.B.; Carrieri, M. Urinary Levels of Free 2,5-Hexanedione in Italian Subjects Non-Occupationally Exposed to n-Hexane. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 5277.

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