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Open AccessArticle

Air Pollution Associates with Cancer Incidences in Poland

1
Faculty of Safety Engineering and Civil Protection, The Main School of Fire Service, J. Slowackiego 52/54, 01-629 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, 92-215 Lodz, Poland
3
Independent Researcher, 85-113 Lodz, Poland
4
Institute of Safety Engineering, The Main School of Fire Service, J. Slowackiego 52/54, 01-629 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7489; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217489
Received: 2 August 2020 / Revised: 19 October 2020 / Accepted: 23 October 2020 / Published: 25 October 2020
In many countries around the world (including the United States, Canada, and Spain), research is being conducted into the impact of air pollution on the formation of various types of cancer. For a long time it was thought that the inhalation of pollutants could lead to lung diseases. Now the effects of air pollutants on tumors in the airways, kidneys, bladder, breast, and colon have been investigated and are better understood. It is now known that particulates in air pollution can cross the blood–brain barrier and also reach the placenta. The aim of this study was to find a possible relationship between the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere and the formation of specific types of tumors in the Polish population. Two databases available on the Internet were used in the analysis: the bank of measurement data on air quality in Poland (the repository of Environmental Protection Inspection) and cancer statistics. The pollution measurement data for the years 2000–2016 were taken from the Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection website, a database with results from 264 stations located in Poland for 13 types of gases and atmospheric pollutants. Statistical data on cancer C00–D09 (according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10)) in the Polish population in the years 1999–2015 were retrieved from onkologia.org.pl. A novel code was constructed, allowing the downloading of statistics from the databases, examination of their correlation, and selection of the best model of regression through machine learning. The results of the analyses indicate a high correlation of air pollution with the incidence of selected types of cancer. Particularly noteworthy is the observed effect of NOx on the incidence of small and large intestine cancers in the Masovia and West Pomerania provinces. The other gases and pollutants with the most significant impact on the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer have also been identified. Based on statistical analysis, we found a correlation between air pollution and tumor incidence in individual provinces, as well as an influence of the emission of nitrogen oxides on the cancer incidence rate. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; environmental pollution; pollution measurements; neoplasms epidemiology; Poland air pollution; environmental pollution; pollution measurements; neoplasms epidemiology; Poland
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Tuśnio, N.; Fichna, J.; Nowakowski, P.; Tofiło, P. Air Pollution Associates with Cancer Incidences in Poland. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 7489.

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