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Open AccessArticle

Salivary Extracellular DNA and DNase Activity in Periodontitis

1
Institute of Molecular Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, 811 08 Bratislava, Slovakia
2
Department of Pediatrics, National Institute of Children’s Diseases and Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, 831 01 Bratislava, Slovakia
3
School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FF, UK
4
Department of Stomatology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, 811 08 Bratislava, Slovakia
5
Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Dental Hygiene of J.A. Reiman Hospital in Prešov, 080 01 Prešov, Slovakia
6
Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, 811 08 Bratislava, Slovakia
7
Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7490; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217490
Received: 2 October 2020 / Revised: 22 October 2020 / Accepted: 22 October 2020 / Published: 25 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salivary Biomarkers: Future Diagnostic and Clinical Utilities)
Extracellular DNA (ecDNA) is a potential marker and predictor in several inflammatory diseases. Periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease, is associated with epithelial cell death and could lead to release of DNA. Our aim was to analyze salivary DNA concentration and deoxyribonuclease (DNase) activity in periodontitis patients. We hypothesized that salivary ecDNA will be higher than in controls and could serve as a marker of periodontitis severity. Samples of saliva were collected from 25 patients with chronic periodontitis and 29 age-matched controls. DNA was quantified fluorometrically in whole saliva, as well as in supernatants after centrifugation (depletion of cells at 1600× g) and in double-centrifuged supernatants (depletion of cell debris at 1600× g and 16,000× g). The subcellular origin of ecDNA was assessed using real-time PCR. In comparison to controls, patients with periodontitis had twofold higher salivary DNA (p < 0.01), higher mitochondrial DNA in centrifuged supernatants (p < 0.05) and lower nuclear ecDNA in double-centrifuged samples (p < 0.05). No correlations were found between salivary DNA and oral health status, but mitochondrial DNA positively correlated with papillary bleeding index in centrifuged samples. Salivary DNase activity was comparable between the groups. In conclusion, we proved that salivary DNA is higher in periodontitis. The source of the higher mitochondrial DNA in cell-free saliva and the causes of lower nuclear ecDNA remain to be elucidated. Further studies should focus on the role of mitochondrial DNA as a potential driver of inflammation in periodontitis. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell free DNA; salivary biomarkers; gingivitis; oral diseases; apoptotic bodies; deoxyribonucleases cell free DNA; salivary biomarkers; gingivitis; oral diseases; apoptotic bodies; deoxyribonucleases
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Konečná, B.; Gaál Kovalčíková, A.; Pančíková, A.; Novák, B.; Kovaľová, E.; Celec, P.; Tóthová, Ľ. Salivary Extracellular DNA and DNase Activity in Periodontitis. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 7490.

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