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Adm. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 6 (June 2023) – 20 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study explores Japan's distinct business practices and their impact on economic performance. It examines the relationship between specific features of Japanese corporate governance and the nation's lackluster economic performance. Additionally, it analyzes the factors influencing corporate governance reforms in Japan and their effects on overall corporate performance. Notable governance failures in Japanese firms are discussed to illustrate the evolution of governance practices over the past two decades. The study aims to unravel the complexities of Japanese business practices and their role in shaping the economic landscape. View this paper
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10 pages, 300 KiB  
Communication
Effect of Long-Term Absenteeism on the Operating Revenues, Productivity, and Employment of Enterprises
by Jarle Aarstad and Olav Andreas Kvitastein
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060156 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1403
Abstract
(1) Background: Previous studies have shown that absenteeism is negatively associated with employee-level performance, but we do not know how exactly absenteeism affects enterprise-level performance. To bridge this knowledge gap, we investigate how average long-term absenteeism affects Norwegian enterprises’ operating revenues and productivity. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Previous studies have shown that absenteeism is negatively associated with employee-level performance, but we do not know how exactly absenteeism affects enterprise-level performance. To bridge this knowledge gap, we investigate how average long-term absenteeism affects Norwegian enterprises’ operating revenues and productivity. Also, we investigate if absenteeism decreases employment and whether operating revenues mediate the association. (2) Methods: We performed an enterprise-level dynamic unconditional quasi-maximum likelihood fixed-effects panel regression. (3) Results: The average share of long-term absenteeism nonlinearly decreases operating revenues and overall productivity at an increasing rate. The nonlinear effect may indicate deteriorating value creation among the share of employees largely not absent, but their productivity actually increases at an increasing rate. Thus, the overall findings indicate that the least productive employees first tend to opt out of the workforce, and as absenteeism increases, those subsequently opting out are otherwise increasingly productive. In parallel, those remaining in the workforce are increasingly productive. Absenteeism, moreover, decreases employment the following year, which is partly explained by revenue losses. However, enterprises cut their workforce due to factors beyond the impact of absenteeism on revenues. Full article
13 pages, 308 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Impacts of Internal Communication: Employer Branding and Human Resources
by Raquel Fernandes, Bruno Barbosa Sousa, Manuel Fonseca and José Oliveira
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060155 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2479
Abstract
Human capital is considered the most important resource in any organization. However, most companies are concerned with external customer satisfaction, without devoting much attention to the satisfaction of their employees. Indisputably, employee satisfaction is fundamental and determines the success or failure of what [...] Read more.
Human capital is considered the most important resource in any organization. However, most companies are concerned with external customer satisfaction, without devoting much attention to the satisfaction of their employees. Indisputably, employee satisfaction is fundamental and determines the success or failure of what the customer experiences. Technological developments have changed our lives and habits, and even the way we relate to others, so the online increasingly influences the offline. The purpose of this manuscript was to examine the relationship between the Digital Communication of companies and their Employer Branding, with a special focus on the close relationship that employees feel with the company. To perform this analysis, a case study was carried out using a qualitative approach. Interviews with seven managers from three different companies, two of whom are responsible for the Digital Communication of their organizations, were performed. With the analysis of the data obtained, it is concluded that the Employer Branding perceived by the employees is of a positive image of the company, but they do not feel emotionally more connected with the organization through the Digital Communication practiced by it. With this study, it is expected that organizations recognize the importance that an online presence has in the image of their brand as a whole, and that it is important to invest in Digital Communication, but it has to be performed with an action plan to achieve the objectives intended. From an interdisciplinary perspective, the manuscript presents insights for marketing (digital marketing and employer branding) and for socially responsible behavior by organizations (in a Portuguese context). Full article
18 pages, 332 KiB  
Article
Data Boxes as a Part of the Strategic Concept of Computerization of Public Administration in the Czech Republic
by Jiří Dušek
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060154 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
The paper focuses on the analysis of the computerization of public administration in the Czech Republic in the context of the implementation and operation of data mailboxes, which have been an integral and very important part of e-Government in that country since 2009. [...] Read more.
The paper focuses on the analysis of the computerization of public administration in the Czech Republic in the context of the implementation and operation of data mailboxes, which have been an integral and very important part of e-Government in that country since 2009. A data mailbox has been defined in the Czech legal system since 2009 as an electronic repository of a special type established under the relevant Act No. 300/2008 Coll., which is intended for delivering electronic documents between public authorities on the one hand and natural persons and legal entities on the other. The data mailbox is mandatory for public authorities, legal entities registered in the Commercial Register, and natural persons engaged in business and may also be established by individuals not engaged in business. Public authorities are obliged to send documents preferably to the data mailbox of an addressee, if the latter has set up one, and, considering the legal assumption of delivery, entities which have set up a data mailbox are de facto obliged to collect documents from it. The aim of the study is a detailed description and critical analysis of the data mailbox system in the Czech Republic. The study also focuses on understanding the specific aspects of the implementation of data mailboxes in the Czech Republic. The main methods used are description, thematic and comparative analysis, so this is a descriptive case study. The results of the analysis confirm a number of problems related to the operation of data mailboxes, whether they be technical problems, security risks, usability problems, legal and regulatory problems or other organizational and procedural problems. The forced “computerization” of communication of a number of legal entities in 2023 is also mentioned. Full article
15 pages, 1305 KiB  
Article
Work–Life Balance and Work from Home Experience: Perceived Organizational Support and Resilience of European Workers during COVID-19
by Pedro Ferreira and Sofia Gomes
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060153 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3421
Abstract
During the COVID-19 pandemic, most workers had to work from home due to the successive lockdowns across European countries. This constraint posed significant challenges to many workers and companies regarding working conditions and work–life balance. Framed by the job demands–resources model (JD–R), the [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, most workers had to work from home due to the successive lockdowns across European countries. This constraint posed significant challenges to many workers and companies regarding working conditions and work–life balance. Framed by the job demands–resources model (JD–R), the goal of this paper is to examine the association of perceived organizational support (POS) and individual resilience (IR) with work–life balance (WLB) during the COVID-19 pandemic across European countries. This goal is complemented by assessing the role of work-from-home (WFH) as a mediator. Based on a quantitative approach, data were extracted from the second round of the survey “Living, Working, and COVID-19” from Eurofound. A series of regressions using SEM-PLS tested the hypothesis. Findings reveal that WFH negatively influences WLB. POS positively influences WFH and negatively influences WLB when mediated by WFH. IR negatively influences WFH and positively influences WLB when mediated by WFH. These results have essential theoretical implications related to the relations between individual and organizational resources and WLB and practical implications for the management of WFH, namely, the importance of providing adequate organizational resources and promoting the development of individual resources. Full article
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12 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Loyalty Programmes and Their Specifics in the Chinese Hospitality Industry—Qualitative Study
by Katarína Gubíniová, Thorsten Robert Moller, Silvia Treľová and Malgorzata Agnieszka Jarossová
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060152 - 09 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1612
Abstract
Instead of aiming to achieve as many members as possible, it is important to focus on retaining customers, which is achieved with the support of loyalty programmes. As the tourism and hospital industries have become the fastest growing sectors in the world, hotels [...] Read more.
Instead of aiming to achieve as many members as possible, it is important to focus on retaining customers, which is achieved with the support of loyalty programmes. As the tourism and hospital industries have become the fastest growing sectors in the world, hotels have realised the potential to focus on their loyal customers. A qualitative approach was adopted to explore the attractiveness of loyalty programmes to Chinese consumers and the challenges of such programmes in the hospitality industry. The aim of this paper is to identify which aspects of a loyalty programme in the hospitality industry are perceived as attractive to Chinese customers. This qualitative research highlights the perspective of industry leaders such as general managers and executives working in the club lounges of five-star hotels in Suzhou as well as loyalty programme consultants with a focus on China. The qualitative research findings are aimed at supporting hotels in China and loyalty programmes with a focus on Chinese consumers in the hospitality industry in order to receive more knowledge and to explore new strategies on how to retain and satisfy Chinese programme members. Full article
22 pages, 2452 KiB  
Article
Youth Adoption of Innovative Digital Marketing and Cross-Cultural Disparities
by Nada Mallah Boustani and Claude Chammaa
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060151 - 06 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2031
Abstract
This paper aims to explore Youth’s attitudes towards digital marketing utility perception and its effect on behavioral patterns in a cross-cultural perspective. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT 2) model was adopted together with three new variables from the [...] Read more.
This paper aims to explore Youth’s attitudes towards digital marketing utility perception and its effect on behavioral patterns in a cross-cultural perspective. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT 2) model was adopted together with three new variables from the reasoned action theory and the 5S Internet marketing model to propose a theoretical model on Youth’s digital marketing adoption. A survey was conducted in Italy (N = 165) and Lebanon (N = 150), and PLS analysis was implemented for the empirical testing of the proposed research model. In the Italian sample, Hedonic motivation, social influence, facilitating conditions, and efficiency significantly predicted the behavioral intention of digital marketing which, in turn, was significantly related to use behavior. Subsequently, in the Lebanese sample, the subjective norms of hedonic motivation, social influence, experience and habit predicted behavioral intention, which was positively related with use behavior. The results led to the conclusion that national cultures still play an important role in affecting digital marketing adoption among younger generations, especially in less industrialized and technologically developed countries. Therefore, companies should keep this aspect in mind when innovating and developing digital marketing strategies targeting this generation. Full article
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16 pages, 1578 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Work Model: An Approach to Work–Life Flexibility in a Changing Environment
by Martin Krajčík, Dušana Alshatti Schmidt and Matúš Baráth
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060150 - 06 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 16156
Abstract
Employees’ work environment has drastically shifted from offices to homes. Telework is often a desired employee benefit, but employers consider it a temporary setting. The lasting COVID-19 pandemic has changed the concept of telework. Home office has gained importance and will likely become [...] Read more.
Employees’ work environment has drastically shifted from offices to homes. Telework is often a desired employee benefit, but employers consider it a temporary setting. The lasting COVID-19 pandemic has changed the concept of telework. Home office has gained importance and will likely become an essential part of the working environment even after the pandemic. This paper aims to identify the preferences of employees from culturally diverse backgrounds in relation to the setting of their work location and time after the end of the pandemic. A web-based questionnaire survey as a quantitative research method was used. Data were collected from employees in Slovakia and Kuwait. The research findings indicate that employees value time flexibility, although localization flexibility is also growing in importance. The proposed hybrid work model seems to be the most suitable solution in line with the employees’ preferences. It is crucial to understand employees’ needs in terms of working time and place because only workplaces that are designed for employees and show organizational resiliency can survive and maintain competitiveness in the future. Full article
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16 pages, 651 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Impact of Leadership Styles, Ethical Behavior, and Organizational Identification on Workers' Well-Being
by Gianni Onesti
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060149 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4930
Abstract
This paper aims to assess workers’ well-being through a survey of Italian firms by exploring the factors of leadership styles, ethical behavior, and organizational identification. In recent years, also due to the COVID-19 pandemic and technological progress, workers’ well-being has increasingly become a [...] Read more.
This paper aims to assess workers’ well-being through a survey of Italian firms by exploring the factors of leadership styles, ethical behavior, and organizational identification. In recent years, also due to the COVID-19 pandemic and technological progress, workers’ well-being has increasingly become a fundamental driver for company strategy and governance. Workers are increasingly interested in their well-being and work–life balance rather than just their level of remuneration or position at work. The company’s ability to strategically retain capable collaborators is, therefore, fundamental, especially in light of the recent increase in resignations. Based on a sample of workers in Italian firms during the post-COVID-19 period (the year 2022), this paper evaluates whether leadership styles, ethical behavior, and organizational identification are related to workers’ well-being beyond the workplace. The empirical model allows for a clear and effective evaluation of several characteristics, enabling a more comprehensive understanding of the data that support management’s strategic decisions regarding worker well-being policies. Full article
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20 pages, 843 KiB  
Article
Towards the Voluntary Adoption of Integrated Reporting: Drivers, Barriers, and Practices
by Cecília Carmo, Inês Correia, Joaquim Leite and Amélia Carvalho
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060148 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2422
Abstract
Integrated reporting is essentially a voluntary practice worldwide. For this reason, although it is growing, its diffusion is slow. Based on the Portuguese context, where a reduced number of listed companies publish integrated reports, this study aims to explore the drivers and barriers [...] Read more.
Integrated reporting is essentially a voluntary practice worldwide. For this reason, although it is growing, its diffusion is slow. Based on the Portuguese context, where a reduced number of listed companies publish integrated reports, this study aims to explore the drivers and barriers for the voluntary adoption of integrated reporting and the reporting practices up to the production of an integrated report. To this end, an analytical framework based on the Diffusion of Innovation Theory was developed and applied to data collected from a survey and corporate reports from both “adopters” and “non-adopters”. The evidence collected suggests that the adoption of integrated reporting may be driven by the perception of a relative advantage over traditional reporting in terms of providing more relevant information to capital providers, particularly banks. The publication of an integrated report appears to be the result of a process of incremental improvements in the practice of disclosure and assurance of non-financial information, so that the previous experience with sustainability reporting is also an important driver for voluntary integrated reporting. Finally, companies may be differently prepared for transition to integrated reporting and, therefore, have different perceptions of its cost and complexity, which may act as a barrier. Full article
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19 pages, 1446 KiB  
Article
Entrepreneurial Competence Development Program: Implementing Efficiency through Knowledge Sharing
by Sergei Smirnov, Svetlana Dmitrichenkova, Elena Dolzhich and Gulnaz Murzagalina
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060147 - 01 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of introducing methods used in other countries on student success. The results suggested that the introduction of specific practices to improve entrepreneurial competence would be more effective forgoing such special training methods. This [...] Read more.
The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of introducing methods used in other countries on student success. The results suggested that the introduction of specific practices to improve entrepreneurial competence would be more effective forgoing such special training methods. This was validated by the results of a test survey conducted by an expert panel. According to the panel, the quality of knowledge among students in the groups in which new methods were introduced was as follows: 7.5 points on average out of 10 for the first group; 7.9 points on average out of 10 for the second group; 7.8 points on average out of 10 for the third group; and 6.4 points on average out of 10 for the fourth group. These data suggest that new practices improve students’ knowledge and skills. The students themselves also assessed the improvement in their quality of knowledge. More specifically, the students in the second group gave a very high average score of 4.4 out of a possible 5 for the effectiveness of the European methods. The same parameter was rated 3.4 out of 5 points by the fourth group. Full article
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14 pages, 530 KiB  
Article
Comparing the Innovation and Export Performance of Hungarian Family and Non-Family Enterprises: Experiences Drawn from Empirical Surveys
by Judit Csákné Filep, László Radácsi and Áron Szennay
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060146 - 01 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1728
Abstract
Family enterprises are considered to be one of the oldest and still dominant forms of business organisations. However, their innovation activity is an emerging area of research, especially in the Central and Eastern European region. The aim of our study is to address [...] Read more.
Family enterprises are considered to be one of the oldest and still dominant forms of business organisations. However, their innovation activity is an emerging area of research, especially in the Central and Eastern European region. The aim of our study is to address this research gap by investigating, with the help of statistical tools, the relationship between the familiness of the firms, their innovation activity, and their export activity on representative samples of Hungarian SMEs in the years 2017, 2020, and 2022. Our results suggest that the innovation activity of exporting Hungarian SMEs is more significant than that of non-exporting SMEs. However, the relationship between familiness and innovation activity is not uniform in the three analyzed years, and the relationship between familiness and export activity is not significant. The findings of this study, that firms’ innovation and exporting activities can be mutually reinforcing, can be used by policymakers, curriculum developers in business education, and entrepreneurs. One of the main limitations of our research is that the 2020 and 2022 surveys were conducted after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and the shock of the Russian–Ukrainian war, respectively; thus, the decisions of the firms could have been influenced by the unpredictability of the external environment. Full article
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17 pages, 1789 KiB  
Article
Uncertainty in the Planning Phase of Public Projects—Its Scope, Consequences, and Possible Remedies
by Dorota Kuchta, Paolo Canonico, Vincenza Capone and Guido Capaldo
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060145 - 01 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1867
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess the uncertainty scope and types present in public projects, with uncertainty defined as a lack of knowledge, and to formulate recommendations for improving the success rate of public projects. Apart from a literature review, a [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to assess the uncertainty scope and types present in public projects, with uncertainty defined as a lack of knowledge, and to formulate recommendations for improving the success rate of public projects. Apart from a literature review, a questionnaire was administered among 60 Italian and 40 Polish public-project managers. Questions about the level of knowledge of various project aspects (e.g., project stakeholders or project environment) in the project-planning phase were asked. It was found that, in their own opinion, knowledge of essential aspects of public projects in the planning stage was fairly low among public-project managers. On top of that, the results showed in which areas, and in which of the two countries, the uncertainty was mostly present. This type of research has not been identified in the literature. In both countries, an especially high uncertainty level characterized project stakeholders. The survey’s conclusions are juxtaposed with results from the literature: the negative influence of lack of knowledge (i.e., uncertainty) on project success, specific features of public projects and public-project managers, and the fact that certain negative phenomena influencing project success are significantly more present in the public than in the private sector. Our results indicate which aspects of public projects in both countries should be subject to deep changes—as far as information collecting and processing, in the project-defining and planning phase, is concerned. All this leads to recommendations of measures to be introduced in the public sector with respect to public-project management, e.g., the establishment of project management offices, project knowledge sharing, project management training—all focused on the identified uncertainty types in public projects, such as management of project stakeholders. The main limitations of the study were the relatively small sample sizes, a non-random sample selection, a bias due to misinterpretation of the questions, and cultural differences. Full article
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16 pages, 775 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Blockchain-Based Crowdfunding Campaign Success Factors Based on VASMA-L Criteria Weighting Method
by Santautė Venslavienė, Jelena Stankevičienė and Ingrida Leščauskienė
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060144 - 30 May 2023
Viewed by 2447
Abstract
When investing in blockchain-based crowdfunding campaigns, choosing the right one is difficult. Therefore, it is important to recognize success factors that express the value of the specific campaign. This study is aimed at determining the success factors impacting the investors’ decision to fund [...] Read more.
When investing in blockchain-based crowdfunding campaigns, choosing the right one is difficult. Therefore, it is important to recognize success factors that express the value of the specific campaign. This study is aimed at determining the success factors impacting the investors’ decision to fund blockchain-based crowdfunding campaigns and ranking them according to their importance in decision-making. An online survey was employed to collect expert opinions. The modification of the visual analogue scale matrix for criteria weighting methodology called VASMA-L was presented in this study to rank the list of the predetermined factors. To reduce the uncertainties in the decision-making process and the cognitive overload of the survey respondents, all the predetermined success factors were split into two smaller groups and assessed as those that fit both traditional and blockchain-based crowdfunding models and those that are specific only to the blockchain-based crowdfunding model. The main findings disclose that the three factors with the highest VASMA weights are from the first group. This means that when selecting the specific crowdfunding campaign to invest in, investors use common factors rather than those specific to blockchain-based crowdfunding. Only investor preferences were chosen and analyzed for successful blockchain-based crowdfunding campaign investment in this research. The VASMA-L methodology might help compare several criteria groups and select the most important ones. In addition, this weighting methodology might help investors to choose the most thrilling blockchain-based crowdfunding campaigns to fund. Full article
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22 pages, 755 KiB  
Article
Including the Excluded: Sense-Making and Job Crafting as Drivers of Dialogical Change Management in Italian Universities for Refugees’ Inclusion
by Federico Ceschel, Plinio Limata and Lucia Marchegiani
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060143 - 29 May 2023
Viewed by 1487
Abstract
Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are increasingly called to substantiate their impact on society in terms of inclusivity and social sustainability, as prioritized in the pursuit of the “Third Mission” (TM). Today, HEIs are confronted with the demand to ensure refugees’ inclusivity. However, how [...] Read more.
Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are increasingly called to substantiate their impact on society in terms of inclusivity and social sustainability, as prioritized in the pursuit of the “Third Mission” (TM). Today, HEIs are confronted with the demand to ensure refugees’ inclusivity. However, how administrative and teaching staff enact such change within the organization to match the TM goals is under-investigated. This study explores the adoption of the European Qualification Passport for Refugees (EQPR) as an instrument for universities to pursue the TM in Italy. By adopting a theoretical sense-making approach, we find that the individual role of the staff in fostering organizational change depends on the adopted “emergent” approach to change and on internal factors, such as individual perceptions and experiences. This study contributes to the literature by showing contradictory aspects of the HEIs’ pursuit of the TM. It sheds light on the interplay between different dimensions and grounded processes of sense-making. Full article
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20 pages, 2209 KiB  
Article
Importance of CEO Attention in Influencing Incumbent Responses to Disruptive Innovation
by Heesun Gha, Min Young Kim, Hyeon Jin Ro and Seungho Choi
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060142 - 29 May 2023
Viewed by 2333
Abstract
This study investigates incumbent firm responses to disruptive innovation in the rapidly evolving South Korean retail industry. The study explores the factors behind an incumbent firm’s decision-making processes when responding to disruptive innovation and examines the reasons behind varied incumbent responses. It investigates [...] Read more.
This study investigates incumbent firm responses to disruptive innovation in the rapidly evolving South Korean retail industry. The study explores the factors behind an incumbent firm’s decision-making processes when responding to disruptive innovation and examines the reasons behind varied incumbent responses. It investigates the agents that influence a firm’s decision by conducting the qualitative case study of a South Korean retail giant, Lotte. By collecting archival data from various sources, this paper was able to analyze different interviews and statements of the chief executive officer (CEO). From the analysis, it was determined that the firm’s overall actions were aligned with the CEO’s assertions. Thus, this paper asserts that Lotte’s response to disruptive innovation was directly influenced by the CEO’s attention. The results of this study further add to the discourse of disruptive innovation by highlighting the importance of CEO discretion in deciding a firm’s direction and by further emphasizing the relationship between managerial leadership and innovation. Full article
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17 pages, 657 KiB  
Article
Japan’s Corporate Governance Transformation: Convergence or Reconfiguration?
by Theo Renou, René Carraz and Thierry Burger-Helmchen
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060141 - 29 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 7959
Abstract
Japanese firms have historically followed a country-specific model of corporate governance. Yet, Japan has had to adapt its corporate model over the last 30 years, along with the transformation of distinctive characteristics of Japanese capitalism in the same period. We review the historical [...] Read more.
Japanese firms have historically followed a country-specific model of corporate governance. Yet, Japan has had to adapt its corporate model over the last 30 years, along with the transformation of distinctive characteristics of Japanese capitalism in the same period. We review the historical evolution of Japanese corporate governance over the last three decades with a specific emphasis on the changes in the capital structure of major companies and the efforts to correct ineffective board of directors monitoring. By doing this, we investigate to what extent specific Japanese corporate governance features may explain the nation’s economic situation over this period. Thereby, we try to clarify the influences that have presided over recent corporate governance reforms in Japan despite the existence of managerial failures and corporate scandals. This paper places itself into the debate over the diversity of capitalism as it portrays the specificities, differences, and converging trends of Japanese corporate governance practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Strategic Management)
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13 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Entrepreneurs as the Neoteric Driver of Skill Variety and Economic Prosperity
by Alex Maritz, Quan Nguyen and Abu Ismail
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060140 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 2056
Abstract
Nearly a quarter of all global start-ups are founded by hybrid entrepreneurs, that is, individuals that engage in self-employment activity while simultaneously holding a primary job in wage or remuneration work. This study is the first of its kind to examine hybrid entrepreneurship [...] Read more.
Nearly a quarter of all global start-ups are founded by hybrid entrepreneurs, that is, individuals that engage in self-employment activity while simultaneously holding a primary job in wage or remuneration work. This study is the first of its kind to examine hybrid entrepreneurship in Australia using five pragmatic and embedded hybrid entrepreneur mini case studies. Aligning with human capital and skill variety theory, we adopted an interpretivist philosophical paradigm of emergent enquiry action and exploratory research. The paper explores characteristics and antecedents in the forms of the benefits and challenges associated with this increasingly prevalent form of entrepreneurship, including contextual and theoretical foundations. We provide policy and pragmatic research recommendations to enhance the development of this form of employment not only as a steppingstone to full-time self-employment but also as a driver of economic and social benefit to global societies. Furthermore, we provide inferences for future scientific studies within this domain. Full article
19 pages, 2594 KiB  
Review
Twenty-Years Journey of Sustainable Human Resource Management Research: A Bibliometric Analysis
by Shaha Faisal
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060139 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4613
Abstract
Sustainability is gaining acceptance worldwide, and HRM is also influenced by it. Researchers globally are also exploring sustainable human resource management which creates a direct link between HRM and sustainability. Bibliometric analysis examined 247 documents on sustainable human resource management from 2003 to [...] Read more.
Sustainability is gaining acceptance worldwide, and HRM is also influenced by it. Researchers globally are also exploring sustainable human resource management which creates a direct link between HRM and sustainability. Bibliometric analysis examined 247 documents on sustainable human resource management from 2003 to 2022. This study aimed to analyze the research trend, global distribution, contributory journals, leading authors, and contributing nations in sustainable HRM. In this bibliometric analysis, 247 documents have been analyzed. The review revealed that sustainable HRM is still an emerging concept worldwide; more researchers from European and Asian countries dominate this field. The present review will be helpful for academicians, practitioners, and researchers in this field. The study also presents interesting results that could help line managers and top managers to formulate ideas for sustainable HRM practices in their own companies. Full article
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19 pages, 2100 KiB  
Article
The Police and Citizens as Co-Producers of Crime Prevention in Johannesburg
by Mary S. Mangai, Anjewayne Clive Pillay, Tyanai Masiya and Stellah Lubinga
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060138 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2514
Abstract
The city of Johannesburg is the largest metropolitan municipality out of eight in South Africa. It is notorious for its high levels of crime, with a crime index of 80.72 and a safety index of 19.28. This article examines crime prevention co-production in [...] Read more.
The city of Johannesburg is the largest metropolitan municipality out of eight in South Africa. It is notorious for its high levels of crime, with a crime index of 80.72 and a safety index of 19.28. This article examines crime prevention co-production in the Johannesburg metropolitan area. The purpose of the study was to analyse how co-production of crime prevention is organised in Johannesburg and to understand the effectiveness of the practice there. Collaborations between the regular producers (police) and citizens were assessed to fully determine the potential of crime prevention co-production. This led to qualitative interviews with 20 police officers from 10 police stations in the Johannesburg metropolitan area. A citizen survey was conducted with a selected sample from the population (n = 400) residing in the neighbourhoods covered by the police stations investigated. The findings indicate that police officers have devised practices and programmes to co-produce crime prevention. These include the sharing of pamphlets and crime prevention education and awareness during school visitations, the use of Zello technology, community police forums, and information sharing at the youth desk and in WhatsApp groups. Nevertheless, these practices do not seem to be popular among the citizens. There is a contradiction in the perception of successful crime prevention co-production between citizens and the police. This is mainly due to citizens’ lack of trust in the police. The study acknowledged the importance of the work carried out by the police in crime prevention co-production but also observed the citizens’ lack of trust in the police as a potential threat to crime prevention co-production. Trust is crucial in managing information sharing on crime prevention. Front line professionals, such as the police, will not be able to meet future crime challenges if there is a trust deficit. Hence, it is important to restore trust in the work carried out by the police. Professionals in public administration could learn about the importance of trust in their crucial role of implementing policies, government programmes, and service delivery. Full article
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18 pages, 492 KiB  
Article
Leadership, Communication, and Job Satisfaction for Employee Engagement and Sustainability of Family Businesses in Latin America
by Julianna Ramirez-Lozano, Renato Peñaflor-Guerra and Victoria Sanagustín-Fons
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13060137 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5015
Abstract
This research focuses on the determinants of employee engagement in family businesses in Peru. The study is based on previous research that showed the importance of organisational culture, leadership, and human resource management practices to achieve effective business performance. The methodological strategy was [...] Read more.
This research focuses on the determinants of employee engagement in family businesses in Peru. The study is based on previous research that showed the importance of organisational culture, leadership, and human resource management practices to achieve effective business performance. The methodological strategy was to conduct a qualitative, quantitative, and documentary analysis research. The study found that participatory and authentic leadership styles, effective communication, and job satisfaction were key factors to retain talent in two family businesses and small to medium-sized enterprises in Peru. These factors can enhance employee engagement, which is critical for the success of family businesses. The results suggest that Peruvian family businesses can improve their sustainability and contribute positively to the economic growth of the country by utilising different measures. They can prioritise leadership, communication, and job satisfaction; offer opportunities for employee development and growth; provide competitive compensation packages; and create a positive work environment. The findings have implications for family businesses in emerging markets as well as for businesses operating in consolidated markets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Leadership)
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