Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Behav. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 3 (March 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Recently, doubts were raised about the existence of the bilingual advantage in cognitive control. [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-12
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview
Not All Bilinguals Are the Same: A Call for More Detailed Assessments and Descriptions of Bilingual Experiences
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9030033
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
Viewed by 1106 | PDF Full-text (239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
No two bilinguals are the same. Differences in bilingual experiences can affect language-related processes but have also been proposed to modulate executive functioning. Recently, there has been an increased interest in studying individual differences between bilinguals, for example in terms of their age [...] Read more.
No two bilinguals are the same. Differences in bilingual experiences can affect language-related processes but have also been proposed to modulate executive functioning. Recently, there has been an increased interest in studying individual differences between bilinguals, for example in terms of their age of acquisition, language proficiency, use, and switching. However, and despite the importance of this individual variation, studies often do not provide detailed assessments of their bilingual participants. This review first discusses several aspects of bilingualism that have been studied in relation to executive functioning. Next, I review different questionnaires and objective measurements that have been proposed to better define bilingual experiences. In order to better understand (effects of) bilingualism within and across studies, it is crucial to carefully examine and describe not only a bilingual’s proficiency and age of acquisition, but also their language use and switching as well as the different interactional contexts in which they use their languages. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Active Transport, Not Device Use, Associates with Self-Reported School Week Physical Activity in Adolescents
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9030032
Received: 23 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
Viewed by 1061 | PDF Full-text (554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among active transport, electronic device-use, and self-reported school week moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a sample of adolescents. The sample consisted of 1445 adolescents enrolled in the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among active transport, electronic device-use, and self-reported school week moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a sample of adolescents. The sample consisted of 1445 adolescents enrolled in the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating study. A panel research organization invited panel members balanced to the US population on sex, census division, household income and size, and race/ethnicity. Web-based surveys were administered to each selected adolescent. Adolescents answered questions pertaining to out-of-school electronic device-use and active transport to and from school. Predicted weekly minutes of MVPA were calculated from the Youth Activity Profile. The outcome variable was predicted school week MVPA (in minutes). The predictive utility of device-use and active transport variables on self-reported school week MVPA were examined using weighted multiple linear regression models. After adjusting for age, sex, and BMI, active transport to school (b = 12.32, 95% CI [9.72–14.93], p < 0.001) and from school (b = 7.18, 95% CI [4.79–5.57], p < 0.001) were significantly associated with self-reported school week MVPA. No device-use variables were significantly associated with school week MVPA. Active transport to and from school may have an impact on school week MVPA in adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Motivational Orientations and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: The Moderator Role of Perceived Discrimination in the Brexit Context
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9030031
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
Viewed by 1058 | PDF Full-text (373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current study aims to explain how motivational orientations influence organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) through organizational identification considering the moderator effect of perceived discrimination. A sample of 286 Spanish immigrants in the United Kingdom was included. Main conclusions support that learning orientation shows [...] Read more.
The current study aims to explain how motivational orientations influence organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) through organizational identification considering the moderator effect of perceived discrimination. A sample of 286 Spanish immigrants in the United Kingdom was included. Main conclusions support that learning orientation shows a significant direct relation with OCB. Both performance and performance-avoid goal orientation have a statistically significant impact on OCB, and this impact is mediated by organizational identification and moderated by perceived discrimination. The practical implications of the study and its possible limitations are discussed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Relationship of Religiosity and Marital Satisfaction: The Role of Religious Commitment and Practices on Marital Satisfaction Among Pakistani Respondents
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9030030
Received: 16 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
Viewed by 1093 | PDF Full-text (368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sociology of religion focuses on an individual’s social and married life. This research performed the first focalized examination of the influence of spirituality and religiosity on the marital satisfaction of Pakistani Muslim couples and how religious commitment and religious practice strengthens the [...] Read more.
The sociology of religion focuses on an individual’s social and married life. This research performed the first focalized examination of the influence of spirituality and religiosity on the marital satisfaction of Pakistani Muslim couples and how religious commitment and religious practice strengthens the relationship of married couples. This study incorporates the Kansas Marital Satisfaction scale (KMSS), the Religious Commitment Inventory (RCI-10) and the Religious Practice scale to measure marital satisfaction. Survey questionnaires, including a survey invitation letter and an informed consent form, were sent to married couples residing in five urban areas of Pakistan. The sample consisted of 508 valid responses, 254 males and 254 females, exploring the respondent’s perception of their marital satisfaction. The data received were screened and tested through SPSS version 25. The first step of the data analysis was to examine the impact of religiosity variables (religious commitment, religious practice) on marital satisfaction. Findings indicated that religious commitment and religious practice are vital for a happy married life. The findings help explain the social dynamics of marital satisfaction in Pakistani culture. The results also indicated that religious commitment and religious practice strengthened and promoted marital satisfaction. This study is novel in the context of Pakistani culture and conclusions cannot be generalized to the whole population. Other religious factors may provide further research directions. The results of this study may help practitioners and decision-makers focusing on marital satisfaction issues. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Leadership and Motivational Climate: The Relationship with Objectives, Commitment, and Satisfaction in Base Soccer Players
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9030029
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
Viewed by 1083 | PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the present study is to analyze non-professional soccer players’ preferences regarding coach leadership style and motivational climate and to determine the relationship of these variables with players’ satisfaction, sport commitment, and sport objectives. The participants were 151 players, aged between [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study is to analyze non-professional soccer players’ preferences regarding coach leadership style and motivational climate and to determine the relationship of these variables with players’ satisfaction, sport commitment, and sport objectives. The participants were 151 players, aged between 10 and 24 years, divided into five categories: Alevín, Infantil, Cadet, Feminine, and Juvenile, all belonging to the Aragonese Soccer Federation. The participants completed questionnaires assessing their perception of their coach’s leadership style, the team’s motivational climate, their individual satisfaction, degree of sport commitment, and sport objectives. The results show that the leadership styles of training and instruction (M = 3.98, SD = 0.43) and positive feedback (M = 4.02, SD = 0.53) are the most valued by the players in all categories. The training and instruction leadership style had the highest correlations with task-oriented motivational climate (r = 0.40). The findings of the regression analysis show that a training and instruction leadership style and a task-oriented motivational climate significantly predict players’ satisfaction (13.3%) and sport commitment (14.5%). Full article
Open AccessArticle
Reaction Time Improvements by Neural Bistability
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9030028
Received: 9 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
Viewed by 1930 | PDF Full-text (2741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The often reported reduction of Reaction Time (RT) by Vision Training) is successfully replicated by 81 athletes across sports. This enabled us to achieve a mean reduction of RTs for athletes eye-hand coordination of more than 10%, with high statistical significance. We explain [...] Read more.
The often reported reduction of Reaction Time (RT) by Vision Training) is successfully replicated by 81 athletes across sports. This enabled us to achieve a mean reduction of RTs for athletes eye-hand coordination of more than 10%, with high statistical significance. We explain how such an observed effect of Sensorimotor systems’ plasticity causing reduced RT can last in practice for multiple days and even weeks in subjects, via a proof of principle. Its mathematical neural model can be forced outside a previous stable (but long) RT into a state leading to reduced eye-hand coordination RT, which is, again, in a stable neural state. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Does the Bilingual Advantage in Cognitive Control Exist and If So, What Are Its Modulating Factors? A Systematic Review
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9030027
Received: 2 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 10 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
Viewed by 1613 | PDF Full-text (915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, doubts were raised about the existence of the bilingual advantage in cognitive control. The aim of the present review was to investigate the bilingual advantage and its modulating factors. We searched the Medline, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and ERIC databases for all original data [...] Read more.
Recently, doubts were raised about the existence of the bilingual advantage in cognitive control. The aim of the present review was to investigate the bilingual advantage and its modulating factors. We searched the Medline, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and ERIC databases for all original data and reviewed studies on bilingualism and cognitive control, with a cut-off date of 31 October 2018, thereby following the guidelines of the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) protocol. The results of the 46 original studies show that indeed, the majority, 54.3%, reported beneficial effects of bilingualism on cognitive control tasks; however, 28.3% found mixed results and 17.4% found evidence against its existence. Methodological differences seem to explain these mixed results: Particularly, the varying selection of the bilingual participants, the use of nonstandardized tests, and the fact that individual differences were often neglected and that longitudinal designs were rare. Therefore, a serious risk for bias exists in both directions (i.e., in favor of and against the bilingual advantage). To conclude, we found some evidence for a bilingual advantage in cognitive control; however, if significant progress is to be made, better study designs, bigger data, and more longitudinal studies are needed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Family Socioeconomic Position at Birth and School Bonding at Age 15: Blacks’ Diminished Returns
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9030026
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 11 March 2019
Viewed by 1165 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Life course epidemiological studies have documented the effects of family socioeconomic position (SEP) at birth on youth developmental processes and outcomes decades later. According to the minorities’ diminished returns (MDR) theory, however, family SEP at birth generates smaller returns for Black compared to [...] Read more.
Life course epidemiological studies have documented the effects of family socioeconomic position (SEP) at birth on youth developmental processes and outcomes decades later. According to the minorities’ diminished returns (MDR) theory, however, family SEP at birth generates smaller returns for Black compared to White families. Using 15 years of follow up data of a national sample of American families, this study investigated racial differences in the effect of family income at birth on subsequent school bonding of the adolescent at age 15. The fragile families and child well-being study (FFCWS) is a 15-year prospective longitudinal study of 495 White and 1436 Black families from the birth of their child. Family SEP (income to needs ratio) at birth was the independent variable. Youth school bonding at age 15 was the main outcome. Linear regressions were applied for data analysis, with race as the focal moderator. In the pooled sample, in addition to each race, higher family SEP at birth was associated with higher school bonding of the youth at age 15. Race altered the effects of family SEP at birth on youth school bonding at age 15, indicating smaller protective effects for Black compared to White youth. Race stratified regressions also showed the effect of family SEP at birth on age 15 school bonding for White youth, but not Black youth. Tangible outcomes that follow economic resources at birth are disproportionately smaller for Black families compared to those for White families. Merely equalizing SEP is not enough for the elimination of racial inequalities in youth outcomes. Policies should reduce societal and structural barriers that commonly cause diminished returns of SEP for Black families. Policy evaluations should aim for most effective policies that have the potential to equalize Blacks’ and Whites’ chances for gaining tangible developmental and health outcomes from identical SEP resources. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Cognates on Cognitive Control in Late Sequential Multilinguals: A Bilingual Advantage?
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9030025
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
Viewed by 1162 | PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigated the influence of Dutch-German cognates resp. orthographic neighbors on controlled language processing (i.e., response inhibition). Two monolingual Stroop tasks (Dutch and German) were performed by Dutch-speaking participants who could and could not speak German, and by French-speaking participants who [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the influence of Dutch-German cognates resp. orthographic neighbors on controlled language processing (i.e., response inhibition). Two monolingual Stroop tasks (Dutch and German) were performed by Dutch-speaking participants who could and could not speak German, and by French-speaking participants who could speak German. The question is whether or not cognate language processing affects cognitive control, resulting in a possible bilingual advantage. In the German Stroop task, we found additional advantages in congruent, as well as incongruent, trials for the two Dutch-speaking groups, which postulates the existence of a cognate resp. orthographic neighbor facilitation effect, even when participants only know one of the two cognate languages. The findings are discussed in relation to two possible factors that can modulate the effect of bilingualism on cognitive control: cognateness and orthographic neighborhood. The results suggest the existence of a notification mechanism in the bilingual brain. This mechanism would notify the bilingual brain when dealing with cognates and orthographic neighbors. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Memantine in a Mouse Model of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9030024
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
Viewed by 1284 | PDF Full-text (2749 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Persistent impairment in cognitive functioning postoperatively is reported by clinical and animal studies, and is labeled as postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Evidence points to an exaggerated neuroinflammatory response resulting from peripheral systemic inflammation after surgery, with subsequent cytokine-induced glutamatergic excitotoxicity and synaptic impairment. [...] Read more.
Persistent impairment in cognitive functioning postoperatively is reported by clinical and animal studies, and is labeled as postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Evidence points to an exaggerated neuroinflammatory response resulting from peripheral systemic inflammation after surgery, with subsequent cytokine-induced glutamatergic excitotoxicity and synaptic impairment. These immunological changes, among many others, are also observed in Alzheimer’s disease. Memantine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist commonly used to treat Alzheimer’s disease. Surprisingly, little research exists on the role of memantine in preventing POCD. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of memantine on a spectrum of cognitive functions postoperatively. Mice were divided into 3 groups and each received treatment for 4 weeks. Placebo groups received a placebo then underwent either a sham procedure or a laparotomy procedure. The memantine group received memantine hydrochloride then underwent a laparotomy procedure. Cognitive tests were performed on postoperative days (POD) 1 and 7. Compared to sham-operated mice, placebo groups that underwent a laparotomy procedure showed impaired memory in the Morris water maze test, higher anxiety-like behavior in the open field and the elevated plus maze tests, increased depression-like behavior in the tail suspension test, and lack of preference for social novelty in the three-chamber test. On the other hand, memantine-treated mice that underwent a laparotomy procedure showed enhanced memory on POD7, improved depression-like behavior on POD1 and POD7, enhanced preference for social novelty on POD1, and no improvement in anxiety-like behavior. These findings suggest a potential protective effect of memantine in mice postoperatively on memory, depression-like behavior, and preference for social novelty. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Association Between Quantitative Electroencephalogram Frequency Composition and Post-Surgical Evolution in Pharmacoresistant Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9030023
Received: 9 January 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
Viewed by 1111 | PDF Full-text (1264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the association between quantitative electroencephalogram frequency composition (QEEGC) and post-surgical evolution in patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to evaluate the predictive value of QEEGC before and after surgery. A prospective, longitudinal study [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the association between quantitative electroencephalogram frequency composition (QEEGC) and post-surgical evolution in patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to evaluate the predictive value of QEEGC before and after surgery. A prospective, longitudinal study was made at International Neurological Restoration Center, Havana, Cuba. Twenty-nine patients with TLE submitted to epilepsy surgery were evaluated before surgery, and six months and two years after. They were classified as unsatisfactory and satisfactory post-surgical clinical evolution using the Modified Engels Scale. Eighty-seven electroencephalograms with quantitative narrow- and broad-band measures were analyzed. A Mann Whitney test (p > 0.05) showed that QEEGC before surgery was similar between groups independently of two years post-surgical evolution. A Mann Whitney test (p ˂ 0.05) showed that subjects with two years satisfactory post-surgical evolution had greater alpha power compared to subjects with two years unsatisfactory post-surgical evolution that showed greater theta power. A Wilcoxon test (p ˂ 0.05) showed that alpha and theta power increased for two groups from pre-surgical state to post-surgical state. Logit regression (p ˂ 0.05) showed that six months after surgery, quantitative electroencephalogram frequency value with the greatest power at occipital regions shows predictive value for two years evolution. QEEGC can be a tool to predict the outcome of epilepsy surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
“Like Death is Near”: Expressions of Suicidal and Homicidal Ideation in the Blog Posts of Family Caregivers of People with Dementia
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9030022
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 3 March 2019
Viewed by 1421 | PDF Full-text (264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The challenges of providing care for someone with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) have been associated with increased stress, poor mental and physical health, social isolation, and financial distress. More recently, caregiving has been associated with high rates of suicidal and [...] Read more.
Background: The challenges of providing care for someone with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) have been associated with increased stress, poor mental and physical health, social isolation, and financial distress. More recently, caregiving has been associated with high rates of suicidal and homicidal ideation, but the research on these phenomena is limited. The present study analyzed a sample of blogs written by family caregivers of people with ADRD to explore thoughts of suicide and homicide expressed by these caregivers. Methods: Blogs written by self-identified informal caregivers of people with ADRD were identified using a systematic search method and data were analyzed using a qualitative thematic analysis. Results: Five themes related to thoughts of suicide and homicide by caregivers and people with ADRD were derived from the analysis: (1) end-of-life care; (2) thoughts of death and euthanasia by the person with ADRD; (3) surrogate decision making; (4) thoughts of suicide by the caregiver; and (5) thoughts of homicide and euthanasia by the caregiver. Conclusions: The results capture the reality of suicidal and homicidal thoughts among family caregivers of people with ADRD, supporting calls for more research on these complex topics and highlighting the need for changes to clinical practice to prevent thoughts from becoming behaviors or actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide, Homicide, and Self-Harm in Family Carers)
Behav. Sci. EISSN 2076-328X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top