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Behav. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 2 (February 2019) – 10 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Hussain et al. (2019) made use of innovative eye-tracking methodology to explore the relationship [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Ironic or Overcompensation Effects of Motor Behaviour: An Examination of a Tennis Serving Task Under Pressure
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9020021 - 20 Feb 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2620
Abstract
With specific regard to the hypothesized effects of anxiety on performance in motor behaviour, the rival predictions emanating from the Wegner’s “ironic processes theory” and the “implicit overcompensation hypothesis” are largely indiscriminate. Specifically, Wegner’s theory predicts that self-instructions not to perform in a [...] Read more.
With specific regard to the hypothesized effects of anxiety on performance in motor behaviour, the rival predictions emanating from the Wegner’s “ironic processes theory” and the “implicit overcompensation hypothesis” are largely indiscriminate. Specifically, Wegner’s theory predicts that self-instructions not to perform in a certain manner would lead to the very behaviour the individual seeks to avoid under pressure. On the other hand, the implicit overcompensation hypothesis predicts that avoidant instructions would produce the opposite outcome to that intended by the performer under pressure. The present novel study directly compared these predictions using a tennis serving task under manipulated instructions. The sample comprised 32 (20 men, 12 women; Mage = 20.81, SD = 2.20) experienced tennis players who performed a tennis serving task. Participants’ levels of cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence were measured by using Mental Readiness Form-3. A 2 (anxiety: low, high) × 3 (serving zone: target zone, non-target ironic error zone, non-target non-ironic error zone) repeated measures of ANOVA revealed a significant anxiety × serving zone interaction F(2, 62) = 32.27, p < 0.001 which provides specific support for the Wegner’s ironic processes of mental control theory rather than implicit overcompensation hypothesis. More specifically, Bonferroni-corrected follow-up paired samples t-tests revealed that when instructed not to serve in a specific direction, anxious performers did so a significantly greater number of times (t31 = −5.15, p < 0.001). The present research demonstrates that ironic performance errors are a meaningful and robust potential concern for performers who are required to perform under pressure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Cognitive Profile of People with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9020020 - 20 Feb 2019
Viewed by 2852
Abstract
Several studies have examined the cognitive profile of people with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (IQ > 70), and its relationship with the symptoms of ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). However, no data [...] Read more.
Several studies have examined the cognitive profile of people with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (IQ > 70), and its relationship with the symptoms of ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). However, no data exist on the similarities or differences in this profile in less affluent countries. The present study examined the cognitive profile and its relationship with the symptoms of ASD and ADHD in 30 subjects aged 6–16 years with high-functioning ASD and compared the results with those of 30 typically developing (TD) subjects. In line with previous research findings, the WISC-IV cognitive profile analysis of subjects with high-functioning ASD showed a good competence in Matrix Reasoning and weaknesses in Comprehension, but the main distinguishing point was the competence in processing speed in both groups. In the present study, the Verbal Comprehension Index correlated negatively with the communication symptoms, and the Working Memory Index correlated positively with the social symptoms in the ASD group. Given the similarities that exist between the results of the present research and previous studies, it may be concluded that there are similarities in the cognitive profile of individuals with ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autism and Developmental Disabilities)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Eye Tracking to Explore Facebook Use and Associations with Facebook Addiction, Mental Well-being, and Personality
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9020019 - 18 Feb 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3782
Abstract
Social networking sites (SNSs) have become ubiquitous in our everyday lives, and for all its communicative benefits, excessive SNS use has been associated with a range of negative health implications. In the present study, the authors use eye-tracking methodology to explore the relationship [...] Read more.
Social networking sites (SNSs) have become ubiquitous in our everyday lives, and for all its communicative benefits, excessive SNS use has been associated with a range of negative health implications. In the present study, the authors use eye-tracking methodology to explore the relationship between individual differences in personality, mental well-being, SNS usage, and the focus of Facebook users’ visual attention. Participants (n = 69, mean age = 23.09, SD = 7.54) completed questionnaire measures for personality and to examine changes in depression, anxiety, stress, and self-esteem. They then engaged in a Facebook session while their eye movements and fixations were recorded. These fixations were coded as being directed to social and update areas of interest (AOI) of the Facebook interface. An exploratory analysis of personality factors revealed a negative correlation between openness to experience and inspection times for the updates AOI and an unexpected negative relationship between extraversion and inspection times for social AOI. There were correlations between changes in depression score and inspection of updates AOI, with reduced depression scores associated with increased inspection of updates. Finally, self-reported duration of participants’ typical Facebook sessions did not correlate with eye-tracking measures but were associated with increased Facebook addiction scores and greater increases in depression scores. These initial findings indicate that there are differences in the outcomes of interacting with Facebook which can vary based on Facebook addiction, personality variables, and the Facebook features that individuals interact with. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Conflicts in Romantic Relationships over Facebook Use: Validation and Psychometric Study
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9020018 - 10 Feb 2019
Viewed by 2707
Abstract
The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Conflicts in Romantic Relationships Over Facebook Use Scale with a sample of Puerto Rican adults. A total of 300 Puerto Ricans participated in this confirmatory and psychometric study. The results confirmed that the scale [...] Read more.
The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Conflicts in Romantic Relationships Over Facebook Use Scale with a sample of Puerto Rican adults. A total of 300 Puerto Ricans participated in this confirmatory and psychometric study. The results confirmed that the scale has a multidimensional structure. These dimensions are: Partner Facebook intrusion, Conflict over Facebook use, and Jealousy over Facebook use. A total of 18 items complied with the criteria of discrimination and presented appropriate factorial loads (six items per dimension). The Cronbach’s alpha indexes of the dimensions ranged between 0.87–0.95, and the omega coefficients ranged between 0.88–0.95. In summary, the instrument has the appropriate psychometric properties to continue with validation studies, as well as to be implemented in various work areas, both theoretical and applied. Full article
Open AccessBrief Report
A Brief Report of Sexual Violence among Universities with NCAA Division I Athletic Programs
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9020017 - 04 Feb 2019
Viewed by 2947
Abstract
Violence against women on college campuses continues to be a pervasive public health problem with approximately one in five women experiencing sexual assault and one in nine women experiencing rape while in college. The current study examined relationship and sexual violence among National [...] Read more.
Violence against women on college campuses continues to be a pervasive public health problem with approximately one in five women experiencing sexual assault and one in nine women experiencing rape while in college. The current study examined relationship and sexual violence among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I universities. Based on previous research, Division I universities seem to report higher rates of sexual assault, but within-group differences have yet to be examined. The data include 1422 four-year private and public institutions with at least 1000 students who submitted Clery data (2014) on rape, domestic and dating violence, and stalking. Division I campuses reported significantly higher reports of violence against women compared to Division II, III, and universities with no athletic programs. There were no differences in violence reported across the three subdivisions within Division I, however, certain conferences reported significantly higher relationship and sexual violence within the football bowl and football championship subdivisions. These findings have important implications for targeting higher risk campuses, such as the Big 10, Big 12, Ivy League, Pac-12, and SEC with much needed sexual assault prevention programs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Education Attainment and Obesity:Differential Returns Based on Sexual Orientation
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9020016 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3186
Abstract
Background: Although high educational attainment is linked to better health and lower health risk behaviors, this effect may be systemically smaller for racial and ethnic minority groups compared to Whites. However, it is still unknown whether these diminished returns also apply to marginalization [...] Read more.
Background: Although high educational attainment is linked to better health and lower health risk behaviors, this effect may be systemically smaller for racial and ethnic minority groups compared to Whites. However, it is still unknown whether these diminished returns also apply to marginalization based on sexual orientation. Aims: In a national sample of adults which was composed of people of color, we compared straight and homosexual people for the association between education attainment and obesity. Methods: The Social Justice Sexuality Project (SJS-2010) is a cross-sectional national survey of health and wellbeing of predominantly people of color who identify as homosexual. The current analysis included 2884 adults (age 24 or more) who were either heterosexual (n = 260) or homosexual (n = 2624). The predictor variable was education attainment, and the outcome variable was obesity status (body mass index larger than 30 kg/m2 [kilograms per meter squared]). Demographic factors (age and gender), household income, nativity (US born vs. immigrant), and health (self-rated health and current smoking) were the covariates. Sexual orientation was the moderator. Results: In the pooled sample, high education attainment was protective against obesity status. Sexual orientation interacted with education attainment on odds of obesity, which was suggestive of stronger protective effects of high education attainment against obesity for heterosexual than homosexual individuals. Conclusion: High education attainment better protects heterosexual than homosexual people against obesity, a pattern similar to what has been observed for comparison of Whites and non-Whites. Smaller protective effects of education attainment on health behaviors of marginalized people are possibly, due to prejudice and discrimination that they experience. Discrimination may minimize stigmatized individuals’ abilities to mobilize their economic and human resources and translate them to tangible outcomes. This finding extends the Minorities’ Diminished Returns theory, suggesting that it is not just race/ethnicity but possibly any marginalizing and stigmatizing social identity that results in diminished returns of socioeconomic status resources. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures (PNES): A Case Report and Literature Review
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9020015 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3295
Abstract
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are classified as a somatoform conversion disorder. We present a case of a 24-year-old male with a past psychiatric history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety disorder, admitted to our inpatient psychiatric unit. The patient experienced multiple episodes [...] Read more.
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are classified as a somatoform conversion disorder. We present a case of a 24-year-old male with a past psychiatric history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety disorder, admitted to our inpatient psychiatric unit. The patient experienced multiple episodes of seizures during hospitalization. Work up was unremarkable, and PNES were suspected and later confirmed with video-electroencephalography (video-EEG). He underwent supervised withdrawal of antiepileptic medications with the initiation of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which reduced the frequency of seizures. Diagnosis of PNES can present as a challenge and failure to diagnose its psychological nature can lead to a delay in the psychological intervention. CBT leads to a decrease in seizure frequency, and improvement in psychiatric symptoms, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. It is important to consider PNES in the differential diagnosis of seizures presented by psychiatric patients, as CBT is necessary for better patient outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders)
Open AccessArticle
Sense of Coherence and Caregivers of Persons with Dementia
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9020014 - 28 Jan 2019
Viewed by 2549
Abstract
Unpaid caregivers (CG) provide most of the assistance to persons with dementias (PWD) living in the community. This study explores the current state of knowledge regarding the concept of sense of coherence (SOC) and CG of PWD via a concept analysis. The identified [...] Read more.
Unpaid caregivers (CG) provide most of the assistance to persons with dementias (PWD) living in the community. This study explores the current state of knowledge regarding the concept of sense of coherence (SOC) and CG of PWD via a concept analysis. The identified defining attributes were health, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), CG burden, CG stress, coping as a strength, gender, and decreasing sense of CG coherence over the progression of the disease (dementia). Further study by health care professionals using clinical observations, large samples of respondents, a consistent theory, valid and reliable instruments used to measure defining attributes consistently, and critical reviews of the literature are needed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Self-Silencing, but Not Sexual Relationship Power Associated with Condom Use for Black College-Aged Women
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9020013 - 28 Jan 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5497
Abstract
Black adolescent and young adult women in the United States experience a disproportionately higher rate of HIV infections than White and Hispanic adolescent and young adult women. Heterosexual sexual activity is the main route of infection for women, regardless of race or ethnicity. [...] Read more.
Black adolescent and young adult women in the United States experience a disproportionately higher rate of HIV infections than White and Hispanic adolescent and young adult women. Heterosexual sexual activity is the main route of infection for women, regardless of race or ethnicity. We examined two potential barriers to reducing Black adolescent and young adult women’s HIV risk: high levels of self-silencing and low levels of sexual relationship power. Data were collected on a small convenience sample of sexually active Black college-aged women (N = 57, Mage = 19.6, SD = 1.4) who answered questions about their current or most recent dating relationship. We found that higher levels of self-silencing were significantly related to lower condom use frequency and to a lower likelihood of reporting condom use at last sex. No significant associations were found between sexual relationship power and condom use (frequency or at last sex). Data from this study suggest that self-silencing, which involves putting the needs of others ahead of one’s own in order to avoid conflict in relationships, is an important variable to consider when examining potential risk factors for sexually transmitted HIV among Black college-aged women. Implications for future studies on HIV risk are reviewed. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Subjective Assessment of Sleep in Infantile Autism: A Comparative Study
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9020012 - 24 Jan 2019
Viewed by 2570
Abstract
Sleep disturbances are very common in children with autism; it is for this reason that instruments that facilitate their evaluation are necessary. Objectives: Perform sleep assessment from a subjective perspective in a group of children with primary autism and compare them with a [...] Read more.
Sleep disturbances are very common in children with autism; it is for this reason that instruments that facilitate their evaluation are necessary. Objectives: Perform sleep assessment from a subjective perspective in a group of children with primary autism and compare them with a control group, using the Sleep Habits in Children Survey (CSHQ), with the purpose of determining sleep disturbances according to the subscales used. Method: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of 21 patients with primary autism. For the evaluation of sleep disturbances, we chose the CSHQ survey. The differences between the independent groups were calculated by applying a Mann–Whitney U test. Results: In the group of children with autism, higher values of the total scale were observed in comparison with the control group (p = 0.00) which It is congruent with a large sleep dysfunction. Significant differences were observed for all subscales (p = 0.00), with the exception of the subscale number 7. Conclusions: A high presence of sleep disturbances was observed in children with primary autism, with the exception of sleep breathing disorders, which did not show significant differences between the groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders)
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